Connections Between AER Strategy and BOR Equity Grids AER Strategy Grid Acquisition Acquisition Strategy Strategy Expansion Expansion Strategy Strategy Retention Retention Strategy Strategy Persona Persona #1 #1 Most Most effective effective acquisition acquisition strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 1 1 Most Most effective effective expansion expansion strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 1 1 Most Most effective effective retention retention strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 1 1 Persona Persona #2 #2 Most Most effective effective acquisition acquisition strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 2 2 Most Most effective effective expansion expansion strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 2 2 Most Most effective effective retention retention strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 2 2 Persona Persona #3 #3 Most Most effective effective acquisition acquisition strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 3 3 Most Most effective effective expansion expansion strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 3 3 Most Most effective effective retention retention strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 3 3 Personas account for customer heterogeneity AER stages account for customer dynamics BOR Equity Grid Marketing Marketing Objectives Objectives Relative Relative Advantages Advantages Sources Sources of of Sustainability Sustainability Brand Brand Strategy Strategy (Chapter (Chapter 5) 5) Brand Brand marketing marketing objectives objectives Relative Relative advantages advantages of of the the firm’s firm’s brand brand vs. vs. competitors’ competitors’ brands brands Brand’s Brand’s sources sources of of sustainability sustainability Offering Offering Strategy Strategy (Chapter (Chapter 6) 6) Offering Offering and and innovation innovation objectives objectives Relative Relative advantages advantages of of the the firm’s firm’s offering offering vs. vs. competitors’ competitors’ offerings offerings Offering’s Offering’s sources sources of of sustainability sustainability Relationship Relationship marketing marketing objectives objectives Relative Relative advantages advantages of of the the firm’s firm’s relationships relationships vs. vs. competitors’ competitors’ relationships relationships Relationship Relationship marketing’s marketing’s sources sources of of sustainability sustainability Environmental Trends Technology Technology trends trends Regulatory Regulatory trends trends Relationship Relationship Strategy Strategy (Chapter (Chapter 7) 7) Socioeconomic Socioeconomic trends trends © Palmatier 38
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Reference Slide # Slide Title Source of Information 6 Transaction Validation CISA: page 225 Exhibit 3.30 7 Batch Processing CISA: page 223, 224, 393 8 Batch Control CISA: page 223, 224 9 Transaction Authorization CISA: page 223 10 Error Handling Alternatives CISA: page 224 12 Processing Controls CISA: page 224, 225 13 Data File Control Procedures CISA: page 225, 226 19 Testing Application: Test Data CISA: page 229 Exhibit 3.32 20 Testing Application: Snapshot CISA: page 229 Exhibit 3.32 21 Integrated Testing Facilities CISA: page 230 Exhibit 3.32 22 Parallel Operation or Parallel Simulation CISA: page 230 Exhibit 3.32 23 Transaction Selection Program CISA: page 230 Exhibit 3.32 24 Embedded Audit Data Collection CISA: page 230 Exhibit 3.32 25 Testing Application Techniques CISA: page 229, 230 Exhibit 3.32 26 Online Auditing Techniques CISA: page 230, 231 27 Concurrent Audit Tools CISA: page 231 Exhibit 3.33 28 Continuous Online Auditing: Audit Hooks CISA: page 230, 231
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  EVALUATION RUBRIC DEVELOPED Below Expectations (1-2 Pts) Meets Expectations (3-4 Pts) Exceeds Expectations (5-6 Pts) POINTS Aspects of background or relevant external environment variables not discussed. Research is not thorough or is missing completely. Identified target market(s) do not follow clearly from any research presented. Provides analysis of all relevant background including competition and external environment. Some research undertaken to support analysis. Target market(s) identified. Could be clearer how research led to target market. Background is comprehensively examined and assessed. Competition, external environment, and any other relevant issues thoroughly researched and discussed. Research clearly supports target market(s) choice.   