New New Design Design Options Options Concepts: Concepts: Provides Providesmaximum maximum flexibility flexibilitywhile while concentrating concentratingon onwhat what the theorganization organizationdoes does best. best. Disadvantage Disadvantageisisreduced reduced control controlover overkey keyparts partsof of the thebusiness. business.
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Information Framework Domain Addenda Number Deliverable GB922-1 Usage Usage Business Entities GB922-1A GB922-1BI SID Agreement SID Business Interaction GB922-1BT GB922-1J SID Business Entity Base Types SID Project GB922-1L SID Location Description Uses the Usage abstract business entity to describe any resource-, service- or product-based usage that the external system can read, update and process. Provides the informational characteristics that are unique to an Agreement Describes the relationship that business entities have with business interactions and how the business entities party role, resource role, and customer account, are involved in business interactions Covers base types that have been found to be useful during the documentation of the SID business models Provides a generic model, based on current industry best practice that can be used to link parts of the SID model together Provides a high level framework for the location (which is a complexe model with a number of subtleties), explains broad concepts and gives illustrative examples. Defines the information about companies and people. Describes the SID Service and Resource Performance Aggregate Business Entities (ABEs) GB922-1P SID Party GB922-1Perform Performance Business Entities GB922-1POL SID Policy Covers the business definition of the Policy model GB922-1R SID Root Business Entities Defines a set of common business entities that collectively serve as the foundation of the SID business view. GB922-1T SID Time Related Entities Covers the non base type entities that are time related GB922-2 SID Customer Provides the definitions of the customer business entities GB922-3 SID Product Provides detailed specification of products (ProductSpecifications), the way they are offered into the market (ProductOfferings) and in which they are maintained and perform while in use (Products) GB922-4SO SID Service Overview Provides the definition of services, differentiate between “customer facing” and “resource services GB922-4S-QoS SID Quality of Service Covers the business definition of QoS entities GB922-5LR SID Logical Resource Presents the LogicalResource Framework with an extensible set of classes and relationships that enable new lower-level LogicalResource concepts to be plugged into it GB922-5PR Information Framework Presents the management of network entities to better illustrate a complete worked example Physical Resources and to explain some of the more subtle parts of the model GB922-6 Information Framework Describes the Aggregate Business Entities (ABEs) that comprise the Market/Sales domain of the Market / Sales SID model GB922-7 SID Security Initial development of Enterprise domain Security ABEs including, Security Entity and associated Security Vulnerability, Security Event, Security Threat, Security Incident. GB922-7RA Information Framework: Describes the Revenue Assurance area of the SID with controls, violations, key performance Enterprise Domain indicators, objectives, and rules. And includes revenue assurance actions/responses Revenue Assurance Business Entities GB922-8 SID Supplier/Partner Initial development of Supplier/Partner domain, focused on Supplier/Partner and Supplier/Partner Agreement. GB922-X Information Framework Provides an overview of the SID XML schema, including design considerations, an introduction
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ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE - A FRAMEWORK DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who When Why List of Things Important to the Business List of Processes the Business Performs List of Locations in which the Business Operates Planner ENTITY = Class of Business Thing Function = Class of Business Process Node = Major Business Location People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Logistics Network e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan Ent = Business Entity Reln = Business Relationship Proc. = Business Process I/O = Business Resources Node = Business Location Link = Business Linkage People = Organization Unit Work = Work Product Time = Business Event Cycle = Business Cycle End = Business Objective Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. "Application Architecture" e.g. "Distributed System Architecture" e.g. Human Interface Architecture e.g. Processing Structure Ent = Data Entity Reln = Data Relationship Proc .= Application Function I/O = User Views Node = I/S Function (Processor, Storage, etc) Link = Line Characteristics People = Role Work = Deliverable Time = System Event Cycle = Processing Cycle End = Structural Assertion Means =Action Assertion TECHNOLOGY MODEL (PHYSICAL) e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. "System Design" e.g. "System Architecture" e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design Builder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. Proc.= Computer Function I/O = Screen/Device Formats Node = Hardware/System Software Link = Line Specifications e.g. Data Definition e.g. "Program" e.g. "Network Architecture" Ent = Field Reln = Address Proc.= Language Stmt I/O = Control Block Node = Addresses Link = Protocols e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK Owner SYSTEM MODEL (LOGICAL) Designer DETAILED REPRESENTATIONS (OUT-OFCONTEXT) SubContractor FUNCTIONING ENTERPRISE Zachman Institute for Framework Advancement - (810) 231-0531 People = User Work = Screen Format e.g. Security Architecture People = Identity Work = Job e.g. ORGANIZATION List of Events Significant to the Business MOTIVATION SCOPE (CONTEXTUAL) ENTERPRISE MODEL (CONCEPTUAL) List of Organizations Important to the Business TIME TM Time = Execute Cycle = Component Cycle List of Business Goals/Strat e.g., Business Rule Model End = Condition Planner ENTERPRISE MODEL (CONCEPTUAL) Owner SYSTEM MODEL (LOGICAL) Designer TECHNOLOGY CONSTRAINED MODEL (PHYSICAL) Builder Means = Action e.g. Timing Definition e.g. Rule Specification Time = Interrupt Cycle = Machine Cycle End = Sub-condition Means = Step e.g. SCHEDULE SCOPE (CONTEXTUAL) e.g. STRATEGY DETAILED REPRESENTATIONS (OUT-OF CONTEXT) Sub- Contractor FUNCTIONING ENTERPRISE Copyright - John A. Zachman, Zachman International
