A Horizontal Organization Overall Manager Adviser Adviser Adviser Team responsible for core process (e.g., generating and fulfilling orders) Objective: Reduced cycle time Team responsible for core process (e.g., product development) Objective: More new products Team responsible for core process (e.g., flow of materials) Objective: Enhanced product quality
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Organizational Chart of a Manufacturing Firm Board Board member member Board Board member member Board Board member member Board Board member member Chief Chief Executive Executive Officer Officer Legal Legal counsel counsel President President V.P V.PSales/ Sales/ Marketing Marketing Industrial Industrial Products Products DirectorDirectorSales Sales Western Western Region Region Industrial Industrial Products Products Sales Sales Manager Manager V.P V.PHuman Human Resources Resources Industrial Consumer Industrial Consumer Products Products Products Products DirectorDirectorDirectorDirectorHuman Sales Human Sales Resources Resources Eastern Eastern Region Region Industrial Industrial Products Products Sales Sales Manager Manager Consumer Consumer Products Products DirectorDirectorHuman Human Resources Resources V.P V.P Production Production Industrial Industrial Products Products DirectorDirectorProduction Production V.P V.PResearch Research and Development and Development Consumer Consumer Industrial Industrial Consumer Consumer Products Products Products Products Products Products DirectorDirectorDirectorDirectorDirectorDirectorProduction R&D Production R&D R&D R&D Western Western Eastern Eastern Region Region Region Region Consumer Consumer Consumer Consumer etc. Products Products etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. Products Products Sales Sales Sales Sales Manager Manager Manager Manager etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc.
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More SELECT • We can further refine the query by adding AND , OR, or NOT conditions. If we want orders from Jones or from Smith then the query becomes: SELECT Orders.cust_id FROM Orders WHERE Salesperson = “Jones” or Salesperson = “Smith”; • Another refinement is to use the BETWEEN operator. If we want only those orders between 10 and 100 then we could define this as: SELECT Orders.cust_id, Orders.cost FROM Orders WHERE Orders.cost >10 and Orders.cost <100; • Or use the between operator: SELECT Orders.cust_id, Orders.cost FROM Orders WHERE Orders.cost BETWEEN 10 and 100;
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More SELECT • Finally, we might want to sort the data on some field. We can use the ORDER BY clause: SELECT Orders.cust_id, Orders.cost FROM Orders WHERE Orders.cost >10 and Orders.cost <100 ORDER BY Orders.cost; • This sorts the data in ascending order of cost. An example is shown in the table: CUST_ID COST 102 15 100 20 101 30 • If we wanted to sort them in descending order, use the DESC keyword: SELECT Orders.cust_id, Orders.cost FROM Orders WHERE Orders.cost >10 and Orders.cost <100 ORDER BY Orders.cost DESC;
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