Why are Sweatshops used?     To increase profit because of a cheaper labor force Avoid developed countries’ rules and regulations concerning U.S. wage and labor laws Help improve the economic state of Third World Countries To lower costs of living in affluent countries
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Controversy: Sweatshop Labor Defenders of sweatshops, such as Paul Krugman, claim that people choose to work in sweatshops because the sweatshops offer them substantially higher wages and better working conditions compared to their previous jobs of manual farm labor, and that sweatshops are an early step in the process of technological and economic development whereby a poor country turns itself into a rich country. Economists are focused on “trade offs” and when it comes to sweatshops, they ask whether the alternative of unemployment or even worse employment is better. In addition, sometimes when anti-sweatshop activists were successful in getting sweatshops to close, some of the employees who had been working in the sweatshops ended up starving to death, while others ended up turning to prostitution. BA 210 Lesson I.3 Trade 35
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Unemployment High unemployment rate is one of the results of an economic downturn. It is defined as the percentage of the labor force which is not employed. Population is divided into 3 groups: 1)those under age 16 or institutionalized, 2)those not in the labor force, 3)the labor force which includes those age 16 and over who are willing and able to work. Part-time workers and discouraged workers who want a job, but are not actively seeking one, are not in the labor force. So they are not included in the unemployment rate. Unemployment rate (U) = (unemployed workers of the labor force / labor force) X 100% The economic cost of unemployment can be calculated by using Okun’s law: GDP Gap ( %)= ( U – Un ) X 2 where Un = natural rate of unemployment As we can see that the size of the labor force is crucial in determining the unemployment rate. Therefore, the Labor Force Participation rate is often calculated to see the percentage of the civilian non-institutional population that is in the labor force. Group 2 (those not in the labor force) and Group 3 (the labor force which includes those age 16 and over who are willing and able to work) form the non-institutional population. Labor Force Participation rate (%) = (Labor force / non-institutional population) X 100%
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State Minimum Wage Increases Currently, California’s minimum wage is $10.50/hour. The new law will increase this amount as follows : • On January 1, 2017, the minimum wage increased to $10.50 per hour. • On January 1, 2018, the minimum wage will increase to $11 per hour. • On January 1, 2019, the minimum wage will increase to $12 per hour. • On January 1, 2020, the minimum wage will increase to $13 per hour. • On January 1, 2021, the minimum wage will increase to $14 per hour. • On January 1, 2022, the minimum wage will increase to $15 per hour. Effective January 1, 2018, the student help minimum wage will be $11 per hour, and will increase each January, as noted above. The classified temporary salary schedule is expected to be increased around 5.5%, to be at the level of 75% of the step 1 of the regular salary schedule. 7
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Microprogram for MicroMIPS Fig. 14.8 The complete MicroMIPS microprogram. fetch: PCnext, CacheFetch PC + 4imm, PCdisp1 lui1: lui(imm) rt  z, PCfetch add1: x + y rd  z, PCfetch sub1: x - y rd  z, PCfetch slt1: x - y rd  z, PCfetch addi1: x + imm rt  z, PCfetch slti1: x - imm rt  z, PCfetch and1: x  y rd  z, PCfetch or1: x  y rd  z, PCfetch xor1: x  y rd  z, PCfetch nor1: x  y rd  z, PCfetch andi1: x  imm rt  z, PCfetch ori1: x  imm rt  z, PCfetch xori: x  imm rt  z, PCfetch lwsw1: x + imm, mPCdisp2 lw2: CacheLoad rt  Data, PCfetch sw2: CacheStore, PCfetch j1: PCjump, PCfetch jr1: PCjreg, PCfetch branch1: PCbranch, PCfetch jal1: PCjump, $31PC, PCfetch syscall1:PCsyscall, PCfetch Computer Architecture, Data Path and Control # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State 0 (start) 1 7lui 8lui 7add 8add 7sub 8sub 7slt 8slt 7addi 8addi 7slti 8slti 7and 8and 7or 8or 7xor 8xor 7nor 8nor 7andi 8andi 7ori 8ori 7xori 8xori 2 3 4 6 5j 5jr 5branch 5jal 5syscall Slide 35
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The Reality of Organizational Change Individuals Current Current state state Future Future state state Transition Transition state state Current Current state state Transition Transition state state Future Future state state Future Future state state Transition Transition state state Current Current state state Transition Transition state state Future Future state state Current Current state state Transition Transition state state Current Current state state Future Future state state Current Current state state Future Future state state Transition Transition state state Organization Future state 12
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Discussion  Are Sweatshops Ethically acceptable?  As a top manager of a business, would you choose to move your factory to an underdeveloped country for better profit? Why or why not?  Do third world standards justify sweatshops?  What steps could managers of sweatshops take to improve the conditions?
