The UML Provides Standardized Diagrams State State State State Use-Case Use-Case Use-Case Use-Case Activity Diagrams Activity Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Class Diagrams Class Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Use-Case Use-Case Use-Case Use-Case Use-Case Diagrams Use-Case Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Scenario Scenario Scenario Scenario Sequence Diagrams Sequence Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Scenario Scenario Scenario Scenario Collaboration Diagrams Collaboration Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Models Deployment Deployment Diagrams Diagrams State State State State Object Diagrams Object Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams State State State State State Diagrams State Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Component Component Component Diagrams Component Component Diagrams Component Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams • In building visual models, many different diagrams are needed to represent different views of the system. (different views to different stakeholders). • Use Case Diagrams (ahead) – illustrate user interactions with the application. • Activity Diagrams illustrate the flow of events in a Use Case (all scenarios). • Class diagrams represent logical structure, while Interaction Diagrams illustrate behavior (show how objects collaborate via message passing to provide features (responsibilities) of the objects.. • Other diagrams are used to illustrate other viewpoints necessary in some (but not all) circumstances, such as the State Diagrams, Deployment diagrams, … Unified Software Practices v 5.0-D Copyright  1998 Rational Software, all rights reserved 6
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The UML Provides Standardized Diagrams (Views) Use-Case Use-Case Use-Case Use-Case Activity Diagrams Activity Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams State State State State Class Diagrams Class Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Use-Case Use-Case Use-Case Use-Case Use-Case Diagrams Use-Case Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Scenario Scenario Scenario Scenario Sequence Diagrams Sequence Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Models Scenario Scenario Scenario Scenario Collaboration Diagrams Collaboration Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Deployment Deployment Diagrams Diagrams State State State State Object Diagrams Object Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams State State State State State Diagrams State Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Component Component Component Component Diagrams Component Diagrams Component Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams • In building visual models, many different diagrams are needed to represent different views of the system. (different views to different stakeholders). • Use Case Diagrams (ahead) – illustrate user interactions with the application. • Activity Diagrams illustrate the flow of events in a Use Case (all scenarios). • Class diagrams represent logical structure, while • Interaction Diagrams illustrate behavior (show how objects collaborate via message passing to provide features (responsibilities) of the objects.. • Other diagrams are used to illustrate other viewpoints; e.g. State Diagrams, Unified Software Practices v 5.0-D Copyright  1998 Rational Software, all rights reserved 19 6
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The UML Provides Standardized Diagrams (Views) Use-Case Use-Case Use-Case Use-Case Activity Diagrams Activity Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams State State State State Class Diagrams Class Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Use-Case Use-Case Use-Case Use-Case Use-Case Diagrams Use-Case Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Scenario Scenario Scenario Scenario Sequence Diagrams Sequence Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Models Scenario Scenario Scenario Scenario Collaboration Diagrams Collaboration Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Deployment Deployment Diagrams Diagrams State State State State Object Diagrams Object Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams State State State State State Diagrams State Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Component Component Component Component Diagrams Component Diagrams Component Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams • In building visual models, many different diagrams are needed to represent different views of the system. (different views to different stakeholders). • Use Case Diagrams (ahead) – illustrate user interactions with the application. • Activity Diagrams illustrate the flow of events in a Use Case (all scenarios). • Class diagrams represent logical (static) structure • Interaction Diagrams illustrate behavior (show how objects collaborate via message passing to provide features (responsibilities) of the objects.. Unified Software Practices v 5.0-D Copyright  1998 Rational Software, all rights reserved 19 4
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Diagrams Are Views of a Model A model is a complete description of a system from a particular perspective In the Unified Process, We use UML to provide nine different diagrams and five (4+1) major views: Use Case View, Logical View, Process View, Implementation View, and Deployment View Explain: Activity Activity Diagrams Diagrams Scenario Scenario Scenario Scenario Diagrams Sequence Diagrams Sequence Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Scenario Scenario Scenario Scenario Diagrams Collaboration Diagrams Collaboration Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams 19 Use-Case Use-Case Diagrams Diagrams State State State State Diagrams Class Diagrams Class Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Models Deployment Deployment Diagrams Diagrams Models are more inclusive than Views. State State State State Diagrams Object Diagrams Object Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams State State State State Diagrams State Diagrams State Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Component Component Component Diagrams Component Component Diagrams Diagrams Component Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Know these!!!!! 15
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Diagrams Are Views of a Model A model is a complete description of a system from a particular perspective We use UML to provide nine different diagrams and five (4+1) major views: Use Case View, Logical View, Process View, Implementation View, and Deployment View Explain: Activity Activity Diagrams Diagrams Scenario Scenario Scenario Scenario Diagrams Sequence Diagrams Sequence Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Scenario Scenario Scenario Scenario Diagrams Collaboration Diagrams Collaboration Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Unified Software Practices v 5.0 - D Copyright  1998 Rational Software, all rights reserved State State State State Diagrams Class Diagrams Class Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams use-case use-case Diagrams Diagrams State State State State Diagrams Object Diagrams Object Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams State State State State Diagrams State Diagrams State Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Models Deployment Deployment Diagrams Diagrams 17 Component Component Component Diagrams Component Component Diagrams Diagrams Component Diagrams Diagrams Diagrams Know these!!!!!
