What What Is Is Organizational Organizational Structure? Structure? (cont’d) (cont’d) Grouping GroupingActivities ActivitiesBy: By: • • Function Function • • Product Product • • Geography Geography • • Process Process • • Customer Customer
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Another Example Perfect Pizza: Current Physical Level 0 Diagram Phoned Customer Order Customer Phone Number 2.0 1.0 Clerk Finds Customer Clerk Takes Customer Information Customer Order Row (by phone) Phoned Customer Info Customer Record Cust. Info. D1Customer Spreadsheet Customer Record Phone # 5.0 Clerk Adds Customer Row Customer & Order Info Copy of Order Slip 3.0 System Prints Delivery Order Customer History Record D2 Customer History DB D3 Sales Records File Copies of Order Slips Delivery Person Delivery Printout Customer History Record Copies of Order Slips & Del. Printouts 7.0 Weekly Report Mgr Prints Weekly Totals (batch) Management 8.0 Mgr Updates Customer History (nightly) Customer Phoned Customer Order Cook 6.0 Copy of Clerk Sends Order order slip to Cook (paper)
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IEEE Std 1076.3 Packages Numeric_Bit  Comparison operators - various combinations of signed and unsigned arguments FUNCTION FUNCTION “>” “>” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN boolean; boolean; FUNCTION “<” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN boolean; FUNCTION “<” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN boolean; FUNCTION FUNCTION “<=” “<=” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN boolean; boolean; FUNCTION “>=” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN boolean; FUNCTION “>=” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN boolean; FUNCTION FUNCTION “=” “=” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN boolean; boolean; FUNCTION FUNCTION “/=” “/=” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN boolean; boolean;  Shift and rotate functions FUNCTION FUNCTION shift_left shift_left (arg:unsigned; (arg:unsigned; count:natural) count:natural) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION shift_right (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN FUNCTION shift_right (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION rotate_left (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION rotate_left (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION FUNCTION rotate_right rotate_right (arg:unsigned; (arg:unsigned; count:natural) count:natural) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION FUNCTION sll sll (arg:unsigned; (arg:unsigned; count:natural) count:natural) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION slr (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION slr (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION FUNCTION rol rol (arg:unsigned; (arg:unsigned; count:natural) count:natural) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION ror (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION ror (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; 24/03/19 UAH-CPE528 8
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IEEE Std 1076.3 Packages Numeric_Bit  Comparison operators - various combinations of signed and unsigned arguments FUNCTION FUNCTION “>” “>” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN boolean; boolean; FUNCTION “<” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN boolean; FUNCTION “<” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN boolean; FUNCTION FUNCTION “<=” “<=” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN boolean; boolean; FUNCTION “>=” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN boolean; FUNCTION “>=” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN boolean; FUNCTION FUNCTION “=” “=” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN boolean; boolean; FUNCTION FUNCTION “/=” “/=” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN boolean; boolean;  Shift and rotate functions FUNCTION FUNCTION shift_left shift_left (arg:unsigned; (arg:unsigned; count:natural) count:natural) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION shift_right (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN FUNCTION shift_right (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION rotate_left (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION rotate_left (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION FUNCTION rotate_right rotate_right (arg:unsigned; (arg:unsigned; count:natural) count:natural) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION FUNCTION sll sll (arg:unsigned; (arg:unsigned; count:natural) count:natural) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION slr (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION slr (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION FUNCTION rol rol (arg:unsigned; (arg:unsigned; count:natural) count:natural) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION ror (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION ror (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; 24/03/19 UAH-CPE528 24