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Logic Representative: Logic Equations ° Next state from current state • State 0 -> State1 • State 1 -> S2, S6, S8, S10 • State 2 ->__________ • State 3 ->__________ • State 4 ->State 0 • State 5 -> State 0 • State 6 -> State 7 • State 7 -> State 0 • State 8 -> State 0 • State 9-> State 0 • State 10 -> State 11 • State 11 -> State 0 CPE 442 multicontroller..15 °Alternatively, prior state & condition S4, S5, S7, S8, S9, S11 -> State0 _________________ -> State 1 _________________ -> State 2 State2 & op = lw -> State 3 _________________-> State 4 State2 & op = sw -> State 5 _________________ -> State 6 State 6 -> State 7 _________________ -> State 8 State1 & op = jmp -> State 9 _________________ -> State 10 State 10 -> State 11 Intro. To Computer architecture
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Entrepreneurship: is it good enough to be social? John F. McVea and Michael J. Naughton Introduction • The term Social Entrepreneurship has experienced a huge growth in influence over that last decade. The literature proposes a number of advantages to social entrepreneurship as a frame of reference: • Promoting innovation within non-profits • Leveraging and focusing scarce philanthropic resources • Faster response to strategic challenges • Infusion of business skills to non-business world • Involvement of non government assets in social problems • Creation of hybrid (blurred) organizations between for profit and non profit worlds. It is widely observed that practice has outpaced theoretical development leading to little agreement on definitions or frameworks for social entrepreneurship. We believe that widespread and unchallenged acceptance of the term Social Entrepreneurship masks some dangers and has contributed to confusion in the field. We believe that if we apply some insights from Catholic Social Teaching to the issue of social entrepreneurship we can move beyond the false dichotomy of Entrepreneurship/ Social Entrepreneurship and identify three specific entrepreneurial strategies which support a more robust discussion of the nature of the work that is entrepreneurship. We believe that the field would benefit from spending less time discussing social entrepreneurship and more time discussion the nature of the good entrepreneur. • • • • • The dangers of naïve acceptance of Social Entrepreneurship • • • The rhetorical risk: • Narrow definition: if S.E. is simply used to rebrand non-profits then much of the value of the new activities, hybrid design, stimulation of new resources and innovation is lost. • Implied dichotomy: if “good” ventures are termed “social” it can imply that other forms of entrepreneurship are “asocial” or “anti social” • Boundarylessness: In contrast, if all business activities are deemed “social”, to some degree or other, then the term loses all meaning focus on the distinctive phenomenon that is S.E. Despite these risks we are more concerned with a risk beyond rhetoric; the risk of undermining the meaning of work, particularly from the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching. While this perspective is drawn from the Catholic tradition, accepting the content of CST does not require acceptance of Catholic faith (Guitan, 2009). The three goods of social entrepreneurship • We are concerned by the side-effects of a concentration thesis that suggests that the moral responsibilities of entrepreneurship can be concentrated in a subset of businesses called social enterprises, presumably leaving other enterprise to simply concentrate on serving themselves. • We are concerned by the impact such a concentration thesis could have on the conception of the meaning of work beyond the world of social enterprise. • We are concerned with how such an approach can focus attention solely on the altruistic contributions of entrepreneurial ventures as the sole measure of their contribution to the Common Good • Instead we propose that, rather than trying to determine the difference between entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship, it would be more productive to focus on the questions “What is Good Entrepreneurship? What action and activities define that goodness?” • We further propose that, by apply the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching, we can identify three specific strategies through which entrepreneurial ventures may contribute to the Common Good thus suggesting that good entrepreneurship requires a focus