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VoIP Components Call CallAgents Agents Provides Provides call call control control for for IP IP phones, phones, Call CallAdmission Admission Control Control (CAC), (CAC), bandwidth bandwidth control control and and management, management, and and address address translation. translation. Cisco Cisco Unified Unified Communications Communications Managers Managers and and Cisco Cisco Unified Unified Communications Communications Manager Manager Business Business Edition Edition both both function function as as the the call call agents. agents. Gateways Gateways Multipoint Multipoint Control Control Unit Unit (MCU) (MCU) Provides Provides real-time real-time connectivity connectivity for for participants participants attending attending aa videoconference. videoconference. Provides Provides translation translation between between VoIP VoIP and and non-VoIP non-VoIP networks. networks. ItIt also also provides provides physical physical access access for for local local analog analog and and digital digital voice voice devices, devices, such such as as telephones, telephones, fax fax machines, machines, and and PBXs. PBXs. Application Application Servers Servers (Cisco (Cisco Unity) Unity) Provides Provides services services such such as as voice voice mail mail and and unified unified messaging. messaging. IP IP phones phones Provide Provide IP IP voice voice to to the the desktop. desktop. Videoconference Videoconference Station Station Provides Provides access access for for end-user end-user participation participation in in videoconferencing. videoconferencing. The The station station contains contains aa video video capture capture device device for for video video input input and and aa microphone microphone for for audio audio input. input. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 102
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Another Example • Find maximum of five numbers if it is greater than 10 • Variables we will use are: first, second, third, fourth, fifh maximum = first; if (second > maximum) maximum = second; if (third > maximum) maximum = third; if (fourth > maximum) maximum = fourth; if (fifh > maximum) maximum = fifh; if (maximum > 10) System.out.println(maximum); else System.out.println("Maximum less than 10");
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DBs, DWs are merging as In-memory DBs: SAP® In-Memory Computing Enabling Real-Time Computing SAP® In-Memory enables real-time computing by bringing together online transaction proc. OLTP (DB) and online analytical proc. OLAP (DW). Combining advances in hardware technology with SAP InMemory Computing empowers business – from shop floor to boardroom – by giving real-time bus. proc. instantaneous access to data-eliminating today’s info lag for your business. In-memory computing is already under way. The question isn’t if this revolution will impact businesses but when/ how. In-memory computing won’t be introduced because a co. can afford the technology. It will be because a business cannot afford to allow its competitors to adopt the it first. Here is sample of what in-memory computing can do for you: • Enable mixed workloads of analytics, operations, and performance management in a single software landscape. • Support smarter business decisions by providing increased visibility of very large volumes of business information • Enable users to react to business events more quickly through real-time analysis and reporting of operational data. • Deliver innovative real-time analysis and reporting. • Streamline IT landscape and reduce total cost of ownership. Product managers will still look at inventory and point-of-sale data, but in the future they will also receive,eg., tell customers broadcast dissatisfaction with a product over Twitter. Or they might be alerted to a negative product review released online that highlights some unpleasant product features requiring immediate action. From the other side, small businesses running real-time inventory reports will be able to announce to their Facebook and Twitter communities that a high demand product is available, how to order, and where to pick up. Bad movies have been able to enjoy a great opening weekend before crashing 2nd weekend when negative word-of-mouth feedback cools enthusiasm. That week-long grace period is about to disappear for silver screen flops. Consumer feedback won’t take a week, a day, or an hour. The very second showing of a movie could suffer from a noticeable falloff in attendance due to consumer criticism piped instantaneously through the new technologies. It will no longer be good enough to have weekend numbers ready for executives on Monday morning. Executives will run their own reports on revenue, Twitter their reviews, and by Monday morning have acted on their decisions. The final example is from the utilities industry: The most