Why Why Do Do Structures Structures Differ? Differ? –– Technology Technology Characteristics Characteristicsof ofroutineness routineness(standardized (standardizedor or customized) customized)ininactivities: activities: • •Routine Routinetechnologies technologiesare areassociated associatedwith withtall, tall, departmentalized departmentalizedstructures structuresand andformalization formalizationinin organizations. organizations. • •Routine Routinetechnologies technologieslead leadto tocentralization centralizationwhen when formalization formalizationisislow. low. • •Nonroutine Nonroutinetechnologies technologiesare areassociated associatedwith withdelegated delegated decision decisionauthority. authority.
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VOMmean on WINE150hl(FA,FS,TS,AL) 0 1 1 4 2 4 3 5 4 3 5 8 6 7 7 1 8 7 _________[0 9 2 . 10) 42 low 0 high CLUS_1.1.1.1.1.1 _________[0 . 19) 56 low 10 5 [10,16) 15 low 12 high CLUS 1.1.1.1.1.2 [19,22) 1 low 12 high 11 4 But no algorithm would pick 19 as a cut! ___12 _____[0 . 13) 56 low 5 1 low 12 high But no alg would pick a 13 cut! 13 7 [13,16) 14 3 _________[0 15 3 . 16) 57 low 12 high CLUS 1.1.1.1.1 35 high CLUS 1.1.1.1.2 17 2 [16,31) 0 low 18 5 19 4 20 3 21 1 22 4 23 4 24 5 25 1 26 2 27 1 29 2 30 1 31 1 _________[0 . 31) 57 low 47 high CLUS_1.1.1.1.1 32 1 28 high CLUS 1.1.1.1.2 34 1 [31,58) 0 low 36 1 37 3 38 1 39 2 40 1 43 6 44 4 46 2 47 1 48 1 50 1 52 1 _________[0 .58) 57 low 75 high CLUS_1.1.1.1 56 1 5 high CLUS 1.1.1.2 60 1 [58,70) 0 low 63 1 65 2 _________[0 .70) 57 low 80 high CLUS_1.1.1 67 1 [70,78) 0 low 2 high CLUS 1.1.2 72 1 _________[0 .78) 57 low 82 high CLUS_1.1 74 1 82 1 7 high CLUS1.2 83 1 [78,94) 0 low 85 1 86 1 87 2 _________[0.94) 57 low 89 high CLUS_1 88 1 99 1 0 low 4 high CLUS_2 105 1 113 1 119 1 d=VOMMEAN DPP on WINE_150_HL_(FA,FSO2,TSO2,ALCOHOL). Some agglomeration required: CLUS1.1.1.1.1.1 is LOW_Quality F[0,10], else HIGH Quality F[13,119] with 15 LOW error. Classification accuracy = 90% (if it had been cut 13, 99.3% accuracy!) 7 1 8 4 STDs=(1.9,9,23,1.2) 9 4 maxSTD=23 for 10 5 11 4 d=e TS on WN150hl(FA,FS,TS,AL 12 7 13 7 14 8 _________[0 CLUS 1.1.1.1.1.1 15 2 . 16) 42 low 12 high CLUS 1.1.1.1.1.2 16 5 [16,22) 15 low 17 4 18 5 . 19 7 20 3 _________[0 . 22) 57 low 12 high CLUS_1.1.1.1.1 21 3 32 high CLUS 1.1.1.1.2 23 2 [22,33) 0 low 24 9 25 3 26 1 27 4 28 4 29 5 30 1 31 2 _________[0 . 33) 57 low 44 high CLUS_1.1.1.1.1 32 1 31 high CLUS 1.1.1.1.2 34 2 [33,60) 0 low 35 1 36 1 37 1 39 1 41 1 42 3 43 1 44 2 45 1 47 6 48 4 49 2 50 1 51 1 53 1 55 1 _________[0 .60) 57 low 75 high CLUS_1.1.1.1 59 1 5 high CLUS 1.1.1.2 63 1 [60,72) 0 low 65 1 67 2 _________[0.72) 57 low 89 high CLUS1.1.1 69 1 74 1 [72,80] high CLUS1.1 CLUS1.1.2 _________[0.80) 57 low 892 high 75 1 84 1 7 high CLUS1.2 85 1 [80,95] 86 1 87 1 88 2 _________[0.95) 57 low 89 high CLUS1 89 1 100 1 4 high CLUS2 106 1 113 1 119 1 Identical cuts and accuracy! Tells us that d=eTotal_SO2 is responsible for all separation. WINE
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Figure 4: Logic Model for the Quality Enhancement Plan Figure 6. Logic M odel for the Q uality Enhancement Plan Ra tionale Inputs Activities Outputs Outcome Why is this important? What are we doing now? What will we do? What products, events, & services will lead to program outcomes? What learning outcomes will be achieved? • Students must be C urriculum • Global learning content in general education (core) courses • Global learning content in selected academic majors representing each academic college • Collaboration with community resources with global focus to support course assignments • Study abroad program prepared to compete in a global market • Students must understand their role within an international community • Students need to be prepared to engage in increasingly diverse communities