Organizational Organizational Designs Designs and and Employee Employee Behavior Behavior Research ResearchFindings: Findings: • • Work Workspecialization specializationcontributes contributesto tohigher higheremployee employee productivity, productivity,but butititreduces reducesjob jobsatisfaction. satisfaction. • • The Thebenefits benefitsof ofspecialization specializationhave havedecreased decreasedrapidly rapidlyas as employees employeesseek seekmore moreintrinsically intrinsicallyrewarding rewardingjobs. jobs. • • The Theeffect effectof ofspan spanof ofcontrol controlon onemployee employeeperformance performanceisis contingent contingentupon uponindividual individualdifferences differencesand andabilities, abilities,task task structures, structures,and andother otherorganizational organizationalfactors. factors. • • Participative Participativedecision decisionmaking makinginindecentralized decentralized organizations organizationsisispositively positivelyrelated relatedto tojob jobsatisfaction. satisfaction.
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What What Is Is Organizational Organizational Structure? Structure? Key KeyElements: Elements: • • Work Workspecialization specialization • • Departmentalization Departmentalization • • Chain Chainof ofcommand command • • Span Spanof ofcontrol control • • Centralization Centralizationand and decentralization decentralization • • Formalization Formalization
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Gentry FBA Matrix Problem Behavior Off-task, Nondisruptive Function Peer Attention Replacement Behavior On-task, work completion Intervention      Off-task, Disruptive Peer Attention On-task, respectful responses, work completion       Off-task, Nondisruptive, work completion Escape (avoids teacher and peers during instruction) On-task, work completion     Off-task, Nondisruptive, work completion Attention (responds to On-task, work teacher directions, completion engages peers)      Off-task, Disruptive, Escape On-task, respectful  RRKS lesson Š Ņon-taskÓ Pre-correct @ start of class Self-monitor: on-task Periodic praiseby teacher for on-task Quick de-brief at end of class on self-monitoring RRKS lesson Š Ņon-taskÓ RRKS lesson Š Ņconflict management/respectÓ Pre-correct @ start of class Self-monitor: on-task & RRKS Periodic praiseby teacher for on-task Quick de-brief at end of class on self-monitoring RRKS lesson Š Ņon-taskÓ Pre-correct @ start of class Self-monitor: on-task + work completion Quick de-brief at end of class on self-monitoring RRKS lesson Š Ņon-taskÓ Pre-correct @ start of class Self-monitor: on-task + work completion Periodic praiseby teacher for on-task +work completion Quick de-brief at end of class on self-monitoring RRKS lesson Š Ņon-taskÓ Outcome for Replacement Behavior Earn time with peers for meeting self-management goals Earn time with peers for meeting self-management goals Earn a Ōskipa homeworkÕpass Earn other preferred activity for meeting self-management and work completion goals Earn Ņa work with peerÓactivity Earn other preferred activity for meeting self-management and work completion goals Earn a Ōskipa homeworkÕpass Lewis, 2008
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KU Group Consumers Clinicians Policy Makers Researchers Brokers Manufacturers Instrumental Use: Use needs assessment, valuability assessments and value proposition to demonstrate value of K. Develop preliminary commercialization package to promote benefits (financial and otherwise) to brokers and their clients. Instrumental Use: Use needs assessment, valuability assessments and value proposition to demonstrate value of K. Develop preliminary commercialization package to promote benefits (financial and otherwise) to manufacturers. Discovery Outputs. What to Share with Each KU Group Strategic Use: Use initial needs assessment paired with research findings to develop talking points that demonstrate how knowledge (K) could lead to product development and improved Quality of Life (QoL) Strategic Use: Use initial needs assessment paired with research findings to develop talking points that demonstrate how K could lead to product development and improved QoL. How to Reach Each KU Group Network with consumer advocacy organizations (CIL, Cerebral Palsy Association, AARP, etc.) and ask them to publish an article in their newsletter or have them email their constituents. Present at organizational meetings. Ask the organizations to have a link on their website to your website. Use fliers, emails, phone calls and face to face meetings. Present findings at Presentations Present findings at clinician oriented communicated to program research oriented conferences (AOTA, directors, reply to conferences (RESNA, APTA, CSUN, ISS, etc.). invitations for comments etc.); publish in clinical Use research papers, or talk with elected and in AT research power point presentations, officials. Use email, calls, journals. Use research mailings, emails, face to face meetings, papers and power point