Testing the Meshing Hypothesis 1. Be able to reliably categorize people into visual vs. verbal learners 2. Create treatments A and B. – Visual learners must consistently prefer A, verbal learners must consistently prefer B. 3. Visual learners must perform better when taught with A, verbal learners must perform better when taught with B. – Conversely, verbals must do (relatively) worse 19 with A, visuals with B.
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Testing the Meshing Hypothesis 1. Be able to reliably categorize people into visual vs. verbal learners 2. Create treatments A and B. – Visual learners must consistently prefer A, verbal learners must consistently prefer B. 3. Visual learners must perform better when taught with A, verbal learners must perform better when taught with B. 18
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Testing the Meshing Hypothesis 1. Be able to reliably categorize people into visual vs. verbal learners 2. Create treatments A and B. – Visual learners must consistently prefer A, verbal learners must consistently prefer B. 17
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Preferred Device for Information-Seeking Activities (Fall 2012 and 2013 pre-surveys) 84% prefer a laptop 84% prefer a laptop 84% prefer an iPad 29% prefer smartphone; 23% prefer the iPad; 39% prefer paper/pen 79% prefer paper/pen 23% prefer the iPad; 61% prefer paper/pen 9% prefer the iPad;88% prefer paper/pen 23% prefer the iPad; 61% prefer paper/pen 84% prefer the laptop 32% prefer iPad; 61% prefer the laptop 84% prefer the laptop 26% prefer smartphone; 26% prefer the iPad; 45% prefer paper/pen
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Testing the Meshing Hypothesis 1. Be able to reliably categorize people into visual vs. verbal learners 16
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New Staff Performance Rating Definitions continued ADDITIONAL PERFORMANCE RATINGS CONSISTENTLY EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS As Applied to Major Responsibility Areas Clearly and consistently exceeds established expectations for major responsibility area(s), in terms of quality, timeliness, processes, results, etc. Takes the initiative in organizing, prioritizing and solving problems and makes appropriate decisions to reach a satisfactory conclusion, especially in complex or unprecedented situations. Demonstrates a strong commitment to the highest standards of quality and effectiveness, and expects the same of others. Develops and maintains effective customer and colleague relationships, as appropriate for the role, anticipating and responding to their needs in an exemplary manner. Consistently exhibits mastery of knowledge, skills and competencies and is considered a role model of excellence for others. As Applied to the Overall Rating (All elements must be achieved for the rating to apply) · Clearly and consistently exceeds all job expectations in an exemplary manner. Contributes significantly to the broader goals of the department/function and/or Northeastern. AND · Is consistently proactive in collaborating with and identifying implications of working with other departments/functions. AND · Develops new and maintains existing working relationships with other employees across and outside (if applicable) of the University, and effectively utilizes those networks to enhance performance of self and others. AND · Takes initiative in organizing, prioritizing and solving problems, and makes appropriate decisions to reach a satisfactory conclusion, especially in complex or unprecedented situations. AND · Demonstrates a strong commitment to the highest standards of quality and effectiveness, and expects the same of others. AND · Consistently keeps customer (internal or external or both) as the focal point of work by anticipating customer perspectives, proactively addressing customer needs and concerns, following up to ensure customer satisfaction, and providing customers with additional support. AND · Anticipates and takes on additional duties beyond core job with the same degree of seriousness, care and thoroughness as demonstrated in regular job responsibilities. AND · Consistently exhibits mastery of knowledge, skills and competencies and is considered a valuable resource to others. AND · Is considered a role model of excellence for others. AND · Proactively and frequently identifies and suggests new opportunities for continuous learning and development (e.g., tools, resources). As Applied to a New or Recently Promoted Employee · The designation of “Consistently Exceeds” reflects a level of performance that is far beyond normal expectations. It is a difficult designation to achieve and is only given in rare and exceptional circumstances. It requires observation of performance over time and at consistently high levels that may not be observable within the first year of a new job. 10
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Summary Testing Testingisisstill stillaablack blackart, art,but butmany manyrules rulesand andheuristics heuristicsare are available available  Testing consists of component-testing (unit testing, integration Testing consists of component-testing (unit testing, integration testing) testing)and andsystem systemtesting, testing,and and… …  OOT and architectural testing, still challenging OOT and architectural testing, still challenging  User-oriented reliability modeling and evaluation not adequate User-oriented reliability modeling and evaluation not adequate  Testing has its own lifecycle Testing has its own lifecycle  Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 31
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The Roles of People Involved in Testing • The first pass of unit and integration testing is called developer testing. —Preliminary testing performed by the software developers who do the design and programming —Really, there is/are so many more ‘levels’ than this…Depends on the organization and how ‘they’ undertake testing strategies… —Depending on the architecture, there well may be subsystem testing, system testing, various kinds of integrated testing, etc. (Different shops will call these by different names – perhaps. • Independent testing is performed (often) by a separate group. —They do not have vested interest in seeing as many test cases pass as possible. —They develop specific expertise in how to do good testing, and how to use testing tools. —NOT all organizations have independent test groups! (Discuss) —Done after ‘unit’ testing. Perhaps for System Testing < Deployment —Can bet there is an independent test group in medium to large organizations. • Discuss: Quality Control Branch; Editors; Independent test groups: to whom do they report? etc. © Lethbridge/Laganière 2001 20 17
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Development testing  Development testing includes all testing activities that are carried out by the team developing the system.  Unit testing, where individual program units or object classes are tested. Unit testing should focus on testing the functionality of objects or methods.  Component testing, where several individual units are integrated to create composite components. Component testing should focus on testing component interfaces.  System testing, where some or all of the components in a system are integrated and the system is tested as a whole. System testing should focus on testing component interactions. Chapter 8 Software testing 17
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hypothesis testing an inferential statistical analysis used to decide which of two competing hypotheses should be believed (analogous to a court Confidence intervals are a method of inferential statistics used when no hypothesized trial) value about a parameter to be estimated exists prior any data analysis; however, when such a hypothesized value exists, hypothesis testing is a popular method of inferential statistics to decide if a statistically significant difference exists. (A hypothesis test can also tell us whether or not a relationship is statistically significant.) null hypothesis (H0) a statement assumed to be true at the outset of a hypothesis test; often, a statement that a parameter is equal to a specific hypothesized value (comparable to “innocence” in a court trial) alternative (research) hypothesis (H1) a statement for which sufficient evidence is required before it will be believed; often, a statement that the parameter is not equal to the hypothesized value (comparable to “guilt” in a court trial) one-sided hypothesis test a test designed to identify a difference from a hypothesized value in only one direction two-sided hypothesis test a test designed to identify a difference from a hypothesized value in either direction Even though hypothesis tests may be one-sided or two-sided, confidence intervals are generally two-sided (except for rare occasions).
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