Magnitude of Spillovers The absolute size of the positive externality declines as a student progresses through K-12 education. Evidence: The greatest externality occurs during the earlier years of education What does that imply about the shape of the MSB curve?
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Partitioning There is no obvious data structure that could be used to perform a decomposition of this problem’s domain into components that could be mapped to separate processors. Chip Chip Size: Size: 25 25 Chip Chip Size: Size: 54 54 Chip Chip Size: Size: 55 55 Chip Chip Size: Size: 64 64 Chip Chip Size: Size: 85 85 Chip Chip Size: Size: 65 65 Chip Chip Size: Size: 84 84 Chip Chip Size: Size: 114 114 Chip Chip Size: Size: 144 144 Chip Chip Size: Size: 200 200 Chip Chip Size: Size: 174 174 Chip Chip Size: Size: 130 130 Chip Chip Size: Size: 140 140 Chip Chip Size: Size: 143 143 Chip Chip Size: Size: 112 112 Chip Chip Size: Size: 220 220 Chip Chip Size: Size: 150 150 Chip Chip Size: Size: 234 234 Chip Chip Size: Size: 102 102 A fine-grained functional decomposition is therefore needed, where the exploration of each search tree node is handled by a separate task. CS 340 This means that new tasks will be created in a wavefront as the search progresses down the search tree, which will be explored in a breadthfirst fashion. Notice that only tasks on the wavefront will be able to execute concurrently. Page 5
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5. Mean projections and mean student scores are calculated. Student Projection1 Student Score 1 Student Projection 2 Student Score 2 Student Projection 3 Student Score 3 Student Projection 4 Student Score 4 Student Projection 5 Your School Student Score 5 Student Projection 6 Student Score 6 Student Projection 7 Student Score 7 Student Projection 8 Student Score 8 Student Projection 9 Student Score 9 Student Projection 10 Student Score 10 Student Projection 11 Student Score 11 Student Projection 12 Student Score 12 Student Projection 13 Student Score 13 Student Projection 14 Student Score 14 Student Projection 15 Student Score 15 Student Projection 16 Student Score 16 Student Projection 17 Student Score 17 Student Projection 18 Student Score 18 Student Projection 19 Student Score 19 Student Projection 20 Student Score 20 Mean Projected Score Mean Student Score Copyright © 2003. Battelle for Kids
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Magnitude of Spillovers Evidence: The absolute size of the positive externality declines as a student progresses through K-12 education. What does that imply about the shape of the MSB curve?
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Communication In a parallel implementation of simple search, tasks can execute independently and need communicate only to report solutions. Chip Chip Size: Size: 25 25 Chip Chip Size: Size: 54 54 Chip Chip Size: Size: 55 55 Chip Chip Size: Size: 64 64 Chip Chip Size: Size: 144 144 Chip Chip Size: Size: 174 174 CS 340 Chip Chip Size: Size: 84 84 Chip Chip Size: Size: 130 130 Chip Chip Size: Size: 140 140 Chip Chip Size: Size: 143 143 Chip Chip Size: Size: 85 85 Chip Chip Size: Size: 65 65 Chip Chip Size: Size: 114 114 Chip Chip Size: Size: 200 200 The parallel algorithm for this problem will also need to keep track of the bounding value (i.e., the smallest chip area found so far), which must be accessed by every task. One possibility would be to encapsulate the bounding value maintenance in a single centralized task with which the other tasks will communicate. This approach is inherently unscalable, since the processor handling the centralized task can only service requests from the other tasks at a particular rate, thus bounding the number of tasks that can execute concurrently. Chip Chip Size: Size: 112 112 Chip Chip Size: Size: 220 220 Chip Chip Size: Size: 150 150 Chip Chip Size: Size: 234 234 Chip Chip Size: Size: 102 102 Page 6
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State and Local Public Finance Lecture 17: Introduction to Intergovernmental Relations Allocative Efficiency 2, Spillovers  Spillovers from public services are an externality. o Example: Benefits from a state highway system to people in surrounding states.  One way to address spillovers is to assign service responsibility to a level of government high enough to internalize the externality. o Example: An air- or water-pollution district that encompasses an entire air- or water-shed.  Another way to address spillovers is with intergovernmental grants. o Examples: Federal matching grants for highways, state aid for education.
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• Knowledge Spillovers • As per research summarized by Carlton and Kerr (2015), knowledge spillovers cause firms to cluster and increase the number of firms (firm births) and total employment. • The studies drew the following additional conclusions: – The largest knowledge spillovers occur in the most innovative industries. – Knowledge spillovers are highly localized. – Knowledge spillovers are more prevalent in industries with small, competitive firms. ©McGraw-Hill Education.
