Economies Economies and and Diseconomies Diseconomies of of Work Work Specialization Specialization EXHIBIT 15-2
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Reference Slide # Slide Title Source of Information 6 Transaction Validation CISA: page 225 Exhibit 3.30 7 Batch Processing CISA: page 223, 224, 393 8 Batch Control CISA: page 223, 224 9 Transaction Authorization CISA: page 223 10 Error Handling Alternatives CISA: page 224 12 Processing Controls CISA: page 224, 225 13 Data File Control Procedures CISA: page 225, 226 19 Testing Application: Test Data CISA: page 229 Exhibit 3.32 20 Testing Application: Snapshot CISA: page 229 Exhibit 3.32 21 Integrated Testing Facilities CISA: page 230 Exhibit 3.32 22 Parallel Operation or Parallel Simulation CISA: page 230 Exhibit 3.32 23 Transaction Selection Program CISA: page 230 Exhibit 3.32 24 Embedded Audit Data Collection CISA: page 230 Exhibit 3.32 25 Testing Application Techniques CISA: page 229, 230 Exhibit 3.32 26 Online Auditing Techniques CISA: page 230, 231 27 Concurrent Audit Tools CISA: page 231 Exhibit 3.33 28 Continuous Online Auditing: Audit Hooks CISA: page 230, 231
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52. When a firm triples all of its inputs and its output doubles, it is said to be experiencing a. diminishing marginal returns b. increasing marginal returns c. diseconomies of scale d. economies of scale C. Economies and diseconomies of scale are long-run terms. Economies of scale exists when a firm’s output increases more than its input increases. Diseconomies of scale exist when a firm’s output increases at a lower rate than it increases its inputs. 56
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Economies and diseconomies of scale  Economies of scale – factors that lower average cost as the size of the firm rises in the long run   Diseconomies of scale – factors that raise average cost as the size of the firm rises in the long run   Sources: specialization and division of labor, indivisibilities of capital, etc. Sources: increased cost of managing and coordination as firm size rises Constant returns to scale – average costs do not change as firm size changes
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Case Study Scale LO4 Economies and Diseconomies at McDon Chapter 7  Economies of scale  At plant level  Specialization  At firm level  Sharing: information; technology  Diseconomies of scale  At firm level  Uniform menu Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 24
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Reference Slide # Slide Title Source of Information 6 Risk Management Process CISM: page 97 Exhibit 2.2 8 Continuous Risk Mgmt Process CISM: page 97 Exhibit 2.3 9 Security Evaluation: Risk Assessment CISM: page 100 12 Matric of Loss Scenario CISM: page 114 Exhibit 2.15 14 Step 2: Determine Loss Due to Threats CISM: page 105 16 Step 2: Determine Threats Due to Vulnerabilities CISM: page 105 17 Step 3: Estimate Likelihood of Exploitation CISM: page 107-110 18 Likelihood of Exploitation Sources of Losses CISM: page 118 Exhibit 2.11 19 Step 4; Compute Expected Loss Risk Analysis Strategies CISM: page 108- 110 20 Step 4: Compute Loss Using Qualitative Analysis CISM: page 108 22 Step 4: Compute Loss Using Semi- Quantitative Analysis CISM: page 108,109 23 SemiQuantitative Impact Matrix CISM: page 109 Exhibit 2.12 24 Step 4: Compute Loss Using Quantitative Analysis CISM: page 109, 110 26 Annualized Loss Expectancy CISM: page 110 28 Step 5: Treat Risk CISM: page 110, 111 29 NIST Risk Assessment Methodology CISM: page 102 Exhibit 2.7 30 Control Types CISM: page 186 Exhibit 3.18 32 Controls & Countermeasures CISM: page 184, 185 36 Security Control Baselines & Metrics CISM: page 191-193 37 Risk Management CISM: page 91, 92 38 Risk Management Roles CISM: page 94
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We’ve discussed economies & diseconomies of scale. When a firm produces more than one product, it may also experience economies or diseconomies of scope. Economies of scope exist when a single firm producing multiple products jointly can produce them more cheaply than if each product was produced by a separate firm.
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Constraints on Specialization and Generalization (2)  If all subclasses in a specialization have membership condition on same attribute of the superclass, specialization is called an attribute-defined specialization    Attribute is called the defining attribute of the specialization Example: JobType is the defining attribute of the specialization {SECRETARY, TECHNICIAN, ENGINEER} of EMPLOYEE If no condition determines membership, the subclass is called user-defined   Membership in a subclass is determined by the database users by applying an operation to add an entity to the subclass Membership in the subclass is specified individually for each entity in the superclass by the user Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 4- 19
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47. The shape of the long-run average cost curve reflects a. market demand b. economies and diseconomies of scale c. increasing and diminishing marginal returns d. all of the above B. Economies of scale occurs when forces cause a reduction in a firm’s average cost as the scale of operations increases in the longrun. Diseconomies of scale occurs when forces cause a firm’s average cost to increase as the scale of operations increases in the 51 long-run. These are long-run terms.