on: 1. Good Goods. The primary way an entrepreneurial venture can contribute to the Common Good is by bringing into existence new products and services which are inherently good and which enrich lives and minimize any unintended harms. This can include what we call the “entrepreneurship of the mundane”, that is, the manufacture of the nuts and bolts and basic necessities of life as well as the creation of life saving treatments. However, inclusion of good goods as a primary moral contribution of entrepreneurship must also require of the entrepreneur analysis of what goods are not good, and what aspects of even good goods should be redesigned or rethought in order to minimize unintended consequences. We find, in our discussions, that this is a much under appreciated dimension of the good of entrepreneurship. 2. Good Work. The second way an entrepreneurial venture can contribute to the Common Good is through the nature of the work that is carried out by the venture. This dimension has several aspects both internal and external to the entrepreneur: • The development of good character in the entrepreneur. This aspect of the good is derived from the subjective dimension of work, that is, just as how-we-work ends up changing the world, so working-on-the-world changes us. Most professionals spend the majority of their waking hours at work. As habits, character and wisdom are developed through experience and activity, for the entrepreneur, doing good work is an important opportunity to develop character. Society as a whole is better off for having good, successful entrepreneurial leaders who, through that calling, can become leaders of character. This dimension of the entrepreneurial good is widely unappreciated even by entrepreneurs themselves • Good relations with employees, customers and other stakeholders. Value creation and trade creates opportunities for the building of social relationships. The central question is “Are you in good relation with those with whom you create value?’ Do your employees have opportunity to develop as people? 3. Good Wealth. The third way the good entrepreneur can contribute to the Common Good is through the creation of good wealth. Good wealth requires a balance of reward for labor/ creativity with the provision of a living wage to all. Good wealth is often captured by individual action but has social strings attached. From the CST perspective the creation of good wealth implies a particular solidarity with the poor. One way to contribute to the common good is to donate altruistically to those in need. But even here, altruism is only one of a number of possible strategies. Good entrepreneurs may also contribute by donating their time or their particular skills. Indeed, since the donation of time and work often requires physical interaction with those in need, it often generates a solidarity of far greater integrity. Finally, it must be emphasized that altruism, for the entrepreneur, is always dependent, indeed subsequent to the creation of good wealth in the first place. Literature cited Alvord, Sarah, David L. Brown, and Christine W. Letts, 2004. “Social Entrepreneurship and Societal Transformation: An Exploratory Study,” The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 40:260. Benedict XVI, Caritas et veritate,   Boschee, Jerr. 1998 “What does it take to be a social entrepreneur?” National Centre for Social Entrepreneurs (www.socialentrepreneurs.org/whatdoes/html), 5pp.   Cannon, Carl. 2000. “Charity for profit: how the new social entrepreneurs are creating good by sharing wealth” National Journal, June 16: 1898-1904.   Christie, Michael and Benson Honig. 2006. “Social entrepreneurship: New research findings.” Journal of World Business. 41: 1-5.   Dees, Gregory, J., 1998. “The Meaning of ‘Social Entrepreneurship,’” Original Draft: 10/3.   Drucker, P.F. 1985. Innovation and Entrepreneurship. New York: Harper & Row.   Fowler, Alan. “NGDOs as a moment in history: beyond aid to social entrepreneurship or civic innovation?” Third World Quarterly, 21(4): 637-654.   Gregg, S. and G. Preece: 1999, Christianity and Entrepreneurship (The Centre for Independent Studies Limited, St. Leonards, NSW, Australia).   Hibbert, Sally A., Gillian Hogg and Theresa Quinn. “Consumer response to social entrepreneurship: The case of the Big Issue in Scotland.” International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing. 7(3): 288-301.   