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Excel Methods to Create Frequency Distribution • COUNTIFS Excel function with two criteria • Count between the lower and upper limit • Because you have control over the comparative operators, you can create any type of Upper and Lower Limit. • This is different than with the PivotTable Grouping feature and the FREQUENCY Array Function. • PivotTables and the Grouping feature • When Grouping in a PivotTable: • Integer data yields unambiguous labels • Decimal data yields ambiguous labels • Remember: when you are counting between an upper and lower limit, the Upper Limit is NOT included and the Lower Limit IS included; unlike formulas we do not have control over how the upper and lower limits work when grouping. • FREQUENCY Array Function: • Next slide has full details about this function • One note here: For FRQUENCY Array Formula when you are counting between an upper and lower limit, the Upper Limit IS included and the Lower Limit is NOT included; unlike formulas we do not have control over how the upper and lower limits work when grouping. • FREQUENCY Array Function and Data Analysis Tools, Histogram yield the same answer. • Data Analysis Tools, Histogram • You must add this feature in: File tab, Options, Add-ins, Manage: Excel Ass-ins, Click Go, Check box for Analysis Toolpak, Click OK • This feature will create the Frequency Table (just like the FREQUENCY Array Function), a Histogram and a Cumulative Distribution. If Gap Width in Chart is not zero, you must change it!! • FREQUENCY Array Function and Data Analysis Tools, Histogram yield the same answer. 33
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for Loop Behavior #6 int product = 1; int count; for (count = 1; count <= 5; count++) { product = product * count; } /* for count */ The above program fragment behaves identically the same as: /* Program Trace */ int product = 1; /* product = 1 */ int count; /* count is undefined */ count = 1; /* count == 1, product == product *= count; /* count == 1, product == count++; /* count == 2, product == product *= count; /* count == 2, product == count++; /* count == 3, product == product *= count; /* count == 3, product == count++; /* count == 4, product == product *= count; /* count == 4, product == count++; /* count == 5, product == product *= count; /* count == 5, product == count++; /* count == 6, product == for Loop Lesson 1 CS1313 Spring 2019 1 */ 1 */ 1 */ 2 */ 3 */ 6 */ 6 */ 24 */ 24 */ 120 */ 120 */ 29
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Another Example Perfect Pizza: Current Logical Level 0 Diagram Customer Order Customer Phone Number 1.0 Find Customer Record Customer Info Customer Information Customer Record 2.0 Take Customer Order Order Information Customer History Order Information D2 Customer History D1 Customer Master Customer Record 5.0 Add Customer Record 3.0 Print Delivery Order D3 Sales Records Sales Info Weekly Report Management 7.0 Print Weekly Totals Delivery Information Delivery Person Discount Info 6.0 Send Order to Cook Cook Order Cook Customer Customer Order
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2.1 2.1 Customer Information Store Customer Data Customer Data Customer Information Store Customer Data Customer Data D1 Customer Data D1 Customer Data Customer Preferences D2 Customer Preferences Customer Data Customer Preferences 2.2 Extract Customer Preferences D2 Customer Preferences
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Web Site Resources • Excel 2010 Spreadsheets with graphics and dynamic VB macros: • http:// www.usouthal.edu/geography/allison/GY403/CommonPlane.x lsm • http:// www.usouthal.edu/geography/allison/GY403/IntersectingPlan es.xlsm • http:// www.usouthal.edu/geography/allison/GY403/Rotation.xlsm • Smart Phone/ Tablet compatible spreadsheet versions: • http:// www.usouthal.edu/geography/allison/GY403/CommonPlane.xl sx • http:// www.usouthal.edu/geography/allison/GY403/IntersectingPlane s.xlsx • http:// www.usouthal.edu/geography/allison/GY403/Rotation.xlsx • NETPROG stereonet application: • http://www.usouthal.edu/geography/allison/w-netprg.htm • QuickOffice web site: • http://www.quickoffice.com/
