What What Is Is Organizational Organizational Structure? Structure? (cont’d) (cont’d) Division Divisionof oflabor: labor: • • Makes Makesefficient efficientuse useof of employee employeeskills skills • • Increases Increasesemployee employeeskills skills through throughrepetition repetition • • Less Lessbetween-job between-job downtime downtimeincreases increases productivity productivity • • Specialized Specializedtraining trainingisis more moreefficient efficient • • Allows Allowsuse useof ofspecialized specialized equipment equipment
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John Wingfield Assistant Director Division Divisionof of Biological Biological Infrastructure Infrastructure (DBI) (DBI) Human Human Resources Resources Research Research Resources Resources Directorate Directorateof of Biological BiologicalSciences Sciences (BIO) (BIO) Division Divisionof of Environmental Environmental Biology Biology (DEB) (DEB) Population Population and and Community Ecology Community Ecology Ecosystem Ecosystem Science Science Evolutionary Evolutionary Processes Processes Systematic SystematicBiology Biology&& Biodiversity Biodiversity Inventories Inventories Emerging Frontiers (EF) Division Divisionof of Integrative Integrative Organismal OrganismalSystems Systems (IOS) (IOS) Behavioral Behavioral Systems Systems Developmental Developmental Systems Systems Neural Neural Systems Systems Physiological Physiological & & Structural Structural Systems Systems Plant Plant Genome Genome Research Research Program Program Division Divisionof of Molecular Molecularand and Cellular Cellular Biosciences Biosciences (MCB (MCB)) Biomolecular Biomolecular Dynamics, Dynamics, Structure Structure and Function and Function Cellular Cellular Processes Processes Genetic Genetic Mechanisms Mechanisms Networks Networks and and Regulation Regulation
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LinuxONE is designed for minimal unplanned downtime Unplanned Downtime of >four (4) hours on each server hardware platform (2015) Recent IDC study concludes clients who leverage LinuxONE can virtually eliminate lost productivity caused by downtime 89% ITIC survey shows IBM LinuxONE had no – 0% – unplanned system downtime due to inherent flaws in hardware Source: ITIC 2015 - 2016 Global Server Hardware, Server OS Reliability Survey Unplanned Unplanned downtime downtime instances instances per year year Source: IDC 2015 45% Time Time to to resolve resolve unplanned downtime downtime 94% Productivity Productivity hours hours lost lost per per year year per per user user
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Applying for a Job Online Thank you for your interest in employment with the State of Texas health and human services agencies. We welcome you to search and apply for jobs using our online CAPPS Job Center. The CAPPS Job Center is a website where you can locate available opportunities and complete an online State of Texas application. After applying for a job, you can return to the website to track the status of any applications that you’ve submitted. The CAPPS Job Center website also saves your State of Texas application so you can use it to apply for another HHS job in the future. To use the CAPPS Job Center, complete the following steps: Step Process 1. Enter the CAPPS Job Center 1. Go to the internet and enter https://jobshrportal.cpa.texas.gov/ENG/careerportal/ 2. as your internet address. 3. Click HHS Job Opportunities for External Applicants Only 2. Create Your Profile 1. From the CAPPS Job Center Homepage, go to the New Member section and select My Profile from the menu bar. 2. Complete all required fields (i.e., all fields in red marked with asterisks). 3. Complete the Future Access section of the Profile page. (Note: The HHS Employee Service Center may contact you about your application.) 3. Search for a Job There are two ways to search for a job: (A) Job Search – This feature allows you to search for a job based on specific criteria. 1. Enter your search criteria (e.g., location, agency, occupational category). 2. Click the Search button. The website will present a of jobs matching your search criteria. 3. Select a job (or jobs) from the list to review. (B) Or Alternative Search – This feature allows you to search for a job based on your work experiences and skills. 1. Copy and paste your resume or a set of skills into the text box. 2. Click the Search button. The jobs that most closely match your resume/skills will be sorted to the top of the search list. 3. Select a job (or jobs) from the list to review. 4. Complete Your Application Once you have reviewed the job (or jobs), you have several options, including applying for the job, adding the job to your job cart, sending the information on to a friend or viewing similar jobs. To complete your application for this job, click the Apply to this job button on the Job Profile.