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Level II Placements 1st Rotation 2nd Rotation FW Site 1 1 Student 1- 1st Choice 1 Student 2- 1st Choice FW Site 1 1 Student 1- 1st 0 Student 2- 1st FW Site 2 1 Student 2- 1st Choice Student 3- 2nd Choice Student 4- 3rd Choice 1 Student A- 1st Student B- 2nd choice Student C- 3rd Choice FW Site 3 1 Student 4- 1st Choice Student 5- 1st Choice Student 6- 1st Choice Student 7-2nd Choice Student 8- 2nd Choice Student 9- 3rd Choice 1 Student 2- 1st Student 3- 1st Student 4- 1st Student 5- 1st Student 6- 1st Student 7- 1st FW Site 4 0 Student 10- 1st 0 Student 11- 1st Choice FW Site 5 1 No Student 1 No Student FW Site 6 1 No Student 1 Student 11- 1st Student 12- 1st Lake Charles MC with free housing
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#include using namespace std; class Shape { public: Shape() { id = total++; } virtual void draw() = 0; protected: int id; static int total; }; class Factory { public: virtual Shape* createCurvedInstance() = 0; virtual Shape* createStraightInstance() = 0; }; class SimpleShapeFactory : public Factory { public: Shape* createCurvedInstance() { return new Circle; } Shape* createStraightInstance() { return new Square; } }; int Shape::total = 0; class Circle : public Shape { public: void draw() { cout << "circle " << id << ": draw" << endl; } }; class Square : public Shape { public: void draw() { cout << "square " << id << ": draw" << endl; } }; class RobustShapeFactory : public Factory { public: Shape* createCurvedInstance() { return new Ellipse; } Shape* createStraightInstance() { return new Rectangle; } }; void main() { #ifdef SIMPLE Factory* factory = new SimpleShapeFactory; #else Factory* factory = new RobustShapeFactory; #endif class Ellipse : public Shape { public: void draw() { cout << "ellipse " << id << ": draw" << endl; } }; class Rectangle : public Shape { public: void draw() { cout << "rectangle " << id << ": draw" << endl; } }; Shape* shapes[3]; shapes[0] = factory->createCurvedInstance(); shapes[1] = factory->createStraightInstance(); shapes[2] = factory->createCurvedInstance(); for (int i=0; i < 3; i++) shapes[i]->draw(); } Chapter 3 – Page 6 Shape Abstract Factory C++ Code
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NEXT WIMS MEETING Wednesday, January 31 12-1 PM, MSB-2001 MONTH January 31, 2018 TIME 12-1 PM LOCATION MSB-2001 TOPIC WIMS in the COM SPEAKER William Ball, MD February 1, 2018 12-1 PM TBD WIMS Special Speaker Teresa Woodruff, PhD February 28, 2018 12-1 PM MSB-2001 Negotiate Like a Girl Jane Sojka, PhD March 28, 2018 7:15-8:15 AM MSB-2001 Head Games Jane Sojka, PhD April 25, 2018 12-1 PM MSB-2001 Communicate with Power Jane Sojka, PhD May 30, 2018 12-1 PM MSB-2001 Giving an Interview UC PR, to be named
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Example: How would a crime prevention budget of $100 be allocated? P=$20 P=$10 P=$30 Police Units MSB MSB/ P Courts Units MSB MSB/ P Correction Units Units MSB MSB/ P 1 2 3 200 100 50 1 2 3 200 150 50 1 2 3 150 90 60 4 5 10 2 4 5 30 20 4 5 30 9 6 0 6 10 6 0
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Example: How would a crime prevention budget of $100 be allocated? P=$20 P=$10 Police Units MSB MSB/ P 1 2 3 200 100 50 10 5 2.5 4 5 10 2 6 0 P=$30 Courts Units MSB MSB/ P 1 2 3 200 150 50 20 15 5 0.5 0.1 4 5 30 20 3 2 0 6 10 1 * * Correction Units Units MSB MSB/ P * * * 1 2 3 150 90 60 5 3 2 4 5 30 9 1 0.3 6 0 0 *
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Sector 0 Z502 Disk Structure Definition Of Sector 0: This is the first block on a disk. It is produced when you do a software Format of the disk. It defines various segments of the disk necessary for successful operation. Byte Bytes Offset in Field Field 0 1 Disk ID 1 1 Bitmap Size 2 1 RootDir Size 3 1 Swap Size 4 2 6 8 10 12 15 2 2 2 3 1 Description The number you have given to the disk. It will be easiest if you assign the same number as the hardware uses, but it’s your choice. How large is the bitmap. You can determine your own size. The size will be 4 X BitmapSize So if this field contains a 3, then 4 X 3 = 12 and 12 blocks will be assigned to the bitmap. How large is the Root Directory Header. You can determine your own size. The size will be RootDirSize So if this field contains a 1, then 1 block will be assigned to the Root Directory Header. Note that the total size of a directory is determine by the number of indices, subdirectories and files that are in that directory. This field is only to specify the header size. How large is the Swap Space. You can determine your own size. The size will be 4 X SwapSize So if this field contains a 2, then 4 X 2 = 8 and 8 blocks will be assigned to the Swap Directory. Disk Length This is the number of sectors you are using on the disk. Note Byte 5 is Most Significant Byte, Byte 4 is Least Significant Byte Bitmap Location The starting sector number where the bitmap is located. Note Byte 7 is MSB, Byte 6 is LSB Swap Location The starting sector number where the Swap Space is located. Note Byte 9 is MSB, Byte 8 is LSB Root Dir Location The starting sector number where the Root Directory is located. Note Byte 11 is MSB, Byte 10 is LSB RESERVED For this release, these bytes must be set to ‘\0’. Revision For this release, this byte must be set to 1. 7
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