Objectives Communication objectives do not flow clearly from situation analysis. One or more objective may be difficult to measure, vague, and/or not clearly distinct from Marketing objectives. Complete communication objectives presented and follow reasonably well from situation analysis. Comm objectives are generally measurable and are distinguished from Marketing objectives. Communication objectives are clearly stated and flow fully and naturally from results of situation analysis. Objectives are specific, distinct from Marketing objectives, and measurable.   Message Strategy Basis of positioning is either missing or not presented clearly. If positioning is discussed, not clear what the connection between it and message strategy are. Message strategy is presented and positioning discussed but relationship between positioning platform and message strategy may not be totally clear. Message strategy is clearly presented and positions the product effectively. Positioning platform well-thought through and relationship between positioning and message are clear.   Media Strategy Important elements of media strategy may be missing. No clear connection between media & message strategies. Media strategy is presented and explained. Media strategy is reasonably consistent with message strategy. Media strategy is clearly presented. Media strategy supports and enhances message.   Other Plan Elements IMC plan omits one or more additional element that would contribute effectively. Appropriate public relations, direct marketing, Internet, sales promotion or support media are missing. IMC plan includes some additional elements that are appropriate. May include public relations, direct marketing, Internet, sales promotion or support media. IMC plan includes all additional elements that are appropriate (public relations, direct marketing, Internet, sales promotion, support media). Additional elements are clearly blended into positioning/message strategy.   Integration Lack of consistent message across two or more elements causes understanding of IMC to be questioned. Elements of IMC plan illustrate reasonable consistency and demonstrate understanding of the concept of IMC. The concept of IMC is clearly promoted and demonstrated through the consistent message woven throughout plan elements.   Budget Budget fails to clearly account for all plan items, does not support objectives, or is missing altogether. Full budget is presented and appears to support the plan’s objectives. All plan items accounted for in budget. Budget carefully and fully details each plan element. Supports stated objectives and is reasonable given any existing constraints.   Effectiveness Plan for measuring effectiveness of IMC plan is weak. Method choice questionable or plan is missing altogether. Plan for measuring effectiveness is presented. Choice of methods is reasonable. Measurement of all elements of IMC plan is clearly accounted for. Measurement methods are chosen/designed to produce clear results.   Situation Analysis
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Reference Slide # Slide Title Source of Information 6 Risk Management Process CISM: page 97 Exhibit 2.2 8 Continuous Risk Mgmt Process CISM: page 97 Exhibit 2.3 9 Security Evaluation: Risk Assessment CISM: page 100 12 Matric of Loss Scenario CISM: page 114 Exhibit 2.15 14 Step 2: Determine Loss Due to Threats CISM: page 105 16 Step 2: Determine Threats Due to Vulnerabilities CISM: page 105 17 Step 3: Estimate Likelihood of Exploitation CISM: page 107-110 18 Likelihood of Exploitation Sources of Losses CISM: page 118 Exhibit 2.11 19 Step 4; Compute Expected Loss Risk Analysis Strategies CISM: page 108- 110 20 Step 4: Compute Loss Using Qualitative Analysis CISM: page 108 22 Step 4: Compute Loss Using Semi- Quantitative Analysis CISM: page 108,109 23 SemiQuantitative Impact Matrix CISM: page 109 Exhibit 2.12 24 Step 4: Compute Loss Using Quantitative Analysis CISM: page 109, 110 26 Annualized Loss Expectancy CISM: page 110 28 Step 5: Treat Risk CISM: page 110, 111 29 NIST Risk Assessment Methodology CISM: page 102 Exhibit 2.7 30 Control Types CISM: page 186 Exhibit 3.18 32 Controls & Countermeasures CISM: page 184, 185 36 Security Control Baselines & Metrics CISM: page 191-193 37 Risk Management CISM: page 91, 92 38 Risk Management Roles CISM: page 94