C o-Curricular • Global learning/engagement activities sponsored by student organizations • Freshman common read program • International learning community in residence hall Budget to support QEP activities • $1,153,233 budgeted over five year implementation period C urriculum • Incorporate global learning/engagement content/activities in general education (core) discipline courses • Conduct curriculum mapping for coursework in selected majors to enhance global learning/engagement C ampus Initiatives • Increase service learning opportunities within Study Abroad program • Coordinate student recognition and curriculum development activities with the Service Learning program C o-Curricular • Expand global learning/engagement activities sponsored by Student organizations • Increase international interactions C ommunity • Increase collaborative work with community organizations to support global learning/engagement activities • Increase collaborative work with international organizations to support global learning/engagement activities Curriculum E nhance ment • Number of general education (core) courses modified to include global learning/engagement activities • Number of courses in academic majors modified to include global learning/engagement activities • Number of students by college participating in global learning/engagement courses • Number and type of faculty participating in professional development activities and learning communities Co-Curricular • Number of student organizations sponsoring global learning/engagement activities • Number and demographics of students participating in global learning/engagement activities Community • Number of community organizations supporting global learning/engagement activities • Number of international organizations supporting global learning/engagement activities Knowledge • Students identify, describe, and explain global and intercultural conditions and interdependencies. • Students make informed critical assessments of global events, processes, trends and issues and convey the interconnectedness of political, economic and environmental systems. Skills • Students analyze, interpret, and evaluate global and intercultural issues via engagement strategies including the use of information technologies. • Students demonstrate an ability to communicate and interact effectively with members of other cultures. Attitude s • Students reflect upon and integrate global learning and engagement experiences. • Students recognize and appreciate cultural diversity and multiple world views.
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Channels 2. Main makes routines and passes them both channels 1. Main makes 2 channels, data and result 6. Routine 3 claims third piece of data, no longer listening Routine 3 Routine 3 Routine 3 Routine 3 Routine 2 Routine 2 Routine 2 Routine 2 Routine 1 Routine 1 Routine 1 Routine 1 data Main 3. Main sends data over channel and listens to result channel 8. Main receives and processes the results result 4. Routine 1 claims first piece of data, no longer listening 5. Routine 2 claims second piece of data, no longer listening 7. The routines finish and send their results back on the result channel
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Motor Controls Actions Left Forward Left Reverse Left PWM Left Motion Low Low Low Low High High High Low Low High High Low Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High High High Coasting Coasting Coasting Reverse Coasting Forward Coasting Active Braking Right Forward Right Reverse Right PWM Low Low Low Low High High High Low Low High High Low Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High High High Right Motion Coasting Coasting Coasting Reverse Coasting Forward Coasting Active Braking 13