presentations at power point presentations. presentations. conferences. Face to face meetings with University TTO may be most effective. Utilize their invention disclosure processes. Develop a preliminary commercialization package (soft or hard copies) and use power point presentations. Conduct face to face meetings with individual manufacturers at their home office, or at conferences/tradeshows (Medtrade, ATIA, etc.). Develop preliminary commercialization package (soft or hard copies) and use power point presentations and tailored emails. Anticipated Knowledge Translation Outcomes Consumers can use talking points to contact politicians to advocate for reimbursement of potential devices, or contact manufacturers and distributors to stimulate product demand.* Clinicians can use talking points to contact politicians to advocate for reimbursement of potential devices, or contact manufacturers and distributors to stimulate product demand.* Brokers can use preliminary commercialization package to stimulate discussions between manufacturers and researchers pertaining to application of research findings.* Manufacturers can use preliminary commercialization package to engage in discussions with brokers and researchers pertaining to application of research findings.* Strategic Use: Use initial needs assessment paired with research findings to develop talking points that demonstrate how K could lead to cost savings and improved QoL. Conceptual Use: Disseminate nonproprietary K to stimulate additional research (R). Policy makers can use talking points as a basis Researchers can use for introducing and findings as a basis for supporting legislation to additional research on provide reimbursement for related topics.* potential devices.*
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Lactation Support Program ELIGIBILITY & REQUIREMENTS Eligible Employees & Students Any Pasadena Area Community College District employee or student desiring to express breast milk shall be accommodated, and will be eligible for use of designated Lactation Support Program (LSP) rooms. Human Resources Home (link) Location The District shall make reasonable efforts to provide nursing employees and students with the use of an LSP room or other location, other than a toilet stall or locker room, to express in private. The room or location shall be shielded from view and free from intrusion of others. The rooms will be centrally located to accommodate employees and students that work or attend classes in various buildings; however, the rooms will not necessarily be located in the building in which the employee works or student attends class. An employee assigned to a private unshared office may use that room. Designated LSP rooms shall contain a supportive chair, a table, access to an electrical outlet, adequate ventilation, and a door that can be locked. Room Access Access to LSP room will be unscheduled and on a first–come, first-served basis. Any employee who wishes to use an LSP room must first contact Human Resources to arrange lactation support accommodations, and to be provided instructions for use of and access to the room. Students must contact the Student Health Services office to receive instructions regarding use of the student LSP room. Use of Room The LSP rooms are for the exclusive use of nursing employees and students, on a first–come, first-served basis, and one at a time. Each nursing employee or student user of the room is responsible for keeping the room clean and removing personal items when leaving. If an employee or student finds the room in disarray, she is to contact the Human Resources Office or Student Health Services Office. Employee Break Time The District shall provide a reasonable amount of unpaid break time to accommodate an employee who desires to express breast milk. The supervisor shall permit the employee to take breaks to express whenever and as often as needed. Whenever possible, the break time shall run concurrent with any break time already provided to the employee. For example, employees who work 5 hours or more are provided two (2) twenty (20) minute paid rest breaks and one (1) one-half (1/2) hour unpaid meal break; employees who work less than 5 hours are provided one (1) twenty 20 minute paid rest break. Therefore, an employee who works eight (8) hours would have three (3) provided breaks; and an employee who works four (4) hours would have one (1) provided break. An employee may need other breaks, in addition to the provided breaks. The frequency of the breaks needed by an employee, as well as the duration, may vary. Termination of Accommodation An employee or student may use the LSP room for as long as needed. When an employee no longer has need of lactation support, she must inform Human Resources and her supervisor, and return to her regular break schedule. When a student no longer has need of lactation support, she must inform the Student Health Services Office. LSP Introduction (link) Eligibility & Requirements (link) FLSA Nursing Mothers Rights (link) LSP Accommodation Request Form (link) Designated Locations (link) Campus Map (link)