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BOR Equity Grid: Macro-Perspective of Market-Based Sources of SCA  Brand, Offering, and Relationship (BOR) Equity Grid represents last step in the process  BOR equity grid offers a high-level summary of what the firm is trying to achieve with each BOR strategy  Using the inputs from the AER strategy grid and key environmental trends, the BOR equity grid can be completed to describe three key pieces of information for the BOR strategies: BOR Equity Grid Marketing Marketing Objectives Objectives Relative Relative Advantages Advantages Sources Sources of of Sustainability Sustainability Brand Brand Strategy Strategy (Chapter (Chapter 5) 5) Brand Brand marketing marketing objectives objectives Relative Relative advantages of advantages of the the firm’s firm’s brand brand vs. vs. competitors’ competitors’ brands brands Brand’s Brand’s sources sources of of sustainability sustainability Offering Offering Strategy Strategy (Chapter (Chapter 6) 6) Offering Offering and and innovation innovation objectives objectives Relative Relative advantages advantages of of the the firm’s firm’s offering offering vs. vs. competitors’ competitors’ offerings offerings Offering’s Offering’s sources sources of of sustainability sustainability Relationship Relationship Strategy Strategy (Chapter (Chapter 7) 7) Relationship Relationship marketing marketing objectives objectives Relative Relative advantages of advantages of the the firm’s firm’s relationships relationships vs. vs. competitors’ competitors’ relationships relationships Relationship Relationship marketing’s marketing’s sources sources of of sustainability sustainability © Palmatier  Marketing objectives  Relative advantages over competition  Maintaining the SCA over time 40
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Simulation Results Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Strategy of AoC Introduction Development of Mobile Network Future Works Simulation Conclusion • Zero-determinant Strategy • Tit-for-Tat Strategy • Pavlov Strategy • Cooperative Strategy • Non-cooperative Strategy ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Strategy of PoC • Any Strategy • Tit-for-Tat Strategy • Pavlov Strategy • Cooperative Strategy • Non-cooperative Strategy ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
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IUC’s scope will focus on two functions (Finance and IT) Adherence to process definitions within the Hackett taxonomy is key to comparability; processes are defined end to end Selling and General Administrative Scope Finance Finance Human Human Resources Resources Sales* Sales* Executive Executive and and Corporate Corporate Services Services**  Total  Sales  General Cash Cash Disbursements Disbursements Total Rewards Rewards Administration Administration Sales Execution Execution General Administration Administration Management Management    Revenue Cycle Payroll Services Sales Operations   Travel and  Revenue Cycle Payroll Services Sales Operations Travel and Transportation Transportation Services Services  Planning  Real Accounting Accounting and and External External Reporting Reporting  Data Data Mgmt., Mgmt., Reporting Reporting & & Compliance Compliance Planning and and Strategy Strategy Real Estate Estate & & Facilities Facilities Management Management  Staffing  Function  Government Tax Tax Management Management Staffing Services Services Function Management Management Government Affairs Affairs  Labor  Legal Treasury Treasury Management Management Labor Relations Relations Legal  Workforce  Quality Compliance Compliance Management Management Workforce Development Development Services Services Service* Quality Management Management Service*  Organisational  Planning Risk  Order  Planning & & Performance Performance Management Management Organisational Effectiveness Effectiveness Risk and and Security Security Management Management Order and and Contract Contract Management Management (OTC) (OTC)  Total  Corporate Fiscal Communications  Service Fiscal Analysis Analysis Total Rewards Rewards Planning Planning Execution Corporate Communications Service Execution  Strategic  Planning Function  Service Function Management Management Strategic Workforce Workforce Planning Planning Planning and and Strategy Strategy