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Synergies (1 of 2) Synergies are interaction between different elements of player’s strategies (note, terms may be different than ch 2.2) • Positive Feedback – Economies of Scale – the more of one type, the better (ex: wizards draw strength from each other) – Economies of Scope – the more of a set, the better, or advantage of combined arms (ex: trident and net, infantry and tanks) • Negative Feedback – Diseconomies of scale – first is most useful, others have less benefit (ex: diminishing returns from more peasants entering a mine since get in each other’s way) – Diseconomies of scope – (ex: mixed troops go only as fast as slowest)
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Case Study Scale LO4 Economies and Diseconomies at the Mo Chapter 7  Movie theaters  Economies of scale  Decrease in LRAC as the number of screens initially increases  Diseconomies of scale  Adding even more screens  Problems arise  LRAC starts to increase Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 22
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65. Which of the following is not an example of oligopolistic barriers to entry? a. diseconomies of scale b. legal restrictions c. advertising and brand proliferation d. high start-up costs A. Diseconomies of scale exists when as a firm grows it becomes less efficient. This is not the case with an oligopoly. One reason an oligopolist becomes an oligopolist is because of economies of scale. Economies of scale exists when as a firm grows it experiences an increase in productivity. 75
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Example 3: The total cost of producing Q1 units of product 1 only is 50,000. The total cost of producing Q2 units of product 2 only is 90,000. The total cost of producing them jointly is 140,000. Determine if there are economies or diseconomies of scope, and measure them. There are neither economies nor diseconomies of scope, since joint production costs the same amount as the sum of the separate productions. TC(Q1 )  TC(Q 2 ) – TC(Q1  Q 2 ) TC(Q1  Q 2 ) 0 50,000  90,000  140,000   140,000 140,000 0
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ECONOMIES FROM LOCATION  Localization Economies: refers to cost savings when firms of a given industry locate together.  Urbanization Economies: refers to cost saving from locating together of firms across different industries. The location of one industry attracts another.  Urbanization economies leads to the development of large diverse cities.  Urbanization and localization economies are termed agglomeration economies
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US Dollars at current Major FDI Indicators (WIR 2010) % of 2009 prices and current 2000 2009 World exchange rates in millions FDI Flow Stock Flow Stock Stock World 1401466 Developing economies 256465 China:40715 India: 3588 Brazil32779 Mexico18098 South Africa 887 Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 5286 Developed economies 1137976 Euro area 501755 European Union (EU) 698224 Developed economies: Europe 724878 Developed economies: Asia15280 United States 313997 Developed economies: America 380859 Developed economies: Oceania16959 7442548 1114189 17743408 100.0% 1728455 478349 4893490 27.6% 193348 95000 473083 2.7% 16339 34613 163959 0.9% 122250 25949 400808 2.3% 97170 12522 309523 1.7% 43451 5696 125085 0.7% 54444 61620 412229 2.3% 5653181 565892 12352514 69.6% 1620467 276181 5146806 29.0% 2322127 361949 7447904 42.0% 2440336 378388 8037813 45.3% 72878 15831 271399 1.5% 2783235 129883 3120583 17.6% 2996215 148753 3648577 20.6% 143752 22920 394724 2.2% http://stats.unctad.org/FDI/TableViewer/tableView.aspx International Business: Challenges in a Changing World
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Economies from Location     Localization Economies: refers to cost savings when firms of a given industry locate together. Urbanization Economies: refers to cost saving from locating together of firms across different industries. The location of one industry attracts another. Urbanization economies leads to the development of large diverse cities. Urbanization and localization economies are termed agglomeration economies
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Hypotheses  Side bet items:   Activity-specific elements:   Ha4: High-specialization and male anglers will have generated a greater value of side-bets than will lowspecialization and female anglers Ha5: High-specialization and male anglers will attach less importance to activity-specific elements of the fishing experience than will low-specialization and female anglers  Non activity-specific elements:  Ha6: High-specialization and male anglers will attach more importance to non activity-specific elements of the fishing experience than will low-specialization and female anglers
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Hypotheses  Specialization distribution:   Fishing frequency:   Ha1: Male anglers will be more highly specialized than female anglers Ha2: High-specialization and male anglers will have a greater frequency of participation than will low-specialization and female anglers Management items:  Ha3: High-specialization and male anglers will have greater support for various management tools and regulations than will low-specialization and female anglers
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Ericsson, K. (Ed.). (1996). The road to excellence: The acquisition of expert performance in the arts and sciences, sports, and games. Hillsdale, NJ England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Ericsson, K., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100(3), 363-406 Ericsson, K.A., & Charness, N. (1994) Expert performance: Its structure and acquisition. American Psychologist, 49, 725-747. Gould, D. (2010). Early Sport Specialization: A Psychological Perspective. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 81(8), 33-37 Intensive Training and Sports Specialization in Young Athletes. (2000). Pediatrics, 106(1), 154. Kaleth, A., & Mikesky, A. (2010). Impact of Early Sport Specialization: A Physiological Perspective. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 81(8), 1-58. Landers, R. Q., Carson, R. L., & Bonnie Tjeerdsma, B. (2010). The promises and pitfalls of sport specialization in youth sport. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 81(8), 14-15. Mattson, J., & Richards, J. (2010). Early Specialization in Youth Sport: A Biomechanical Perspective. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 81(8), 1-58.