expensive energy a utilities provides is energy to meet unexpected demand during peak periods of consumption. If the company could analyze trends in power consumption based on real-time meter reads, it could offer – in real time – extra low rates for the week or month if they reduce their consumption during the following few hours. In manufacturing enterprises, in-memory computing tech will connect the shop floor to the boardroom, and the shop floor associate will have instant access to the same data as the board [[shop floor = daily transaction processing. Boardroom = executive data mining]]. The shop floor will then see the results of their actions reflected immediately in the relevant Key Performance Indicators (KPI). This advantage will become much more dramatic when we switch to electric cars; predictably, those cars are recharged the minute the owners return home from work. Hardware: blade servers and multicore CPUs and memory capacities measured in terabytes. Software: in-memory database with highly compressible row / column storage designed to maximize in-memory comp. tech. SAP BusinessObjects Event Insight software is key. In what used to be called exception reporting, the software deals with huge amounts of realtime data to determine immediate and appropriate action for a real-time situation. [[Both row and column storage! They convert to column-wise storage only for Long-Lived-High-Value data?]] Parallel processing takes place in the database layer rather than in the app layer - as it does in the client-server arch. Total cost is 30% lower than traditional RDBMSs due to: • Leaner hardware, less system capacity req., as mixed workloads of analytics, operations, performance mgmt is in a single system, which also reduces redundant data storage. [[Back to a single DB rather than a DB for TP and a DW for boardroom dec. sup.]] • Less extract transform load (ETL) between systems and fewer prebuilt reports, reducing support required to run sofwr. Report runtime improvements of up to 1000 times. Compression rates of up to a 10 times. Performance improvements expected even higher in SAP apps natively developed for inmemory DBs. Initial results: a reduction of computing time from hours to seconds. However, in-memory computing will not eliminate the need for data warehousing. Real-time reporting will solve old challenges and create new opportunities, but new challenges will arise. SAP HANA 1.0 software supports realtime database access to data from the SAP apps that support OLTP. Formerly, operational reporting functionality was transferred from OLTP applications to a data warehouse. With in-memory computing technology, this functionality is integrated back into the transaction system. Adopting in-memory computing results in an uncluttered arch based on a few, tightly aligned core systems enabled by service-oriented architecture (SOA) to provide harmonized, valid metadata and master data across business processes. Some of the most salient shifts and trends in future enterprise architectures will be: • A shift to BI self-service apps like data exploration, instead of static report solutions. • Central metadata and masterdata repositories that define the data architecture, allowing data stewards to work across all business units and all platforms Real-time in-memory computing technology will cause a decline Structured Query Language (SQL) satellite databases. The purpose of those databases as flexible, ad hoc, more business-oriented, less IT-static tools might still be required, but their offline status will be a disadvantage and will delay data updates. Some might argue that satellite systems with in-memory computing technology will take over from satellite SQL DBs. SAP Business Explorer tools that use in-memory computing technology represent a paradigm shift. Instead of waiting for IT to work on a long queue of support tickets to create new reports, business users can explore large data sets and define reports on the fly.
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Another Example • Find maximum of five numbers if it is greater than 10 • Variables we will use are: first, second, third, fourth, fifh maximum = first; if (second > maximum) maximum = second; if (third > maximum) maximum = third; if (fourth > maximum) maximum = fourth; if (fifh > maximum) maximum = fifh; if (maximum > 10) System.out.println(maximum); else System.out.println(“Maximum less than 10”);
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5-13 Identifying Value-Added Activities The Thetest test for forvaluevalueadded added activities activities Would Wouldan anexternal external customer customerencourage encourage the theorganization organizationto todo do more moreof ofthe theactivity? activity? YES YES Would Wouldthe theorganization organization be bemore morelikely likelyto to reach reachits itsgoal goalby by performing performingthat thatactivity? activity? IfIf the theanswer answer is is“yes” “yes”to to both bothitit is is value-added. value-added. YES YES
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5-14 Identifying Value-Added Activities The The test test for forvalue value added addedactivities activities Would Wouldan anexternal external customer customerencourage encourage the theorganization organizationto todo do more moreof ofthe theactivity? activity? YES NO YES NO Would Wouldthe theorganization organization be bemore morelikely likelyto to reach reachits itsgoal goalby by performing performingthat thatactivity? activity? If the answer the answer IfIfIf the answer is the answer is is “yes” to is “yes” to “no”, ititis non“no”, is nonboth itit is both is value-added. value-added. value-added. value-added. YES NO YES NO
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