Service Operations Operations  Function  Executive Office  Planning Function Management Management and Strategy Executive Office Planning and Strategy  Function Function Management Management Information Technology          Information Technology            Infrastructure Infrastructure Management Management End End User User Support Support Infrastructure Infrastructure Development Development Application Application Maintenance Maintenance Application Application Development Development & & Implement. Implement. Quality Quality Assurance Assurance Risk Risk Management Management IT IT Business Business Planning Planning Enterprise Enterprise Architecture Architecture Planning Planning Emerging Emerging Technologies Technologies Function Function Management Management Procurement Procurement            Supply Supply Data Data Management Management Requisition Requisition and and PO PO Processing Processing Supplier Scheduling Supplier Scheduling Receipt Receipt Processing Processing Compliance Compliance Management Management Customer Customer Management Management Sourcing Sourcing Execution Execution Supplier Supplier Management Management and and Development Development Sourcing Sourcing & & Supply Supply Base Base Strategy Strategy Function Function Strategy Strategy and and Performance Performance Management Management Function Function Management Management Marketing* Marketing*      Marketing Marketing Communication Communication Brand Brand and and Product Product Management Management Planning and Planning and Strategy Strategy Market Market Research Research and and Analytics Analytics Function Management Function Management Capture FTEs and Costs as defined regardless of where they are organizationally located
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strategy connectNewEvents(min_new, computeTEnSnpGuard(min_old, max_new: min_new, interger) max_new : integer; TEnSnpGuardStr : string) { if (min_old << max_new) if(min_new max_new) then then computeTEnSnpGuard(min_old + 1, min_new, max_new, connectOneNewEventToOtherNewEvents(min_new, max_new); TEnSnpGuardStr + "(#S" + intToString(min_old) + " == 0)&&"); else connectNewEvents(min_new+1, max_new); endif; addEventswithGuard(min_new, max_new, TEnSnpGuardStr + "(#S" + intToString(min_old) + "== 0))?1:0"); } endif; } strategy connectOneNewEventToOtherNewEvents(event_num, max_new: integer) {... // several strategies not show here (e.g., addEventswithGuard) strategy if(event_num addEvents(min_new, < max_new) then max_new : integer; TEnSnpGuardStr : string) { connectTwoEvents(event_num, max_new); if connectNewEvents(event_num, (min_new <= max_new) then max_new-1); endif; addNewEvent(min_new, TEnSnpGuardStr); } addEvents(min_new+1, max_new, TEnSnpGuardStr); strategy endif; connectTwoEvents(first_num, second_num : integer) {} strategy declare firstinProg, addNewEvent(event_num secondinProg : :atom; integer; TEnSnpGuardStr : string) { declare secondTProc1, secondTProc2 : atom; declare first_numStr, start, stTran, inProg, second_numStr, endTran :TProcSnp_guard1, atom; TProcSnp_guard2 : string; declare TStSnp_guard : string; first_numStr := intToString(first_num); start := findAtom("StSnpSht"); second_numStr := intToString(second_num); stTran := addAtom("ImmTransition", TProcSnp_guard1 := "((#S" + first_numStr "TStSnp" +"+ ==intToString(event_num)); 0) && (#S" + second_numStr + " == 1))?1 : 0"; TStSnp_guard := "(#S" TProcSnp_guard2 := "((#S" + intToString(event_num) + second_numStr + " +==" == 0) && 1)?1 (#S" : 0";+ first_numStr + " == 1))?1 : 0"; stTran.setAttribute("Guard", firstinProg := findAtom("SnpInProg" TStSnp_guard); + first_numStr); secondinProg := findAtom("SnpInProg" + second_numStr); inProg := addAtom("Place", secondTProc1 := addAtom("ImmTransition", "SnpInProg" + intToString(event_num)); "TProcSnp" + first_numStr + "," + second_numStr); endTran := addAtom("ImmTransition", secondTProc1.setAttribute("Guard", TProcSnp_guard1); "TEnSnp" + intToString(event_num)); endTran.setAttribute("Guard", secondTProc2 := addAtom("ImmTransition", TEnSnpGuardStr); "TProcSnp" + second_numStr + "," + first_numStr); addConnection("InpImmedArc", start,TProcSnp_guard2); secondTProc2.setAttribute("Guard", stTran); addConnection("OutImmedArc", stTran, inProg); addConnection("InpImmedArc", firstinProg, inProg, endTran); secondTProc1); addConnection("OutImmedArc", secondTProc1, endTran, start); secondinProg); } addConnection("InpImmedArc", secondinProg, secondTProc2); addConnection("OutImmedArc", secondTProc2, firstinProg); } Scaling