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New Compensatory Time Policy 5.5 Fair Labor Standards Act The Fair Labor Standards Act recognizes two basic categories of employees: • Exempt: Employees not covered by the act • Non-Exempt: Employees covered by the act If an employee’s position is classified as non-exempt, the normal work week is forty (40) hours. An employee is considered to have earned overtime when he/she has worked in excess of forty (40) hours in any work week. A regular work week consists of forty (40) hours (from 12:00 a.m., Saturday through 11:59 p.m., Friday). It is the policy of the University to arrange for all work to be completed within that period. It is recommended that prior authorization from the employee’s immediate supervisor and the department head be given before an employee works in excess of forty (40) hours per week. In determining the number of hours worked by an employee within a given work week, time spent on Annual Leave, Sick Leave and holidays will not be counted as time worked. Any leave or holiday time included in a work week that results in an excess of forty (40) hours is to be compensated at straight time rates only. After excluding holiday and leave time from the total hours worked, if there are still excess hours over forty (40), that time is to be compensated at time-and-a-half. If the manager determines that it is in the best interest of the University to give monetary compensation for the overtime worked, a Comp Time Payout Form along with documentation must be provided and approved by the department head and appropriate Vice President. The following actions are the preferred order for addressing the accumulation of compensatory time: • Supervisors should adjust work schedules and/or leave approval during the workweek to prevent the accumulation of compensatory time. • Supervisors may request or direct employees to use their compensatory time during a period of time that has minimal impact on the work unit’s operations. The action may be taken to reduce the accrued compensatory time balance and avoid cash payments. • Employees must exhaust all accrued compensatory time before use of annual leave. • Employees may also use compensatory time in lieu of sick leave. The Fair Labor Standards Act limits the amount of compensatory time most employees can accrue up to 240 hours. Note: Requests by employees for use of Compensatory Leave Time are handled in the same manner as requests for Annual Leave. Departments will work with employees to schedule Compensatory Leave Time that meets the employee’s needs and least interrupts the duties for the department. Unused Compensatory Time will be paid upon termination of employment.
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How things turned out….. PRODUCT PLANNING -VS- ACTUAL A L L A C T I V I T I PLANNED E S ACTUAL TASK #1 Consider Project Ideas TASK #1 Consider Project Ideas TASK #2 Write Specifications TASK #2 Write Requirements TASK #3 Write Requirements TASK #3 Write Specifications TASK #4 Create All Graphs (e.g. Gantt) TASK #4 Condense Requirements TASK #5 Write Standard Documentation TASK #5 Condense Specifications TASK #6 Create Engineering Notebook TASK #6 Write Standard Documentation TASK #7 Code TASK #7 Create Engineering Notebook & Graphs TASK #8 Test System TASK #8 Code TASK #9 Create GOMS Model TASK #9 Test System TASK #10 Perform Quality Assurance Measures TASK #10 Create GOMS Model TASK #11 Perform Evaluation Of Project TASK #11 Perform Quality Assurance Measures
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Perceptions Perceptions of of Pay Pay Fairness Fairness Equity Equity The Theperceived perceivedfairness fairnessbetween betweenwhat whataaperson persondoes does (inputs) and what the person receives (outcomes). (inputs) and what the person receives (outcomes). External External Equity Equity Employee Employeecompensation compensationviewed viewedas asequitable equitableininrelation relationto tothe the compensation of employees performing similar jobs in other compensation of employees performing similar jobs in other organizations. organizations. Internal Internal Equity Equity Employees Employeesreceive receivecompensation compensationininrelation relationto tothe theknowledge, knowledge, skills, and abilities they use in their jobs as well as their skills, and abilities they use in their jobs as well as their responsibilities responsibilitiesand andaccomplishments. accomplishments. Perceived fairness of the process and procedures Perceived fairness of the process and procedures Procedural ProceduralJustice Justice used usedto tomake makedecisions decisionsabout aboutemployees. employees. Distributive Perceivedfairness fairnessininthe thedistribution distributionof ofoutcomes. outcomes. DistributiveJustice Justice Perceived Pay PayOpenness/ Openness/ Secrecy Secrecy The Thedegree degreeof ofopenness opennessor orsecrecy secrecythat thatan anorganization organization allows regarding its pay system. allows regarding its pay system. Copyright © 2005 Thomson Business & Professional Publishing. All rights reserved. 12–19