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Models and Essential Diagrams model is a complete scription of a system om a particular rspective Use Case Use Case Diagrams Sequence Diagrams Diagrams Scenario Scenario Diagrams Collaboration Diagrams Diagrams Scenario Scenario Diagrams Statechart Diagrams Diagrams UML Overview Use Case Use Case Diagrams Use Case Diagrams Diagrams State State Diagrams Class Diagrams Diagrams Models Activity Diagrams State State Diagrams Object Diagrams Diagrams State State Diagrams Component Diagrams Diagrams Component Component Diagrams Deployment Diagrams Diagrams See Scotch Ambler’s page for a complete list of UML 2 diagrams” http://www.agilemodeling.com/essays/umlDiagrams.htm
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    Guidance on Façade Iteration Develop an Overall Use Case Model (all application Use 1. Cases and Actors). (System Level Graphical Use-Case Model) 2. Develop Façade Use Case Descriptions and associated Use Case Diagrams for each Use Case cited in the System Level Use-Case Model. Use template in notes. Develop Façade Use Cases using the Kulak and Guiney book. Again, see power point lectures for required attributes. See examples of ‘reasonable’ student Use Cases examples posted. Use Rose (Use Case View) for your System Level use-case model and all of your individual use-case diagrams (one per use-case). Link the Use Case Specification text (that is, the use-cases) into Rose and ensure these descriptions are on the CD you turn in for grading. (More to be discussed: You may need to use Requisite Pro. Additional information: Visual Modeling book and Rose Basics (see power point lecture slides for examples on including your Use Cases in your Rose Model in the Use Case View.)
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Deliverable #4 Full Use Cases Model & Activity Diagrams due: 11/14 (Wednesday) – Start of Class   Management Folder: Executive Summary, Team and Individual Logs, Team Num File, SQA Report as usual, and the Statement of Work (SOW) Artifacts Folder:      1. Focused Use Case Descriptions and associated Use Case Diagrams for each Use Case. Use Rose (Use Case View) and Requisite Pro* Use Kulak and Guiney book (Use Cases); Visual Modeling book and Rose Basics (power point slides for examples.) *CEN 6016 Students only 2. Activity Diagrams: Each Use Case is to be accompanied by an Activity Diagram that indicates flow for all paths in the Use Case 3. Traceability Matrices (forward and backward) features  Use Cases  Revisit Deliverable 3 Folder. Document artifacts changed. Include (name) any changes to Deliverable 3 artifacts in Deliverable 4 Executive Summary. Then, of course, include these changes in Deliverable3Revisited folder.  Your Use Case Diagrams for individual use-cases) will likely be supplemented with Included or Extended Use Cases, as appropriate. Redo your Use Case Model (Overall) for the Application. This is the System Use Case Model. Be certain also to view the new sample SOW link on my web page. This is a good template and contains guidance on the individual logs as well. (Individual logs may be included in a single folder in the Management Folder, if desired). 
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Deliverable #3: New Artifacts  2. Develop Façade Use Case Specification.  Develop an overall Use Case Diagram (all application Use Cases and Actors). Similar to Business Use Case Model but icons are a little different.     This is sometimes called the system level use case model. This should be a single page of actors and use cases. Examples of all these can be found in Use Case book and Visual Modeling book. Develop Façade Use Case Specifications and associated Use Case Diagrams for each Use Case. (See examples)   Use Requisite Pro and Rational Rose (Use Case View) for your models. Link the Use Case Specifications captured in Requisite Pro and onto Rational Rose. Use the Façade Use Cases templates from the Kulak and Guiney book. Again, see power point lectures for required attributes. (See examples of ‘reasonable’ student Use Cases posted on my web page.)
