Common Common Organization Organization Designs Designs (cont’d) (cont’d) Key KeyElements: Elements: ++Gains Gainsadvantages advantagesof of functional functionaland andproduct product departmentalization departmentalizationwhile while avoiding avoidingtheir their weaknesses. weaknesses. ++Facilitates Facilitatescoordination coordinationof of complex complexand and interdependent interdependentactivities. activities. ––Breaks Breaksdown downunity-ofunity-ofcommand commandconcept. concept.
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Planning Departments • Once jobs have been specialized, they need to be grouped into logical units. – This is called departmentalization. – Here are some areas of departmentalization: • • • • • • Product departmentalization Process departmentalization Functional departmentalization Customer departmentalization Geographic departmentalization Multi forms (combinations) of departmentalization © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
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Key Terms accountability authority centralized organization chain of command committee and team authority customer departmentalization decentralized organization delegation departmentalization division divisional structure flat organizational structure functional departmentalization functional structure geographic departmentalization grapevine informal organization international organizational structures intrapreneuring job specialization line authority line department matrix structure organization chart organizational structure process departmentalization product departmentalization © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
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Departmentalization Process of dividing work activities into units within the organization.      Product departmentalization: organized based on the goods and services a company offers. Geographical departmentalization: organized by geographical regions within a country or, for a multinational firm, by region throughout the world. Customer departmentalization: organized by the different types of customers the organization serves. Functional departmentalization: organized by business functions such as finance, marketing, human resources, and production. Process departmentalization: organized by work processes necessary to complete production of goods or services.
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What What Is Is Organizational Organizational Structure? Structure? Key KeyElements: Elements: • • Work Workspecialization specialization • • Departmentalization Departmentalization • • Chain Chainof ofcommand command • • Span Spanof ofcontrol control • • Centralization Centralizationand and decentralization decentralization • • Formalization Formalization
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Assigning Tasks – Organizational Structure Departmentalization is the grouping of jobs into working units usually called departments, units, groups, or divisions. •Functional departmentalization •Product departmentalization •Geographical departmentalization •Customer departmentalization 8-22
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Departmentalization (2 of 3) Functional Departmentalization – dividing an organization according to groups’ functions or activities Product Departmentalization – dividing an organization according to specific products or services being created Process Departmentalization – dividing an organization according to production processes used to create a good or service Copyright © 2017, 2015, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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for Loop Behavior #6 int product = 1; int count; for (count = 1; count <= 5; count++) { product = product * count; } /* for count */ The above program fragment behaves identically the same as: /* Program Trace */ int product = 1; /* product = 1 */ int count; /* count is undefined */ count = 1; /* count == 1, product == product *= count; /* count == 1, product == count++; /* count == 2, product == product *= count; /* count == 2, product == count++; /* count == 3, product == product *= count; /* count == 3, product == count++; /* count == 4, product == product *= count; /* count == 4, product == count++; /* count == 5, product == product *= count; /* count == 5, product == count++; /* count == 6, product == for Loop Lesson 1 CS1313 Spring 2019 1 */ 1 */ 1 */ 2 */ 3 */ 6 */ 6 */ 24 */ 24 */ 120 */ 120 */ 29
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Figure 4: Logic Model for the Quality Enhancement Plan Figure 6. Logic M odel for the Q uality Enhancement Plan Ra tionale Inputs Activities Outputs Outcome Why is this important? What are we doing now? What will we do? What products, events, & services will lead to program outcomes? What learning outcomes will be achieved? • Students must be C urriculum • Global learning content in general education (core) courses • Global learning content in selected academic majors representing each academic college • Collaboration with community resources with global focus to support course assignments • Study abroad program prepared to compete in a global market • Students must understand their role within an international community • Students need to be prepared to engage in increasingly diverse communities C o-Curricular • Global learning/engagement activities sponsored by student organizations • Freshman common read program • International learning community in residence hall Budget to support QEP activities • $1,153,233 budgeted over five year implementation period C urriculum • Incorporate global learning/engagement content/activities in general education (core) discipline courses • Conduct curriculum mapping for coursework in selected majors to enhance global learning/engagement C ampus Initiatives • Increase service learning opportunities within Study Abroad program • Coordinate student recognition and curriculum development activities with the Service Learning program C o-Curricular • Expand global learning/engagement activities sponsored by Student organizations • Increase international interactions C ommunity • Increase collaborative work with community organizations to support global learning/engagement activities • Increase collaborative work with international organizations to support global learning/engagement activities Curriculum E nhance ment • Number of general education (core) courses modified to include global learning/engagement activities • Number of courses in academic majors modified to include global learning/engagement activities • Number of students by college participating in global learning/engagement courses • Number and type of faculty participating in professional development activities and learning communities Co-Curricular • Number of student organizations sponsoring global learning/engagement activities • Number and demographics of students participating in global learning/engagement activities Community • Number of community organizations supporting global learning/engagement activities • Number of international organizations supporting global learning/engagement activities Knowledge • Students identify, describe, and explain global and intercultural conditions and interdependencies. • Students make informed critical assessments of global events, processes, trends and issues and convey the interconnectedness of political, economic and environmental systems. Skills • Students analyze, interpret, and evaluate global and intercultural issues via engagement strategies including the use of information technologies. • Students demonstrate an ability to communicate and interact effectively with members of other cultures. Attitude s • Students reflect upon and integrate global learning and engagement experiences. • Students recognize and appreciate cultural diversity and multiple world views.
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NullPointerExceptions main(…) real Complex(double real, double imag) this 85638 real 3.0 r3 85638 Complex ref n null Complex ref 85638 double imag double Complex 85642 real null result double imag 0.0 Complex ref other Complex ref 0.0 prod Complex ref 0.0 85642 Complex ref double Complex public … void main(…) { … Complex n = null; Complex r3 = new Complex(3); prod = r3.multBy(n); … } public Complex multBy(Complex other) Complex result = new Complex(); // HERE result.real = this.real * other. - this.imag * other.imag; result.imag = this.real * other. + this.imag * other.imag; return result; } 7
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Departmentalization • Departmentalization  The grouping of related activities into units. • Types of Departmentalization  Functional  Organizing departments around essential input activities, such as production, sales, and finance, that are managerial or technological functions.  Product (Service)  Organizing departments around goods (or services).  Customer  Organizing departments around the needs of different types of customers.  Territory (Geographic)  Establishing separate units in each area in which the enterprise does business. Copyright © 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 5–15
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Summary All organizations exhibit four characteristics: (1) coordination of effort, (2) common goal or purpose, (3) division of labor, and (4) hierarchy of authority. In open-system terms, business organizations are made up of interdependent technical, boundary-spanning, and managerial subsystems. Organizations need to satisfy different effectiveness criteria in the near, intermediate, and distant future. Contingency advocates contend that there is no one best organizational setup for all situations. There are five basic departmentalization formats: functional, product-service, geographic location, customer classification, and work flow process departmentalization. Situational factors dictate degree of centralization and how many people a manager can directly supervise Effective delegation permits managers to tackle higher-priority duties while helping train and develop lower-level managers. Management is reshaping the traditional pyramid bureaucracy. Three emerging configurations are the hourglass, cluster, and virtual organization. Organizational culture is the “social glue” binding people together through shared symbols, language, stories, and practices. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 19
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