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Making Money Let’s face it, work is a fact of life. However, at Williams, you aren’t expected to work too much. Your course work is your primary job. The great thing about campus work is that college employers know that academic responsibilities come first and are very flexible. Here’s some info: 1. Jobs On and Off Campus All first-year financial aid students signed up for work study are given the opportunity to apply for campus jobs prior to arriving. You’re NOT guaranteed a job, but priority is given to students who receive financial aid. First-year students not on financial aid are allowed to get jobs too, but not until the middle of September. Some jobs require interviews, some don’t. Once you choose a job, you don’t have to remain in the same position, but doing so earns a pay raise for the next year. You can apply for a different job, and have multiple jobs, but you’re capped by an earning and hourly limit. You can check pay rates, schedules, and earning limits, along with all sorts of information, here: http://hr.williams.edu/student-employment . This site also has a list of available jobs updated throughout the year. Finally, you can always email the Student Employment Coordinator, [email protected], with any questions, concerns, or shout outs. Most students are expected to work 6-8 hours per week at $8-8.75/hr. If you feel that you need more hours to meet your financial needs, your first step should be to go to the financial aid office and explain why you need to earn more than your limit. If that fails, you can always look for outside jobs (coffee shops, restaurants, etc.). The rules about earnings and hourly limits don’t apply to jobs outside of Williams! If you don’t want to lose crucial study time, find a job that will allow you to study part of the time.
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Entrepreneurship: is it good enough to be social? John F. McVea and Michael J. Naughton Introduction • The term Social Entrepreneurship has experienced a huge growth in influence over that last decade. The literature proposes a number of advantages to social entrepreneurship as a frame of reference: • Promoting innovation within non-profits • Leveraging and focusing scarce philanthropic resources • Faster response to strategic challenges • Infusion of business skills to non-business world • Involvement of non government assets in social problems • Creation of hybrid (blurred) organizations between for profit and non profit worlds. It is widely observed that practice has outpaced theoretical development leading to little agreement on definitions or frameworks for social entrepreneurship. We believe that widespread and unchallenged acceptance of the term Social Entrepreneurship masks some dangers and has contributed to confusion in the field. We believe that if we apply some insights from Catholic Social Teaching to the issue of social entrepreneurship we can move beyond the false dichotomy of Entrepreneurship/ Social Entrepreneurship and identify three specific entrepreneurial strategies which support a more robust discussion of the nature of the work that is entrepreneurship. We believe that the field would benefit from spending less time discussing social entrepreneurship and more time discussion the nature of the good entrepreneur. • • • • • The dangers of naïve acceptance of Social Entrepreneurship • • • The rhetorical risk: • Narrow definition: if S.E. is simply used to rebrand non-profits then much of the value of the new activities, hybrid design, stimulation of new resources and innovation is lost. • Implied dichotomy: if “good” ventures are termed “social” it can imply that other forms of entrepreneurship are “asocial” or “anti social” • Boundarylessness: In contrast, if all business activities are deemed “social”, to some degree or other, then the term loses all meaning focus on the distinctive phenomenon that is S.E. Despite these risks we are more concerned with a risk beyond rhetoric; the risk of undermining the meaning of work, particularly from the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching. While this perspective is drawn from the Catholic tradition, accepting the content of CST does not require acceptance of Catholic faith (Guitan, 2009). The three goods of social entrepreneurship • We are concerned by the side-effects of a concentration thesis that suggests that the moral responsibilities of entrepreneurship can be concentrated in a subset of businesses called social enterprises, presumably leaving other enterprise to simply concentrate on serving themselves. • We are concerned by the impact such a concentration thesis could have on the conception of the meaning of work beyond the world of social enterprise. • We are concerned with how such an approach