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Chapter 6 Objectives Describe Describethe thecharacteristics characteristicsof of magnetic magneticdisks disks Differentiate Differentiateamong amongvarious variousCD CDand and DVD DVDformats formats Describe Describethe thecharacteristics characteristicsof of aahard harddisk disk Identify Identifythe theuses usesof oftape tape Differentiate Differentiatebetween betweenfloppy floppydisks disks and andZip Zipdisks disks Discuss DiscussPC PCCards Cardsand andthe thevarious varioustypes types of ofminiature miniaturemobile mobilestorage storagemedia media Describe Describethe thecharacteristics characteristicsof ofoptical optical disks disks Identify Identifyuses usesof ofmicrofilm microfilmand and microfiche microfiche 2
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VOMmean w F=(DPP-MN)/4 Concrete4150(C, W, FA, Ag) 0 1 1 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 _________[0,9) 8 4 9 1 [9,14) 10 1 11 2 12 1 13 5 14 1 [14,18) 15 3 16 3 17 4 18 1 [18,23) 19 3 20 9 21 4 22 3 23 7 24 2 [23,31) 25 4 26 8 27 7 28 7 29 10 30 3 31 1 [31,36) 32 3 33 6 34 4 35 5 37 2 [36,39) 38 2 40 1 [39,52) 42 3 43 1 44 1 45 1 46 4 ______ 49 1 56 1 [52,90) 58 1 61 1 65 1 66 1 69 1 71 1 77 1 80 1 83 1 _________[0.90) 86 1 100 1 [90,113) 103 1 105 1 108 2 112 1 e4 accuracy rate = 104/150= 69% 2 Low 1 Low 5 Medium 3 Medium 5 High 5 High CLUS_1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 CLUS_1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 5 Low 2 Medium 4 High 6 Low 1 Medium 13 High CLUS_1.1.1.1.1.1.2 25 Low 4 Medium 19 High CLUS_1.1.1.1.1.2 3 Low 7 Medium 11 High CLUS_1.1.1.1.2 1 Low 1 Medium 2 High 0 Low 12 Medium 1 High 0 Low 11 Medium CLUS_1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 . 0 High CLUS_1.1.1.2 CLUS_1.1.2 CLUS_1.2 43 Low 46 Medium 55 High CLUS_1 0 Low 6 Medium 0 High CLUS_2 d=e4 Conc4150 ________=0 0 17 ________=1 1 11 ________=3 3 12 ________=6 6 35 _______ ________=13 13 25 _______ 22 25 =22 24 8 =24 44 7 ________=44 67 ________=67 4 89 2 ________=89 91 4 13 Lo 2 Lo 12 Lo 13 Lo 3 Lo 0 Lo 0 Lo 0 Lo 0 Lo 0 Lo 4 Med 9 Med 0 Med 5 Med 3 Med 6 Med 8 Med 7 Med 4 Med 4 Med 0 4 STD=(101,28,99,81) d=e1 Conc4150 6 3 7 2 8 Low 7 Medium 0 High CLUS_1.1.1.1.1.2 12 10 [9,16) 13 2 14 3 CLUS_1.1.1.1.2 18 9 [16,31) 18 Low 11 Medium 0 High 20 4 22 5 23 3 24 5 27 3 1 Low 3 Medium 3 High CLUS_1.1.1.2 31 3 [31,39) . 36 4 5 Low 5 Medium 7 High CLUS_1.1.2 41 2 [39,52) 42 1 43 4 44 3 46 3 48 2 ______ 49 2 55 13 4 Low 17 Medium 38High CLUS_1.2 58 8 [52,80) 60 6 Entirely inconclusive using e ! 62 5 1 65 4 71 16 72 4 ________[0.80) 43Low 46Medium 55High CLUS_1 74 3 7 High CLUS_2 82 4 [80,101) 0 Low 7 Medium 83 7 97 2 100 1 VOM MN 0 Hi 0 Hi 0 Hi 17 Hi 19 Hi 19 Hi 0 Hi 0 Hi 0 Hi 0 Hi CLUS_11 CLUS_10 CLUS_9 CLUS_8 CLUS_7 . CLUS_6 . CLUS_5 CLUS_3 CLUS_1 CLUS_2 d=e3 Conc4150 0 15 3 2 ________ 5 4 17 3 19 8 21 1 29 3 ________ 41 28 46 3 47 8 48 3 52 4 ________ 53 15 58 3 62 4 63 4 64 1 65 7 67 3 69 4 72 3 73 12 75 2 78 5 83 1 100 4 2,4 [0.9) [9,32) 3 Low 1 Low 16 Medium 8 Medium 2 High CLUS_1.1 6 High CLUS_1.2 [0.32) 4 Low 24 Medium 8 High CLUS_1 [32,101) 39 Low 28 Medium 47 High CLUS_2 [32,55) 21 Low 12 Medium 28 High CLUS_2.1 [55,101) 1 Low 8 Medium 6 High CLUS_2.2 0 2 3 4 ________[0,5) 3 Lo 1 Med 2 Hi CLUS_2 8 4 ________=8 0 Lo 1 Med 3 Hi CLUS_3 10 2 ________=10 0 Lo 2 Med 0 Hi CLUS_4 12 8 ________[10,14) 1 Lo 4 Med 9 Hi CLUS_5 13 4 15 4 16 14 17 3 18 1 19 3 ________[14,21) 9 Lo 9 Med 15 Hi CLUS_6 20 8 22 15 ________[21,25) 3 Lo 1 Med 15 Hi CLUS_7 24 4 ________[25,28) 5 Lo 1 Med 3 Hi CLUS_8 27 9 29 3 e2 accuracy= 30 6 31 3 Inconclusive on e2! 93/150=62% 32 3 33 7 34 4 d=e2 ________[28,36) 14 Lo 12 Med 8 Hi CLUS_9 35 8 0 Hi CLUS_10 5 [36.40) 7 Lo 1 Med Conc4150 37 38 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 18 19 20 21 29 30 31 32 34 35 36 62 64 93 121 125 2 5 6 12 2 1 6 6 1 4 12 11 5 3 2 9 10 4 1 4 9 4 9 4 1 2 5 4 2 4 2,4 =0 2L 0M 0H C14 =1 1L 4M 0H C13 [2,4) 11L 6M 1H C12 =4 0L 2M 0H C11 [5,9) 14L 0M 0H C10 [9,11) 3L 0 M 13H C9 =11 =12 =13 [15,25) 5L 5L 0L 2L 2 M 4H 0 M 0H 3 M 0H 4 M 19H C8 C7 C6 C5 [25,33) 0L 0 M 18H C4 [33,50) 0L 14 M 0H C3 [50,93) 0L 7 M 0H C2 [93,m) 0L 10M 0H C1 Accuracy= 127/150=85% CONCRETE