a Base SRN Model strategy computeTEnSnpGuard(min_old, min_new, max_new : integer; TEnSnpGuardStr : string) { if (min_old < max_new) then computeTEnSnpGuard(min_old + 1, min_new, max_new, TEnSnpGuardStr + "(#S" + intToString(min_old) + " == 0)&&"); else addEventswithGuard(min_new, max_new, TEnSnpGuardStr + "(#S" + intToString(min_old) + "== 0))?1:0"); endif; } ... // several strategies not show here (e.g., addEventswithGuard) strategy addEvents(min_new, max_new : integer; TEnSnpGuardStr : string) { if (min_new <= max_new) then addNewEvent(min_new, TEnSnpGuardStr); addEvents(min_new+1, max_new, TEnSnpGuardStr); endif; } strategy addNewEvent(event_num : integer; TEnSnpGuardStr : string) { declare start, stTran, inProg, endTran : atom; declare TStSnp_guard : string; strategy connectNewEvents(min_new, max_new: interger) { if(min_new < max_new) then connectOneNewEventToOtherNewEvents(min_new, max_new); connectNewEvents(min_new+1, max_new); endif; } strategy connectOneNewEventToOtherNewEvents(event_num, max_new: integer) { if(event_num < max_new) then connectTwoEvents(event_num, max_new); connectNewEvents(event_num, max_new-1); endif; } strategy connectTwoEvents(first_num, second_num : integer) { declare firstinProg, secondinProg : atom; declare secondTProc1, secondTProc2 : atom; declare first_numStr, second_numStr, TProcSnp_guard1, TProcSnp_guard2 : string; first_numStr := intToString(first_num); second_numStr := intToString(second_num); TProcSnp_guard1 := "((#S" + first_numStr + " == 0) && (#S" + second_numStr + " == 1))?1 : 0"; TProcSnp_guard2 := "((#S" + second_numStr + " == 0) && (#S" + first_numStr + " == 1))?1 : 0"; firstinProg := findAtom("SnpInProg" + first_numStr); secondinProg := findAtom("SnpInProg" + second_numStr); secondTProc1 := addAtom("ImmTransition", "TProcSnp" + first_numStr + "," + second_numStr); secondTProc1.setAttribute("Guard", TProcSnp_guard1); secondTProc2 := addAtom("ImmTransition", "TProcSnp" + second_numStr + "," + first_numStr); secondTProc2.setAttribute("Guard", TProcSnp_guard2); start := findAtom("StSnpSht"); stTran := addAtom("ImmTransition", "TStSnp" + intToString(event_num)); TStSnp_guard := "(#S" + intToString(event_num) + " == 1)?1 : 0"; stTran.setAttribute("Guard", TStSnp_guard); inProg := addAtom("Place", "SnpInProg" + intToString(event_num)); endTran := addAtom("ImmTransition", "TEnSnp" + intToString(event_num)); endTran.setAttribute("Guard", TEnSnpGuardStr); addConnection("InpImmedArc", start, stTran); addConnection("OutImmedArc", stTran, inProg); addConnection("InpImmedArc", inProg, endTran); addConnection("OutImmedArc", endTran, start); addConnection("InpImmedArc", firstinProg, secondTProc1); addConnection("OutImmedArc", secondTProc1, secondinProg); addConnection("InpImmedArc", secondinProg, secondTProc2); addConnection("OutImmedArc", secondTProc2, firstinProg); } } 28
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Rubric • 100-90. The submission clearly exceeds requirements. The tutorial game works without problems. The custom extensions exhibit an unusually high degree of effort, thoughtfulness, technical ability and insight. Documentation is thorough and clear. • 89-80. The submission meets requirements. The tutorial game works without problems. The custom extensions exhibit substantial effort, thoughtfulness, technical ability and/or insight. Documentation is adequate. • 79-70. The submission barely meets requirements. The tutorial game may operate erratically. The custom extensions exhibit marginal effort, thoughtfulness, creativity and/or insight. Documentation is missing details needed to understand the contributions and/or to build the program. • 69-60. The project fails to meet requirements in some places. The tutorial game may crash occasionally. The custom extensions are of minor scope, or exhibit perfunctory effort, thoughtfulness, technical ability and/or insight. Documentation is inadequate, missing key details needed to understand the contributions and/or to build the programs. • 59-0. The project does not meet requirements. The tutorial game crashes consistently or does not compile. The custom extensions exhibit little or no evidence of effort, thoughtfulness, technical ability and/or insight. Documentation is woefully inadequate or missing.