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What is an Activity? (concluded) • • • Activity Diagrams are used to describe activities – Activity Diagrams are useful for describing complicated methods – Activity Diagrams are useful for describing use cases, since, after all, a use case is an interaction, which is a form of activity Using Activity Diagrams with Use Cases – Start with a coarse-grained use case, which is composed of subordinate use cases – For the complicated subordinate use cases, use Activity Diagrams rather than Use Case Diagrams Activity Diagrams are like Flow Charts, but Flow Charts are usually limited to sequential activities while Activity Diagrams can show parallel activities as well 5
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Use Cases  Steps  Extract actors and use cases    Draw use case diagram     Add more relationships, secondary uses cases, secondary actors Complete Refine use cases    Main scenarios Refine use case diagram   Main uses cases and actors Don’t worry about completeness … will refine later on Describe every use case   Nouns that perform actions or respond to actions are actors Verbs or action nouns (registration, enrollment, etc …) are usually use cases Alternative scenarios Complete Iterative development process
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Use Case Diagrams (UML)  Relationships among actors and use cases  Generalization relationships among actors   Association relationships between actors and use cases   Communication in Visio Dependency relationships among use cases    Extends in Visio (change type to inherits) --- could be done in a separate diagram Include (Uses in Visio)  Access account includes login Extends (i.e. special case of) (Extends in Visio)  Open a dual account vs. open an account Last two should be within the System boundary diagram
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Use Cases      A use case is a flow of events in the system, including interaction with actors It is initiated by an actor Each use case has a name Each use case has a termination condition Graphical Notation: An oval with the name of the use case ReportEmergency Name of Use Case Actors: Description of Actors involved in use case) Entry condition: “This use case starts when…” Flow of Events: Free form, informal natural language Exit condition: “This use cases terminates when…” Exceptions: Describe what happens if things go wrong Special Requirements: NFR, Constraints Use Case Model: The set of all use cases specifying the complete functionality of the system Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 37
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Deliverable #4 Full Use Cases Model & Activity Diagrams due: 11/8        Executive Summary Develop Focused and Filled Use Case Descriptions and associated Use Case Diagrams for each Use Case. Use Rose (Use Case View) and Requisite Pro* Kulak and Guiney book (Use Cases); Visual Modeling book and Rose Basics (see power point lecture slides for examples.) Each Use Case is to be accompanied by an Activity Diagram that should indicate flow for all paths in the Use Case *CEN 6016 Students only (Recognize that Use Cases are really never ‘finished.’) Your Use Case Diagrams will likely be supplemented with Included or Extended Use Cases, as appropriate. Redo your Use Case Model for the Application.
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Deliverable #4 Full Use Cases Model & Activity Diagrams due: 11/8        Executive Summary Develop Focused and Filled Use Case Descriptions and associated Use Case Diagrams for each Use Case. Use Rose (Use Case View) and Requisite Pro* Kulak and Guiney book (Use Cases); Visual Modeling book and Rose Basics (see power point lecture slides for examples.) Each Use Case is to be accompanied by an Activity Diagram that should indicate flow for all paths in the Use Case *CEN 6016 Students only (Recognize that Use Cases are really never ‘finished.’) Your Use Case Diagrams will likely be supplemented with Included or Extended Use Cases, as appropriate. Redo your Use Case Model for the Application.
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Deliverable #4 Full Use Cases Model & Activity Diagrams due: 11/8        Executive Summary Develop Focused and Filled Use Case Descriptions and associated Use Case Diagrams for each Use Case. Use Rose (Use Case View) and Requisite Pro* Kulak and Guiney book (Use Cases); Visual Modeling book and Rose Basics (see power point lecture slides for examples.) Each Use Case is to be accompanied by an Activity Diagram that should indicate flow for all paths in the Use Case *CEN 6016 Students only (Recognize that Use Cases are really never ‘finished.’) Your Use Case Diagrams will likely be supplemented with Included or Extended Use Cases, as appropriate. Redo your Use Case Model for the Application.
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Use Case Specifications  Complete Use Case Specification and Use Case Diagrams for each Use Case – This is a major assignment.  Complete your model by including alternative, exception flows, and ‘sub-flows’, using extension points or other tags as appropriate.    Include all subflows with your use case narratives. Modify any use cases you feel are associated with any ‘included’ or ‘extending’ use cases and change use case diagrams to reflect these use cases. (There definitely should be some.) Develop a single Use Case Diagram for the entire Application too. This will be a single diagram containing all actors and all use cases and connections.
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      Guidance on Façade Iteration Develop an overall Use Case Model (all application Use Cases and Actors). Similar to Business Use Case Model. Develop Façade Use Case Descriptions and associated Use Case Diagrams for each Use Case. Use Rose (Use Case View) for your models. Link the Use Case Description text and ensure these descriptions are on the CD you turn in for grading. CEN 6016 students must use Requisite Pro* Model your Façade Use Cases using the Kulak and Guiney book. Again, see power point lectures for required attributes. See examples of ‘reasonable’ student Use Cases examples posted on my web page. Additional information: Visual Modeling book and Rose Basics (see power point lecture slides for examples on including your Use Cases in your Rose Model in the Use Case View.)