can focus attention solely on the altruistic contributions of entrepreneurial ventures as the sole measure of their contribution to the Common Good • Instead we propose that, rather than trying to determine the difference between entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship, it would be more productive to focus on the questions “What is Good Entrepreneurship? What action and activities define that goodness?” • We further propose that, by apply the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching, we can identify three specific strategies through which entrepreneurial ventures may contribute to the Common Good thus suggesting that good entrepreneurship requires a focus on: 1. Good Goods. The primary way an entrepreneurial venture can contribute to the Common Good is by bringing into existence new products and services which are inherently good and which enrich lives and minimize any unintended harms. This can include what we call the “entrepreneurship of the mundane”, that is, the manufacture of the nuts and bolts and basic necessities of life as well as the creation of life saving treatments. However, inclusion of good goods as a primary moral contribution of entrepreneurship must also require of the entrepreneur analysis of what goods are not good, and what aspects of even good goods should be redesigned or rethought in order to minimize unintended consequences. We find, in our discussions, that this is a much under appreciated dimension of the good of entrepreneurship. 2. Good Work. The second way an entrepreneurial venture can contribute to the Common Good is through the nature of the work that is carried out by the venture. This dimension has several aspects both internal and external to the entrepreneur: • The development of good character in the entrepreneur. This aspect of the good is derived from the subjective dimension of work, that is, just as how-we-work ends up changing the world, so working-on-the-world changes us. Most professionals spend the majority of their waking hours at work. As habits, character and wisdom are developed through experience and activity, for the entrepreneur, doing good work is an important opportunity to develop character. Society as a whole is better off for having good, successful entrepreneurial leaders who, through that calling, can become leaders of character. This dimension of the entrepreneurial good is widely unappreciated even by entrepreneurs themselves • Good relations with employees, customers and other stakeholders. Value creation and trade creates opportunities for the building of social relationships. The central question is “Are you in good relation with those with whom you create value?’ Do your employees have opportunity to develop as people? 3. Good Wealth. The third way the good entrepreneur can contribute to the Common Good is through the creation of good wealth. Good wealth requires a balance of reward for labor/ creativity with the provision of a living wage to all. Good wealth is often captured by individual action but has social strings attached. From the CST perspective the creation of good wealth implies a particular solidarity with the poor. One way to contribute to the common good is to donate altruistically to those in need. But even here, altruism is only one of a number of possible strategies. Good entrepreneurs may also contribute by donating their time or their particular skills. Indeed, since the donation of time and work often requires physical interaction with those in need, it often generates a solidarity of far greater integrity. Finally, it must be emphasized that altruism, for the entrepreneur, is always dependent, indeed subsequent to the creation of good wealth in the first place. Literature cited Alvord, Sarah, David L. Brown, and Christine W. Letts, 2004. “Social Entrepreneurship and Societal Transformation: An Exploratory Study,” The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 40:260. Benedict XVI, Caritas et veritate,   Boschee, Jerr. 1998 “What does it take to be a social entrepreneur?” National Centre for Social Entrepreneurs (www.socialentrepreneurs.org/whatdoes/html), 5pp.   Cannon, Carl. 2000. “Charity for profit: how the new social entrepreneurs are creating good by sharing wealth” National Journal, June 16: 1898-1904.   Christie, Michael and Benson Honig. 2006. “Social entrepreneurship: New research findings.” Journal of World Business. 41: 1-5.   Dees, Gregory, J., 1998. “The Meaning of ‘Social Entrepreneurship,’” Original Draft: 10/3.   Drucker, P.F. 1985. Innovation and Entrepreneurship. New York: Harper & Row.   Fowler, Alan. “NGDOs as a moment in history: beyond aid to social entrepreneurship or civic innovation?” Third World Quarterly, 21(4): 637-654.   Gregg, S. and G. Preece: 1999, Christianity and Entrepreneurship (The Centre for Independent Studies Limited, St. Leonards, NSW, Australia).   Hibbert, Sally A., Gillian Hogg and Theresa Quinn. “Consumer response to social entrepreneurship: The case of the Big Issue in Scotland.” International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing. 7(3): 288-301.   