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IEEE Std 1076.3 Packages Numeric_Bit  Resize functions FUNCTION FUNCTION resize resize (arg:unsigned;new_size:natural) (arg:unsigned;new_size:natural) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION resize (arg:signed;new_size:natural) RETURN signed; FUNCTION resize (arg:signed;new_size:natural) RETURN signed;  Conversion functions FUNCTION FUNCTION to_integer to_integer (arg:unsigned) (arg:unsigned) RETURN RETURN natural; natural; FUNCTION to_unsigned (arg,size:natural) RETURN FUNCTION to_unsigned (arg,size:natural) RETURN unsigned; unsigned;  Logical operators FUNCTION FUNCTION “not” “not” (l:unsigned) (l:unsigned) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION “and” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN FUNCTION “and” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION FUNCTION “or” “or” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION “nand” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN FUNCTION “nand” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION “nor” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION “nor” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION FUNCTION “xnor” “xnor” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned;  Edge detection functions FUNCTION FUNCTION rising_edge(SIGNAL rising_edge(SIGNAL s:bit) s:bit) RETURN RETURN boolean; boolean; FUNCTION falling_edge(SIGNAL s:bit) RETURN FUNCTION falling_edge(SIGNAL s:bit) RETURN boolean; boolean; 24/03/19 UAH-CPE528 9
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IEEE Std 1076.3 Packages Numeric_Bit  Resize functions FUNCTION FUNCTION resize resize (arg:unsigned;new_size:natural) (arg:unsigned;new_size:natural) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION resize (arg:signed;new_size:natural) RETURN signed; FUNCTION resize (arg:signed;new_size:natural) RETURN signed;  Conversion functions FUNCTION FUNCTION to_integer to_integer (arg:unsigned) (arg:unsigned) RETURN RETURN natural; natural; FUNCTION to_unsigned (arg,size:natural) RETURN FUNCTION to_unsigned (arg,size:natural) RETURN unsigned; unsigned;  Logical operators FUNCTION FUNCTION “not” “not” (l:unsigned) (l:unsigned) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION “and” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN FUNCTION “and” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION FUNCTION “or” “or” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION “nand” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN FUNCTION “nand” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION “nor” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION “nor” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION FUNCTION “xnor” “xnor” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned;  Edge detection functions FUNCTION FUNCTION rising_edge(SIGNAL rising_edge(SIGNAL s:bit) s:bit) RETURN RETURN boolean; boolean; FUNCTION falling_edge(SIGNAL s:bit) RETURN FUNCTION falling_edge(SIGNAL s:bit) RETURN boolean; boolean; 24/03/19 UAH-CPE528 25
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IUC’s scope will focus on two functions (Finance and IT) Adherence to process definitions within the Hackett taxonomy is key to comparability; processes are defined end to end Selling and General Administrative Scope Finance Finance Human Human Resources Resources Sales* Sales* Executive Executive and and Corporate Corporate Services Services**  Total  Sales  General Cash Cash Disbursements Disbursements Total Rewards Rewards Administration Administration Sales Execution Execution General Administration Administration Management Management    Revenue Cycle Payroll Services Sales Operations   Travel and  Revenue Cycle Payroll Services Sales Operations Travel and Transportation Transportation Services Services  Planning  Real Accounting Accounting and and External External Reporting Reporting  Data Data Mgmt., Mgmt., Reporting Reporting & & Compliance Compliance Planning and and Strategy Strategy Real Estate Estate & & Facilities Facilities Management Management  Staffing  Function  Government Tax Tax Management Management Staffing Services Services Function Management Management Government Affairs Affairs  Labor  Legal Treasury Treasury Management Management Labor Relations Relations Legal  Workforce  Quality Compliance Compliance Management Management Workforce Development Development Services Services Service* Quality Management Management Service*  Organisational  Planning Risk  Order  Planning & & Performance Performance Management Management Organisational Effectiveness Effectiveness Risk and and Security Security Management Management Order and and Contract Contract Management Management (OTC) (OTC)  Total  Corporate Fiscal Communications  Service Fiscal Analysis Analysis Total Rewards Rewards Planning Planning Execution Corporate Communications Service Execution  Strategic  Planning Function  Service Function Management Management Strategic Workforce Workforce Planning Planning Planning and and Strategy Strategy Service Operations Operations  Function  Executive Office  Planning Function Management Management and Strategy Executive Office Planning and Strategy  Function Function Management