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GUTTMAN        I I I I I I I am am am am am am am more more more more more more more than than than than than than than 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 inches inches inches inches inches inches inches tall. tall. tall. tall. tall. tall. tall.
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GUTTMAN EXAMPLE  I am more than 54 inches tall.  I am more than 56 inches tall.  I am more than 58 inches tall.  I am more than 60 inches tall.  I am more than 62 inches tall.  I am more than 64 inches tall.  I am more than 66 inches tall
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Example of One Factor in a Point Factor System (Complexity/Problem Solving) (cont’d) Level Point Value 2 80 3 120 Description of Characteristics and Measures Frequently confronts problems not covered by job routine. Independent judgment exercised in making minor decision where alternatives are limited and standard policies established. Analysis of standardized data for information of or use by others. Benchmark: Social worker, executive secretary Exercises independent judgment in making decision involving nonroutine problems with general guidance only from higher supervision. Analyzes and evaluates data pertaining to nonroutine problems for solution in conjunction with others. Benchmark: Nurse, accountant, team leader
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P Generation F1 Generation Tall plant T T Short plant t t F2 Generation All tall plants T t Tall plant T T Tall plant T t Tall plant Short plant T 3 tall : 1 short t t t
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Evaluating Arguments from Analogy   Are the premises true? Are the similarities relevant?   The more relevant similarities there are, the better.    If Amber and Krissy are also tall and play both basketball and volleyball our conclusion is even further supported. The more diversity in the examples, the better.   Irrelevant dis-similarities: hair color Relevant dis-similarity: job status The more examples which are also similar, the better.   If we also learn that they both get scholarships if they play more than one sport, our conclusion is more supported. Are there relevant dis-similarities?   Since being tall is helpful in volleyball, the fact that both Tiffany and Heather are tall is relevant to the previous conclusion. If Tiffany, Amber and Krissy are different in many ways, except for the fact that they are all tall and play basketball and volleyball, it seems more likely that their being tall and playing basketball is relevant to their playing volleyball. Thus, Heather’s being tall and playing basketball is better evidence that she also plays volleyball. Is the conclusion too specific?  “Heather probably plays volleyball” is better supported than “Heather must play volleyball.” 28
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• Further evidence that –e marks specificity in CK • In morphology, too, -e indicates specificity. (27) wiɫax-i berz (28) wi ɫax-e berz-e animal-IZ tall animal-IZ tall-DEF ‘tall animals’ ‘horse or mule, literally, the tall animal’ • wiɫax-i berz ‘tall animals’ in (27) is generic. • wiɫax-e berz-e ‘literally, the tall animal’ denotes a horse or a mule. • More examples: (29) sed hundred ‘hundred’ sed-e hundred-SPEC ‘century’ (31) bin dest-e under hand-SPEC ‘coin flipping, game’ 3/26/19 (30) dwan two ‘two’ dwan-e two-SPEC ‘twin’ (32) du kilk-e two tail-SPEC ‘earwig, an insect with two tails’
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