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Increase in Labor Supply In the absence of increases in the capital stock, as labor increases, less and less output will be added by each new worker. This effect is called diminishing returns. With diminishing returns, as labor supply grows, output increases, but at a declining rate, and increases in the labor supply reduce labor productivity, or output per worker. TABLE 17.2 Economic Growth from an Increase in Labor—More Output but Diminishing Returns and Lower Labor Productivity Period Quantity of Labor L Quantity of Capital K Total Output Y Labor Productivity Y/L Marginal Return to Labor ΔY/ΔL 1 100 100 300 3.0 ̶̶ 2 110 100 320 2.9 2.0 3 120 100 339 2.8 1.9 4 130 100 357 2.7 1.8 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 10 of 25
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Who bears “residual Efficient Precaution andrisk”? Activity Legal Rule Victim Injurer Precaution Precaution Victim Activity Injurer Activity Efficient Zero Efficient Too High Zero Efficient Too High Efficient Simple Negligence Efficient Efficient Efficient Too High Contributory Negligence Efficient Efficient Efficient Too High Comparative Negligence Efficient Efficient Efficient Too High Strict Liability with CN Efficient Efficient Too High Efficient No Liability Strict Liability
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Lactation Support Program ELIGIBILITY & REQUIREMENTS Eligible Employees & Students Any Pasadena Area Community College District employee or student desiring to express breast milk shall be accommodated, and will be eligible for use of designated Lactation Support Program (LSP) rooms. Human Resources Home (link) Location The District shall make reasonable efforts to provide nursing employees and students with the use of an LSP room or other location, other than a toilet stall or locker room, to express in private. The room or location shall be shielded from view and free from intrusion of others. The rooms will be centrally located to accommodate employees and students that work or attend classes in various buildings; however, the rooms will not necessarily be located in the building in which the employee works or student attends class. An employee assigned to a private unshared office may use that room. Designated LSP rooms shall contain a supportive chair, a table, access to an electrical outlet, adequate ventilation, and a door that can be locked. Room Access Access to LSP room will be unscheduled and on a first–come, first-served basis. Any employee who wishes to use an LSP room must first contact Human Resources to arrange lactation support accommodations, and to be provided instructions for use of and access to the room. Students must contact the Student Health Services office to receive instructions regarding use of the student LSP room. Use of Room The LSP rooms are for the exclusive use of nursing employees and students, on a first–come, first-served basis, and one at a time. Each nursing employee or student user of the room is responsible for keeping the room clean and removing personal items when leaving. If an employee or student finds the room in disarray, she is to contact the Human Resources Office or Student Health Services Office. Employee Break Time The District shall provide a reasonable amount of unpaid break time to accommodate an employee who desires to express breast milk. The supervisor shall permit the employee to take breaks to express whenever and as often as needed. Whenever possible, the break time shall run concurrent with any break time already provided to the employee. For example, employees who work 5 hours or more are provided two (2) twenty (20) minute paid rest breaks and one (1) one-half (1/2) hour unpaid meal break; employees who work less than 5 hours are provided one (1) twenty 20 minute paid rest break. Therefore, an employee who works eight (8) hours would have three (3) provided breaks; and an employee who works four (4) hours would have one (1) provided break. An employee may need other breaks, in addition to the provided breaks. The frequency of the breaks needed by an employee, as well as the duration, may vary. Termination of Accommodation An employee or student may use the LSP room for as long as needed. When an employee no longer has need of lactation support, she must inform Human Resources and her supervisor, and return to her regular break schedule. When a student no longer has need of lactation support, she must inform the Student Health Services Office. LSP Introduction (link) Eligibility & Requirements (link) FLSA Nursing Mothers Rights (link) LSP Accommodation Request Form (link) Designated Locations (link) Campus Map (link)
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16-65 Adaptation of Standard-Costing Systems Applications Applications of of standard standard costing costing have have adapted adapted to to changes changes in in the the manufacturing manufacturing environment environment and and the the resulting resulting criticisms criticisms leveled leveled at at standard standard costing. costing. Reduced Reduced importance importanceof of labor labor standards. standards. Automation Automationmeans means more moreoverhead, overhead, less lesslabor. labor. Less Lessuse useof oflabor labor as asaacost costdriver. driver. More Moreemphasis emphasis on onmaterial materialand and overhead overhead costs. costs.