Johnson, Sherrill, 2000. “Literature Review on Social Entrepreneurship,” Canadian Center for social Entrepreneurship. (http://www.bus.ualberta.ca/ccse/Publications/).   John Paul II, Pope.: 1992 Laborem Exercens (On Human Work): 1981, in D. J. O’Brien and T. A. Shannon, (eds.), Catholic Social Thought (Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY).   John Paul II, Pope.: 1992 Sollicitudo Rei Socialis (On Social Concern): 1987 in D. J. O’Brien and T. A. Shannon, (eds.), Catholic Social Thought (Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY).   Kennedy, R., G, Atkinson, and M. Naughton, (eds.): 1994, Dignity of Work: John Paul II Speaks To Managers and Workers (University Press of America, Lanham, Maryland).   Mair, Johanna and Ernesto Noboa, 2003. “Social Entrepreneurship: How Intentions to Create a Social Enterprise get Formed,” IESE Business School.   Mair, Johanna and Ignasi Marti, 2006. “Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight,” Journal of World Business. 41: 36-44.   Melé, D.:2001, ‘A Challenge for Business Enterprises: Introducing the Primacy of the Subjective Meaning of Work in Work Organization’, (http://www.stthomas.edu/cathstudies/cst/mgmt/le/papers/mele.htm) Conclusions We have argued that, while there is great promise in the contemporary social entrepreneurship movement, there are also a number of important dangers. We propose that, if we confront rather than acquiesce to these dangers, we can use the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching to broaden the scope of entrepreneurial ventures that we study, to enrich the moral dimension of entrepreneurial strategy and to deepen the teaching of entrepreneurship as a whole. We recommend the following to move toward these contributions: • Incorporate social entrepreneurship into entrepreneurship in a way that enhances the three goods of entrepreneurship. Specifically we propose replacing the questions “What is social entrepreneurship?” with the questions “What does it mean to be a Good entrepreneur?” From this perspective we can then apply what we have called the three goods of entrepreneurship as a means of supplying critical challenge and inspiration to all forms of entrepreneurship such that the true moral dimension of this critical force in our lives comes into fruition. • Encourage research within the entrepreneurship discipline that addresses traditional social entrepreneurial issues such as micro lending, fair trade products, etc. • Develop bridge courses such as Theo/Cath 306 which help students understand and experience the meaning of the good entrepreneur as well as connect students to the spiritual and moral principles of a good entrepreneur. • Expose entrepreneurship students to so-called social entrepreneurs as well so-called conventional good entrepreneurs so they can see the spectrum of entrepreneurial activities. © File copyright Colin Purrington. You may use for making your poster, of course, but please do not plagiarize, adapt, or put on your own site. Also, do not upload this file, even if modified, to third-party file-sharing sites such as doctoc.com. If you have insatiable need to post a template onto your own site, search the internet for a different template to steal. File downloaded from http://colinpurrington.com/tips/ academic/posterdesign. Acknowledgments I am indebted to Michael Naughton and Laura Dunham for their reflections and thoughts on this paper.
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Opportunity for living wage Jobs posted in MA for 120 days ending Sept. 25, 2014:  32% of all jobs posted are STEM jobs (regardless of pay or education level)  46% of all jobs in occupations with median pay at $40,000 or above are STEM jobs  60% of all jobs in occupations with median pay at or above $60,000 are STEM jobs 7 For this analysis, STEM jobs are jobs that require a high level of proficiency in at least one STEM discipline or to apply STEM knowledge routinely from a range of STEM disciplines. For example this STEM jobs number includes healthcare jobs requiring significant STEM knowledge, but not healthcare support professions requiring only modest STEM knowledge. From Beth Ashman (DHE) Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education
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Job Evaluation: Factor Comparison Method: Define a set of compensable factors  Compensable factors: the characteristics about jobs that are used to set pay  Example: skill, effort, responsibility, & working conditions Select a set of benchmark (key) jobs Jobs with well-known, stable job content  Jobs that are common in many organizations  Jobs that represent the full range of jobs being evaluated  Jobs that represent the range of each compensable factor  Example: jobs with various skill levels, effort levels, etc.  Jobs for which market pay data is available  26
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