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Exhibit Score Sheet Use the space to balance display of the team’s outreach as BEST Robotics, team/company’s brand and product The exhibit tells a story based on the visual impression alone. 10 The Brand Promise is evident. 10 The exhibit is engaging and interactive. 5 The exhibit appears cohesive. The information is arranged in a logical and creative manner. 5 Exhibit Balance Total 30
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Selecting Strategies That Capture Opportunities Cost-Based Cost-Based Strategy Strategy Broad-Based Broad-Based Strategy Strategy Choosing Choosing the the Right Right Strategy Strategy for for Performance Performance Differentiati Differentiati on-Based on-Based Strategy Strategy © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Focus Focus Strategy Strategy 3–20
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AER Strategy Grid: Micro-Analysis of Customer Heterogeneity and Dynamics  Output of MP#2 is a microanalysis of customer heterogeneity and dynamics in the firm’s customer portfolio  The insights from MP#2 then can be inserted into the AER strategy grid to reveal highimpact strategies  Each box in this grid describes the most effective strategy for a unique persona at a single point in time AER Strategy Grid Acquisition Acquisition Strategy Strategy Expansion Expansion Strategy Strategy Retention Retention Strategy Strategy Persona Persona #1 #1 Most Most effective effective acquisition acquisition strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 1 1 Most Most effective effective expansion expansion strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 1 1 Most Most effective effective retention retention strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 1 1 Persona Persona #2 #2 Most Most effective effective acquisition acquisition strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 2 2 Most Most effective effective expansion expansion strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 2 2 Most Most effective effective retention retention strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 2 2 Persona Persona #3 #3 Most Most effective effective acquisition acquisition strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 3 3 Most Most effective effective expansion expansion strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 3 3 Most Most effective effective retention retention strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 3 3 © Palmatier 39
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• Some Definitions – Maxi-min (mini-max) strategy: The maxi-min strategy is the path with the highest possible (maximum) worst (minimum) outcome. – Dominant strategy: A strategy is dominant if it does better than all other strategies in at least one circumstance and as well as every other strategy in all circumstances. – Dominated strategy: A strategy is dominated if it does worse than another strategy in at least one circumstance and no better than that strategy in all circumstances. – Nash Equilibrium: An outcome is in Nash equilibrium if, given that outcome, no party regrets its choice of strategy (cannot do better).