Management Information Technology          Information Technology            Infrastructure Infrastructure Management Management End End User User Support Support Infrastructure Infrastructure Development Development Application Application Maintenance Maintenance Application Application Development Development & & Implement. Implement. Quality Quality Assurance Assurance Risk Risk Management Management IT IT Business Business Planning Planning Enterprise Enterprise Architecture Architecture Planning Planning Emerging Emerging Technologies Technologies Function Function Management Management Procurement Procurement            Supply Supply Data Data Management Management Requisition Requisition and and PO PO Processing Processing Supplier Scheduling Supplier Scheduling Receipt Receipt Processing Processing Compliance Compliance Management Management Customer Customer Management Management Sourcing Sourcing Execution Execution Supplier Supplier Management Management and and Development Development Sourcing Sourcing & & Supply Supply Base Base Strategy Strategy Function Function Strategy Strategy and and Performance Performance Management Management Function Function Management Management Marketing* Marketing*      Marketing Marketing Communication Communication Brand Brand and and Product Product Management Management Planning and Planning and Strategy Strategy Market Market Research Research and and Analytics Analytics Function Management Function Management Capture FTEs and Costs as defined regardless of where they are organizationally located
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Grouping: The GROUP BY and HAVING Clauses  Partition relation into subsets of tuples   Based on grouping attribute(s) Apply function to each such group independently  GROUP BY clause  Specifies grouping attributes  If NULLs exist in grouping attribute  Separate group created for all tuples with a NULL value in grouping attribute Copyright © 2011 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant Navathe
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Continuous Representation Process Areas Engineering Process Management – – – – – Organizational Process Focus (OPF-3) Organizational Process Definition (OPD-3) Organizational Training (OT-3) Organizational Process Performance (OPP-4) Organizational Innovation & Deployment (OID5) Project Planning (PP-2) Project Monitoring & Control (PMC-2) Supplier Agreement Management (SAM-2) Integrated Project Management (IPM-3) Risk Management (RSKM-3) Integrated Teaming (IT-3) Integrated Supplier Management (ISM-3) Quantitative Project Management (QPM-4) 7/31/2007 Requirements Management (REQM-2) Requirements Development (RD-3) Technical Solution (TS-3) Product Integration (PI-3) Verification (VER-3) Validation (VAL-3) Support Project Management – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Configuration Management (CM-2) – Process & Product Quality Assurance (PPQA – 2) – Measurement and Analysis (MA-2) – Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR-3) – Organizational Environment for Integration (OEI-3) – Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR-5) SE 652 - 2007_7_31_CMMI_Software_Quality.p pt 16
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Another Example Perfect Pizza: Proposed Physical Level 0 Diagram Phoned Customer Order Customer Order Info Phone Number 2.0 1.0 System Finds Customer Clerk Enters Customer Information Customer Order Record (by phone) Order Customer Info Cust. Phoned Record Customer Info. Info D1 Customer DB Phone # Order Info Cook 3.0 System Prints Delivery Order Customer History Record D2 Customer History DB Sales DB Sales Records 5.0 Clerk Adds Customer Record Sales DB Discount Info D3 Customer Record D3 7.0 Weekly Report System Prints Weekly Totals (batch) Management Delivery Printout Delivery Person
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Another Example Perfect Pizza: Partitioned Physical Level 0 Diagram Phoned Customer Order Customer Order Info Phone Number 2.0 1.0 System Finds Customer Clerk Enters Customer Information Customer Order Record (by phone) Order Customer Info Cust. Phoned Record Customer Info. Info D1 Customer DB Phone # Order Info Cook 3.0 System Prints Delivery Order Customer History Record D2 Customer History DB Sales DB Sales Records 5.0 Clerk Adds Customer Record Sales DB Discount Info D3 Customer Record D3 7.0 Weekly Report System Prints Weekly Totals (batch) Management Delivery Printout Delivery Person
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2.1 2.1 Customer Information Store Customer Data Customer Data D1 Customer Data Customer Preferences D2 Customer Preferences Customer Information Store Customer Data Customer Data Customer Preferences D1 Customer Data D2 Customer Preferences
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