What Determines Organizational Structure?  To what degree are tasks subdivided into separate jobs?  On what basis will jobs be grouped together?  To whom do individuals and groups report?  How many individuals can a manager efficiently and effectively direct?  Where does decision-making authority lie?  To what degree will there be rules and regulations to direct employees and managers?
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OK to offer work related, policy or performance based praise or constructive criticism in the following exchanges? Praise Manager to an employee, about that employee Manager to other managers, about an employee Manager to other employees, about an employee Manager to other managers, about another manager Manager to her/his employees, about another manager Manager to her/his employees, about customers or suppliers outside of the organization Employee to other employees, about an employee Employee to a manager, about another employee Employee to a manager, about him/herself Employee to a manager, about the manager Employee to a manager, about other managers Employee to a manager, about customers or suppliers outside of the organization Constructive Criticism
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D A T A B A S E Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF)  Hidden dependency  Example: Employee-Specialty(E#, Specialty, Manager)  Employee-Specialty(E#, Specialty, Manager)  Is in 3NF now. Employee(E#, Manager)  Business rules.     Manager(Manager, Specialty) Employee may have many specialties. Each specialty has many managers. Each manager has only one specialty. Employee has only one manager for each specialty.  Problem is hidden relationship between manager and specialty.  Need separate table for manager.  But then we don’t need to repeat specialty. Employee(E#, Specialty, Manager) Manager(Manager, Specialty)  In real life, probably accept the duplication ble a t p (specialty listed in both tables). e acc 28
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D A T A B A S E Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF)  Hidden dependency  Example: Employee-Specialty(E#, Specialty, Manager)  Employee-Specialty(E#, Specialty, Manager)  Is in 3NF now. Employee(E#, Manager)  Business rules.     Manager(Manager, Specialty) Employee may have many specialties. Each specialty has many managers. Each manager has only one specialty. Employee has only one manager for each specialty.  Problem is hidden relationship between manager and specialty.  Need separate table for manager.  But then we don’t need to repeat specialty. Employee(E#, Specialty, Manager) Manager(Manager, Specialty)  In real life, probably accept the duplication ble a t p (specialty listed in both tables). e acc 30
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Free Cashflow Hypothesis 23 A concern for large corporations is that managers may make large, unprofitable investments. Managers may engage in empire building.  Managers of large firms tend to earn higher salaries, and they may also have more prestige and garner greater publicity than managers of small firms.  Thus, managers may expand unprofitable divisions, pay too much for acquisitions, make unnecessary capital expenditures, or hire unnecessary employees Managers may over-invest because they are overconfident.  Even when managers attempt to act in shareholders’ interests, they may make mistakes; managers tend to be bullish on the firm’s prospects and may believe that new opportunities are better than they actually are. When cash is tight, managers will be motivated to run the firm as efficiently as possible.  According to the free cash flow hypothesis, leverage increases firm value because it commits the firm to making future interest payments, thereby reducing excess cash flows and wasteful investment by managers.
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Conflict Theory  Conflict Theories are oriented toward the study of social structures and institutions. Conflict theorists see whatever order there is in society as stemming from the coercion of some members by those at the top. Maintain that society is held together in the face of conflicting interests because either (a) one group in the society has the power to enforce the rules (and thus make subordinate groups follow rules that may primarily serve the interests of the superordinate group) or (b) there are so many overlapping and divided interest groups that individuals must learn to cooperate. The overall argument made by conflict theorists, however, is that through the structure of conflict in society, order can be maintained in one of these two ways.  Social conflict assumes various forms. Competition describes a conflict over the control of resources or advantages desired by others where actual physical violence is not employed. Regulated competition is the sort of peaceful conflict which is resolved within a framework of agreed rules. Markets involve competition, both regulated and unregulated. Other conflicts may be more violent and not bound by rules, in which case they are settled by the parties mobilizing their power resources.  Conflict perspective focuses on the struggle among different social groups over scarce rewards. conflict (conflictual) - A view that sees society and social phenomena, past, present, and future, as a result of conflict (a social process). Conflict is seen as a creative, inevitable fact of social life and not merely a destructive avoidable deviation. Conflict is generally held to be inevitable because of the inherent limitation of a finite universe of "knowable" social reality and because of misunderstandings in communication. Conflict is usually direct conscious struggle between individuals or groups for the same goal (as compared with competition, which can take place without contact and individuals and groups being aware of others striving for the same goal) with the intent of the individuals or groups involved to inhibit the goal striving and goal attainment of others.
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