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DAT 7.1 Multivariate Regression Analysis Description Multivariate regression is a statistical approach used to quantify the sign and magnitude of the relationship between a focal dependent variable (marketing outcome in our context) and several independent variables (e.g., marketing efforts). When to Use It • To determine how one of multiple marketing interventions incrementally affects observed marketing outcomes. • To compare the effects of multiple marketing interventions on marketing outcomes. • To predict the likely market outcomes due to various combinations of marketing interventions. How it Works The purpose of multivariate regression is to capture the statistical association between a focal marketing outcome of interest (e.g., sales, loyalty, CLV, profitability) and several marketing interventions that simultaneously may affect the focal outcome (e.g., relationship marketing efforts, marketing mix). Performing a multivariate regression enables five important discoveries. First, we can discern whether a particular marketing intervention truly influences a marketing outcome. That is, a multivariate regression can provide statistical validation of the significance of the impact of a certain marketing intervention. Second, we learn the sign of the relationship between a marketing invention and a marketing outcome. In some cases, the sign is wellknown a priori (e.g., as the price increases, sales decrease), but in others, it remains unclear. For example, a firm may not know whether a financially oriented relationship marketing program offering free shipping ultimately increases CLV. The regression can help the firm verify the sign of the relationship. Third, a multivariate regression helps researchers compare the relative strength of multiple marketing interventions. For example, a firm may need to know which of its social, structural, or financial relationship marketing efforts are most and least influential, and this determination is enabled by a regression. Fourth, with a multivariate regression, we can control for confounds while gauging the relationship between marketing interventions and marketing outcomes. For example, while trying to understand the relationship between financial relationship marketing efforts by a supplier firm devoted to a buyer firm and marketing outcomes earned from this buyer firm, we might control for the buyer firm’s size, because larger firms typically buy more, regardless of whether they receive marketing interventions. Fifth and finally, multivariate regression enables predictions of the marketing outcomes following from various scenarios of marketing interventions, which is useful in scenario analysis. If the marketing outcome is given by Y, and we have three marketing interventions (X1, X2, and X3), and two confounds (Z1, and Z2), the formula is given by:   where to are the coefficients (or weights) that capture the sign and strength of the relationship between the marketing interventions and the marketing outcome, and is a random error term. In most cases, we would have data about past outcomes and marketing inventions/confounds, then rely on software such as SAS or SPSS to provide the sign, strength, and statistical significance of the coefficients.   53
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The Right Investment Philosophy   Single Best Strategy: You can choose the one strategy that best suits you. Thus, if you are a long-term investor who believes that markets overreact, you may adopt a passive value investing strategy. Combination of strategies: You can adopt a combination of strategies to maximize your returns. In creating this combined strategy, you should keep in mind the following caveats: • You should not mix strategies that make contradictory assumptions about market behavior over the same periods. Thus, a strategy of buying on relative strength would not be compatible with a strategy of buying stocks after very negative earnings announcements. The first strategy is based upon the assumption that markets learn slowly whereas the latter is conditioned on market overreaction. • When you mix strategies, you should separate the dominant strategy from the secondary strategies. Thus, if you have to make choices in terms of investments, you know which strategy will dominate. Aswath Damodaran 13
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Strategy as a Source of Information Implications Implications of of the the Chosen Chosen Strategy Strategy Growth Growth strategy strategy Stability Stability strategy strategy Reduction Reduction strategy strategy © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–10
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Relationship type vs. relationship set (1)  Relationship Type:     Is the schema description of a relationship Identifies the relationship name and the participating entity types Also identifies certain relationship constraints Relationship Set:   The current set of relationship instances represented in the database The current state of a relationship type Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasr and Shamkant B. Navathei Slide 3- 23
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Design Issues  Use of entity sets vs. attributes Choice mainly depends on the structure of the enterprise being modeled, and on the semantics associated with the attribute in question.  Use of entity sets vs. relationship sets Possible guideline is to designate a relationship set to describe an action that occurs between entities  Binary versus n-ary relationship sets Although it is possible to replace any nonbinary (n-ary, for n > 2) relationship set by a number of distinct binary relationship sets, a nary relationship set shows more clearly that several entities participate in a single relationship.  Placement of relationship attributes Database System Concepts 2.29 ©Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan
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Design Issues  Use of entity sets vs. attributes Choice mainly depends on the structure of the enterprise being modeled, and on the semantics associated with the attribute in question.  Use of entity sets vs. relationship sets Possible guideline is to designate a relationship set to describe an action that occurs between entities  Binary versus n-ary relationship sets Although it is possible to replace any nonbinary (n-ary, for n > 2) relationship set by a number of distinct binary relationship sets, a nary relationship set shows more clearly that several entities participate in a single relationship.  Placement of relationship attributes Database System Concepts 2.31 ©Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan
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Our Roles – Working Together to Make Change Happen Planning Planning & & Readiness Readiness •• •• •• Generate Generate Awareness Awareness Link Link to to Outcomes Outcomes /Build /Build Case Case for for Change Change Commit Commit & & Set Set Direction Direction Strategic Strategic Communication Communication & & Engagement Engagement •• •• •• Communicate Communicate Enable Enable & & Empower Empower Others Others to to Act Act Create Create Short-term Short-term Wins Wins Operational Operational Implement Implement & & Sustain Sustain Change Change •• •• •• Monitor Monitor & & Adjust; Adjust; Use Use Data Data to to Learn Learn Align Align Systems Systems & & Processes Processes Embed Embed into into Culture Culture –– Continue Continue Cycle Cycle Tactical Tactical Leaders Leaders Personalize, Personalize, Readies Readies self self && team team for change, builds case, aligns for change, builds case, aligns team team Models Models behavior, behavior, shares shares openly openly Determine Determine measures measures of of success success Leads Leads Cascade, Cascade, Supports Supports Action Action Plans, Plans, solicits solicits Monitors Monitors activity activity and and outcomes outcomes feedback ,Reinforces behaviors that embody Provides data to team feedback ,Reinforces behaviors that embody Provides data to team and and other other values values ,participates ,participates in in activity, activity, integrates integrates into into leaders, leaders, process process improvements improvements team team practices, practices, reward reward && recognition recognition Individuals Individuals Personalize, Personalize, Readies Readies self self for for change, change, aligns aligns own own behavior behavior shares shares openly openly Creates Creates Action ActionPlans, Plans, provides provides feedback feedback Recognizes Recognizes behaviors behaviors that that embody embody values, values, participates in activity participates in activity Use Use data data to to learn learn and and make make improvements improvements Marketing Marketing Develops Develops Messaging Messaging && Communication Communication Strategy Strategy Develops Develops materials materials Implements Implements Communication Communication Strategy Strategy Supports training efforts Supports training efforts Tracks Tracks progress progress Reports Reports successes successes && makes makes recommendations recommendations HR HR // OED OED Develops Develops Learning Learning Strategy Strategy Supports Cascade Meetings Supports Cascade Meetings Supports Supports leader leader && individual individual development development Supports Supports communication communication strategy strategy Supports and/or facilitates Supports and/or facilitates sessions sessions Supports Supports reward reward && recognition recognition efforts efforts Supports Supports development development Tracks Tracks progress progress Reports Reports successes successes && makes makes recommendations recommendations Supports Supports process process improvements improvements
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Mortensen Consulting Group Whelen and Hunger Textbook 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Concepts Corporate Governance Ethics and Social Responsibility Environmental Scanning and Industry Analysis Internal Scanning: Organizational Analysis Strategy Formulation: Situational Analysis and Business Strategy Strategy Formulation: Corporate Strategy Strategy Formulation: Functional Strategy and Strategic Choices Strategy Implementation: Organizing for Action Strategy Implementation: Staffing and Directing Evaluation and Control
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Correlation = -0.3 $3,900 Strategy 10 $3,800 Strategy 6 Strategy 9 Expected Value Strategy 5 $3,700 Strategy 8 Strategy 16 Strategy 1 $3,600 Strategy 4 $3,500 $3,400 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 $1,300 $1,400 $1,500 $1,600 $1,700 Std Deviation Decision Models -- Prof. Juran 36
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Correlation = -0.5 $3,900 Strategy 10 $3,800 Strategy 6 Expected Value Strategy 9 $3,700 Strategy 8 Strategy 5 Strategy 16 $3,600 Strategy 1 Strategy 4 $3,500 $3,400 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 $1,300 $1,400 $1,500 $1,600 $1,700 Std Deviation Decision Models -- Prof. Juran 37
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Correlation = -0.7 $3,900 $3,800 Strategy 10 Expected Value $3,700 Strategy 9 Strategy 6 $3,600 Strategy 5 Strategy 8 Strategy 16 $3,500 Strategy 1 Strategy 4 $3,400 $800 $900 $1,000 $1,100 $1,200 $1,300 $1,400 $1,500 $1,600 $1,700 Std Deviation Decision Models -- Prof. Juran 38
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