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Costs/Hour of Downtime Due to Software Defects Cost per hour downtime = labor costs + revenue lost • To calculate your labor cost per hour of downtime, you need to factor in your revenue, number of employees, average annual employee benefits, the number of hours worked per week, and the percentage of the workforce an outage would affect. • To calculate your revenue lost per hour of downtime, you need to know how much revenue you make every day and the percentage of your revenue an outage would affect. Ranges from $42,000 to $100,00 per hour of downtime 9
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Applying for a Job Online The CAPPS Job Center offers some additional features that might be helpful as you search for and apply for a job with the State of Texas Department of health and human services agencies. Additional Features… If… Then… You want to review the details for several jobs all at once… Use the Job Cart feature to store a link to each selected Job Profile so you can review the details for several jobs before applying. To use this feature: 1. From the list of job search results, click the Add to job cart button. This saves the selected Job Profile to your Job Cart. 2. To view your saved job profiles, select Job Cart from the menu bar. You want to receive an email notification when a job that fits your criteria becomes available… Use the Job Agent feature to create and save a job search that fits your specific criteria. You will automatically receive emails each time a new job becomes available that meets your criteria. After creating your preferred job search, complete the following steps: 1. From the list of job search results, click the Save this search button. 2. The Job Agent page appears with your previously-selected search criteria. Review this information. 3. Give your job search a name. 4. Select how often (e.g., daily, weekly, etc.) you wish to receive an email notifying you of new jobs that match your criteria. (Note: If you select Never, you will not be notified via email. However, you will be able to run this search again.) 5. Click the Save this search button to save your Job Agent. The CAPPS Job Center will automatically check any new jobs that meet your criteria and notify you (e.g., daily, weekly, etc.). You want to track the status of your application… Use the My Workbench feature to check the status of any application that you submitted within the last four months. To use this feature: 1. From the CAPPS Job Center Homepage, click on the My Workbench tab. (Note: This tab will only appear after you have logged on and created your profile.) 2. Go to the Job Postings Applied To (Last 120 Days) section. Here you can review the date you applied and the status of your application within the hiring process.
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Interpretation of Labor Variances Type of Variance Variance Occurs When Unfavorable labor rate variance Actual labor rate per hour exceeds the standard labor rate per hour Favorable labor rate variance Actual labor rate per hour is less than standard labor rate per hour Actual labor hours used exceeds the allowed/standard Unfavorable labor efficiency variance labor hours at the activity level achieved Favorable labor efficiency variance Actual labor hours used is less than allowed/standard labor hours at the activity level achieved
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Unemployment High unemployment rate is one of the results of an economic downturn. It is defined as the percentage of the labor force which is not employed. Population is divided into 3 groups: 1)those under age 16 or institutionalized, 2)those not in the labor force, 3)the labor force which includes those age 16 and over who are willing and able to work. Part-time workers and discouraged workers who want a job, but are not actively seeking one, are not in the labor force. So they are not included in the unemployment rate. Unemployment rate (U) = (unemployed workers of the labor force / labor force) X 100% The economic cost of unemployment can be calculated by using Okun’s law: GDP Gap ( %)= ( U – Un ) X 2 where Un = natural rate of unemployment As we can see that the size of the labor force is crucial in determining the unemployment rate. Therefore, the Labor Force Participation rate is often calculated to see the percentage of the civilian non-institutional population that is in the labor force. Group 2 (those not in the labor force) and Group 3 (the labor force which includes those age 16 and over who are willing and able to work) form the non-institutional population. Labor Force Participation rate (%) = (Labor force / non-institutional population) X 100%
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Favorable and Unfavorable Labor Variances Type of Variance Unfavorable labor rate variance Variance Occurs When Actual labor rate per hour exceeds the allowed/budgeted labor rate per hour Favorable labor rate variance Actual labor rate per hour is less than allowed/budgeted per hour Unfavorable labor efficiency variance Actual labor hours used exceeds the allowed/budgeted labor hours Favorable labor efficiency variance Actual labor hours used is less than allowed/budgeted labor hours