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Use Case Diagram       29 Use Case diagrams and descriptions are the drivers for the rest of the diagrams. Need to be done first; Written in language of the user! Use Cases are text descriptions of interactions between some actors and the system. Use Case Diagrams are graphical representations between actors and use cases. Can have relationships between use cases themselves (includes; extends; others….) “Have the simplicity to represent a computer system’s essence, and yet they have the power to drive the entire methodology…”
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     Guidance on Façade Iteration Develop an overall Use Case Model (all application Use Cases and Actors). Similar to Business Use Case Model. Develop Façade Use Case Descriptions and associated Use Case Diagrams for each Use Case. Use Rose (Use Case View) for your models. Link the Use Case Description text and ensure these descriptions are on the CD you turn in for grading. Model your Façade Use Cases using the Kulak and Guiney book. Again, see power point lectures for required attributes. See examples of ‘reasonable’ student Use Cases examples posted on my web page. Additional information: Visual Modeling book and Rose Basics (see power point lecture slides for examples on including your Use Cases in your Rose Model in the Use Case View.)
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Distribute Use-Case Behavior to ForClasses each use-case flow of events:  Identify analysis classes (Step thru flow of events)  We have identified classes. Now, see where they are applied in the use case flow of events.  Static: Allocate use-case responsibilities to analysis classes (look for the verbs and actions in use case flow…)  Dynamic: Model analysis class interactions in interaction diagrams  we need to show interactions of system with its actors.   Interactions all begin with an actor, who invokes the use case (Use cases don’t start themselves!) Use Case OOAD Using the UML - Use-Case Analysis, v 4.2 Copyright  1998-1999 Rational Software, all rights reserved Sequence Diagrams Collaboration Diagrams 13 Use-Case Realization
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A Sample UML Diagram: Use-Case Diagram Use Case Diagrams are used to show the existence of Use Cases and their relationships both to other Use Cases and to Actors. A University Course Registration System System Boundary Register for Courses Student An Actor is something/one external to the system that interfaces with the system and receives ‘value,’ from it, such as a user or client. Professor Select Courses to Teach A Use Case Use Cases model dialogue (interchange) between actors and system. A Use Case is initiated by an Actor to invoke functionality – like Register for Courses Course Catalog Maintain Professor Information Maintain Student Information Registrar Close Registration Arrow indicates direction of initiation of Billing System the interaction. A Use Case/ Use Case Narrative/ Specification is a complete, meaningful flow of events! Unified Software Practices v 5.0-D Copyright  1998 Rational Software, all rights reserved 19 5
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A Sample UML Diagram: Use-Case Diagram Use Case Diagrams are used to show the existence of Use Cases and their relationships both to other Use Cases and to Actors. A University Course Registration System System Boundary Register for Courses Student An Actor is something/one external to the system that interfaces with the system and receives ‘value,’ from it, such as a user or client. Professor Select Courses to Teach A Use Case Use Cases model dialogue (interchange) between actors and system. A Use Case is initiated by an Actor to invoke functionality – like Register for Courses Course Catalog Maintain Professor Information Maintain Student Information Registrar Close Registration Arrow indicates direction of initiation of Billing System the interaction. A Use Case/ Use Case Narrative/ Specification is a complete, meaningful flow of events! Unified Software Practices v 5.0-D Copyright  1998 Rational Software, all rights reserved 19 7
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A Sample UML Diagram: Use-Case Diagram Use Case diagrams are used to show the existence of Use Cases and their relationships both to other Use Cases and to Actors. A University Course Registration System Register for Courses Student An Actor is something/one external to the system that interfaces with the system and receives ‘value,’ Professor from it, such as a user. Select Courses to Teach Course Catalog A Use Case Use Cases model dialogue (interchange) between actors and system. Maintain Professor Information A Use Case is initiated by Maintain Student Information an Actor to invoke certain Registrar functionality – like Register for Courses (see Use Case). Close Registration Arrow indicates direction of Billing System initiation of the interaction. AUnified UseSoftware Case Narrative (Specification) is a complete, meaningful flow of events! Practices v 5.0-D Copyright  1998 Rational Software, all rights reserved 7
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Continuing Comments…(2 of 3 – read on your own)  The diagrams that may be used to realize a use case realization may include:  Interaction Diagrams (sequence and/or collaboration diagrams) can be used to describe how the use case is realized in terms of collaborating objects. • These diagrams model the detailed collaborations of the use-case realization. (classes, subsystems, interfaces to other (existing) systems, etc.)  Class Diagrams can be used to describe the classes that participate in the realization of the use case, as well as their supporting relationships. • These diagrams model the context of the use-case realization. OOAD Using the UML - Use-Case Analysis, v 4.2 Copyright  1998-1999 Rational Software, all rights reserved 11
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