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Constraints on Specialization and Generalization (4)  Disjointness Constraint:  Specifies that the subclasses of the specialization must be disjoint:    Specified by d in EER diagram If not disjoint, specialization is overlapping:   an entity can be a member of at most one of the subclasses of the specialization that is the same entity may be a member of more than one subclass of the specialization Specified by o in EER diagram Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 4- 22
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Rubric • 100-90. The submission clearly exceeds requirements. The tutorial game works without problems. The custom extensions exhibit an unusually high degree of effort, thoughtfulness, technical ability and insight. Documentation is thorough and clear. • 89-80. The submission meets requirements. The tutorial game works without problems. The custom extensions exhibit substantial effort, thoughtfulness, technical ability and/or insight. Documentation is adequate. • 79-70. The submission barely meets requirements. The tutorial game may operate erratically. The custom extensions exhibit marginal effort, thoughtfulness, creativity and/or insight. Documentation is missing details needed to understand the contributions and/or to build the program. • 69-60. The project fails to meet requirements in some places. The tutorial game may crash occasionally. The custom extensions are of minor scope, or exhibit perfunctory effort, thoughtfulness, technical ability and/or insight. Documentation is inadequate, missing key details needed to understand the contributions and/or to build the programs. • 59-0. The project does not meet requirements. The tutorial game crashes consistently or does not compile. The custom extensions exhibit little or no evidence of effort, thoughtfulness, technical ability and/or insight. Documentation is woefully inadequate or missing.
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Are There Economies of Size?  Potential Sources of Economies of Size       Indivisibilities (i.e. Publicness) Increased Dimension (i.e. Efficient Use of Capital) Specialization Price Benefits of Scale Learning and Innovation Potential Sources of Diseconomies of Size      Higher Transportation Costs Labor Relations Effects Lower Staff Motivation and Effort Lower Student Motivation and Effort Lower Parental Involvement
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Exhibit Score Sheet Use the space to balance display of the team’s outreach as BEST Robotics, team/company’s brand and product The exhibit tells a story based on the visual impression alone. 10 The Brand Promise is evident. 10 The exhibit is engaging and interactive. 5 The exhibit appears cohesive. The information is arranged in a logical and creative manner. 5 Exhibit Balance Total 30
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Example 2: The total cost of producing Q1 units of product 1 only is 50,000. The total cost of producing Q2 units of product 2 only is 90,000. The total cost of producing them jointly is 150,000. Determine if there are economies or diseconomies of scope, and measure them. There are diseconomies of scope, since joint production is more costly than the sum of the separate productions. TC(Q1 )  TC(Q 2 ) – TC(Q1  Q 2 ) TC(Q1  Q 2 )  10,000 50,000  90,000  150,000   150,000 150,000  0.067
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State and Local Public Finance Lecture 17: Introduction to Intergovernmental Relations Economies of Population Scale and Consolidation, 2  Bill Duncombe and I estimated economies of population scale for fire services in NY State (J. Public Economics, 1993).  We measured fire services output by the dollar value of losses per fire and the number of fires per dollar of property value.  We identified several important cost factors, including  The share of houses built before 1940.  The poverty rate.  The share of property classified as commercial and industrial.  The percentage of apartment buildings more than 2 stories high.  We found no evidence of economies or diseconomies of population scale; the per capita cost of fire services does not change as population changes.  These results imply that there would not be any cost savings from the consolidation of fire districts in New York .
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Economies of Size and Consolidation  Economies of size exist if education cost per pupil declines with enrollment.   Previous studies estimate cross-section cost functions.    Consolidation lowers cost per pupil if there are economies of size. Most find a U-shaped relationship between cost per pupil and size No previous statistical study looks at consolidation directly This study estimates economies of size using panel data for New York State.    The data include all rural school districts, including 12 pairs that consolidated The sample period is 1985 to 1997 We estimate economies of size (and other cost effects of
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