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Next Steps for Managers Use the Managing Pay Within a Grade Tool for further guidance in deciding if increasing an employee’s rate of pay is appropriate for the employee’s performance, skill, and experience. MANAGING PAY WITHIN A GRADE Paying for the Job (based on external Market) Minimum Entry Level Skills and Experience Review Point- 3rd Quartile Midpoint of Range Maximum Intermediate Skills and Experience · Performs (or has · Meets minimum demonstrated capability to qualifications of job; perform based on prior however is fairly new to experience) some/most job job and field, has little or responsibilities with increasing no direct, related prior effectiveness experience · · On steep learning curve, Possesses the basic knowledge and skill building both skills and requirements, but may need knowledge as well as to build experience ability to handle job responsibilities · May still be learning some aspects of job or developing expertise to handle them more independently and effectively · Consistently exhibits many or most desired competencies to perform job successfully Advanced Skills and Experience Expert Skills and Experience · Performs (or has demonstrated capability to perform based on prior experience) all aspects of job effectively and independently · Experienced in the job and possesses required knowledge and skills · Consistently exhibits desired competencies to perform job successfully · Seasoned and proficient professional · Expert (or has demonstrated capability to perform as expert based on prior experience) in all job criteria · Has broad and deep Paying knowledge of own area as for the well as related areas · Individual Depth and breadth of experience, specialized skills, (based on perspectives add significant performance value to institution and skill) · Serves as expert resource and/or mentor to others · Placement in this quartile requires approval by OHR Classification and Compensation Factors for progression within the salary range may be based on external market, individual performance and skill. 14
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Monopolies are Inefficient BUT, Cost Complications exist: Economies of Scale make some monopolies MORE efficient: • Natural Monopolies [more efficient when regulated] • Simultaneous (nonrivalrous) Consumption [MORE efficient] • Network Effects [MORE efficient] But other factors also affect the inefficiency of monopolies: • X-Inefficiency [even LESS efficient] • Rent-Seeking Behavior - protecting the monopoly [even LESS efficient] • Dynamic Inefficiency - Less Tech. Advances [even LESS efficient] • Price Discrimination [MORE efficient] What can be done? • Antitrust Laws • Regulate Natural Monopolies • Creative Destruction
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Immigration and employment • immigration increases labor supply in some labor markets. • immigration raises labor demand in all labor markets. • domestic employment (and wages) will rise in those labor markets in which labor demand rises by more than labor supply. • domestic employment (and wages) will fall in those labor markets in which labor supply rises by more than labor demand.
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NEED-TO-KNOW 15-3 A manufacturing company used $5,400 of direct labor in production activities in May. Of this amount, $3,100 of direct labor was used on Job A1 and $2,300 of direct labor was used on Job A2. Prepare the journal entry to record direct labor used. General Journal Work in Process Inventory Factory Wages Payable Work in Process Inventory Beginning Inv. Direct Materials Direct Labor Factory OH Credit 5,400 Factory Wages Payable 5,400 5,400 Job A1 Direct Materials Direct Labor Factory OH Debit 5,400 Job A2 3,100 Direct Materials Direct Labor Factory OH 2,300 Learning Objective P2: Describe and record the flow of labor costs in job order costing. © McGraw-Hill Education 21
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Premiums 2017 Coverage Type Employee Only Consumer Directed Health Plan 85/15 Monthly Premium Wellness Credits Net Monthly Premium $80 ($80) $0 Employee + Child(ren) $276.32 ($80) $196.32 Employee + Spouse $585.90 Employee + Family $618.82 ($80) ($80) $505.90 $538.82 Enhanced 80/20 Plan Coverage Type Monthly Premium Wellness Credits Net Monthly Premium Employee Only $105.04 ($90) $15.04 Employee + Child(ren) $395.18 ($90) $305.18 Employee + Spouse $773.52 Employee + Family $813.76 ($90) ($90) $683.52 $723.76 Traditional 70/30 Plan Coverage Type Employee Only Employee + Child(ren) Monthly Premium Wellness Credits Net Monthly Premium $40 ($40) $0 $258.14 ($40) $218.14 Employee + Spouse 602.10 Employee + Family $638.70 ($40) ($40) $562.10 $598.70
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