Johnson, Sherrill, 2000. “Literature Review on Social Entrepreneurship,” Canadian Center for social Entrepreneurship. (http://www.bus.ualberta.ca/ccse/Publications/).   John Paul II, Pope.: 1992 Laborem Exercens (On Human Work): 1981, in D. J. O’Brien and T. A. Shannon, (eds.), Catholic Social Thought (Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY).   John Paul II, Pope.: 1992 Sollicitudo Rei Socialis (On Social Concern): 1987 in D. J. O’Brien and T. A. Shannon, (eds.), Catholic Social Thought (Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY).   Kennedy, R., G, Atkinson, and M. Naughton, (eds.): 1994, Dignity of Work: John Paul II Speaks To Managers and Workers (University Press of America, Lanham, Maryland).   Mair, Johanna and Ernesto Noboa, 2003. “Social Entrepreneurship: How Intentions to Create a Social Enterprise get Formed,” IESE Business School.   Mair, Johanna and Ignasi Marti, 2006. “Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight,” Journal of World Business. 41: 36-44.   Melé, D.:2001, ‘A Challenge for Business Enterprises: Introducing the Primacy of the Subjective Meaning of Work in Work Organization’, (http://www.stthomas.edu/cathstudies/cst/mgmt/le/papers/mele.htm) Conclusions We have argued that, while there is great promise in the contemporary social entrepreneurship movement, there are also a number of important dangers. We propose that, if we confront rather than acquiesce to these dangers, we can use the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching to broaden the scope of entrepreneurial ventures that we study, to enrich the moral dimension of entrepreneurial strategy and to deepen the teaching of entrepreneurship as a whole. We recommend the following to move toward these contributions: • Incorporate social entrepreneurship into entrepreneurship in a way that enhances the three goods of entrepreneurship. Specifically we propose replacing the questions “What is social entrepreneurship?” with the questions “What does it mean to be a Good entrepreneur?” From this perspective we can then apply what we have called the three goods of entrepreneurship as a means of supplying critical challenge and inspiration to all forms of entrepreneurship such that the true moral dimension of this critical force in our lives comes into fruition. • Encourage research within the entrepreneurship discipline that addresses traditional social entrepreneurial issues such as micro lending, fair trade products, etc. • Develop bridge courses such as Theo/Cath 306 which help students understand and experience the meaning of the good entrepreneur as well as connect students to the spiritual and moral principles of a good entrepreneur. • Expose entrepreneurship students to so-called social entrepreneurs as well so-called conventional good entrepreneurs so they can see the spectrum of entrepreneurial activities. © File copyright Colin Purrington. You may use for making your poster, of course, but please do not plagiarize, adapt, or put on your own site. Also, do not upload this file, even if modified, to third-party file-sharing sites such as doctoc.com. If you have insatiable need to post a template onto your own site, search the internet for a different template to steal. File downloaded from http://colinpurrington.com/tips/ academic/posterdesign. Acknowledgments I am indebted to Michael Naughton and Laura Dunham for their reflections and thoughts on this paper.
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The Labor Market and the Minimum Wage A Living Wage A living wage has been defined as an hourly wage rate that enables a person who works a 40 hour week to rent adequate housing for not more than 30 percent of the amount earned. Living wage laws operate in St Louis, St Paul, Minneapolis, Boston, Oakland, Denver, Chicago, New Orleans, and New York City. The effects of a living wage are similar to those of a minimum wage.
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10. Which of the following is not true with regard to economic profit? a. economic profit equals total revenue minus total cost b. economic profit excludes implicit cost c. economic profit is any profit greater than a normal profit d. firms attempt to maximize economic profit B. Normal profit is an example of implicit costs. Normal profit is the minimum amount of money that will keep a business owner operating the business. Because this is a necessary expense of operating a business, we include normal profit as part of our cost data. 11
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