Add Use Case Diagram to Model rowser, click Use Case View; double click Main; ay select and delete symobls…) May expand Diagram window) iagram Toolbar, double click actor, click inside diagram, leave new actor for now. Actors added e: new actor is added to browser. ke five actors. to diagram ht click Use Case View; Select New; Select Actor; name directly into browser; drag icon onto diagram window. Adding actors to diagram… ‘name’ actor by: ht click actor in diagram window; Open Spec; give name. ht click on new actor in browser, Rename, give name. ht click new actor in browser, Open Spec, give name. n shift-click actor icon in toolbox: Click icon in toolbox, then rely hold shift key down and just click mouse in diagram window additional actors….release shift for last icon. en, name as above… Introduction to Rational Rose 2000 v6.5 Copyright © 1999 Rational Software, all rights reserved 8
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UML Introduction The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a graphical modeling language for sketching classes and procedures prior to coding. Diagram Structure Diagram Class Diagram Composite Structure Diagram Componen t Diagram Deployme nt Diagram Behavior Diagram Object Diagram Package Diagram Activity Diagram Communication Diagram CS 325 Lesson Three System Engineering Page 4 Interaction Diagram Interaction Overview Diagram State Machine Diagram Sequence Diagram Use Case Diagram Timing Diagram UML Version 2.0 defines thirteen diagram types.
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Use Case Number: 03 Use Case Name: Edit Member Account Actor (s): Buyer, Seller Maturity: Focused (note: not façade; has basic course of events too) Summary: This use case is started by a Buyer or a Seller. It provides the capability for one of these actors to edit their member profile. Basic Course of Events: Actor Action 1. This use case is started when a Buyer or Seller elects to edit their member profile. Perform S1-Login 3. The Actor updates their member profile. 6. The Actor confirms that the information is correct. {Profile Change} 8. This use case concludes when the Actor receives visual confirmation of the update. System Response 2. The System displays the Actor’s member profile and prompts the Actor to update it. 4. The System validates the information entered by the Actor. {Validate Information} 5. The System prompts the Actor for confirmation. 7. The System updates the Actor’s member profile to the member repository and informs the Actor that the information was updated successfully. 6
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What Are Use Cases? System Actor Pricing System Update Bill of Material Bill of Material System Specialized Use Case extends Generalized Actor Specialized Actor Use Case Send RFP Service Item Planner Create Service Item Submit Price Proposal Supplier User Perform On-line Function Approve Price Proposal Procurement Manager Supplier Generalized Use Case Actor-Use Case Association System = the system in question that provides the functionality represented by use cases Actor = an external entity (human or system) Use case = functionality (FRs) provided by the system Actor-Use Case Association = an interface between an actor and the system Use case details, including NFRs, are embedded textually using a template
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Use Case Number: UC-03 Use Case Name: Edit Member Profile Actor (s): Buyer, Seller Maturity: Focused Summary: This use case is started by a Buyer or a Seller. It provides the capability for one of these actors to edit their member profile. Basic Course of Events: Actor Action 1. This use case is started when a Buyer or Seller elects to edit their member profile. Perform S1-Login (subflow – later) 3. The Actor updates their member profile. 6. The Actor confirms that the information is correct. A1. {Profile Change} 8. This use case concludes when the Actor receives visual confirmation of the update. System Response 2. The System displays the Actor’s member profile and prompts the Actor to update it. 4. The System validates the information entered by the Actor. E1. {Validate Information} 5. The System prompts the Actor for confirmation. 7. The System updates the Actor’s member profile to the member repository and informs the Actor that the information was updated successfully. 22
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Use Case Number: UC-03 Use Case Name: Edit Member Profile Actor (s): Buyer, Seller Maturity: Focused Summary: This use case is started by a Buyer or a Seller. It provides the capability for one of these actors to edit their member profile. Basic Course of Events: Actor Action 1. This use case is started when a Buyer or Seller elects to edit their member profile. Perform S1-Login (subflow – later) 3. The Actor updates their member profile. 6. The Actor confirms that the information is correct. {Profile Change} System Response 2. The System displays the Actor’s member profile and prompts the Actor to update it. 4. The System validates the information entered by the Actor. {Validate Information} 5. The System prompts the Actor for confirmation. 7. The System updates the Actor’s member profile to the member repository and informs the Actor that the information was updated successfully. 8. This use case concludes when the Actor receives visual confirmation of the update. 23
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RUP is Use-Case Driven An actor is someone or something This is a Use Case Diagram. Contains UML outside the system that symbols for Use Cases and for Actors. Also shows interacts with the system the relationships between an actor and the use cases.An actor receives VALUE from the system. A MUST. Example: ATM, transfer funds, withdraw money…. Customer Check Balance Withdraw Money Use-Cases for a Cash Machine A collective set of Use Cases is said to constitute The Use Case Model and represent all the possible ways of using the system. (end-user view; functionality!!!) Use Case is thus a model of system’s intended functions. Use Cases can serve as a contract between customer and developer, and are said to capture total functionality. Unified Software Practices v 5.0-D Copyright  1998 Rational Software, all rights reserved 19 11 A Use-Case (narrative or Use specification) is a sequence of actions a system performs yielding an observable result of value to a particular actor acto Models functionality from use point of view!!
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  Strongly  disagree Disagree Neither agree nor  disagree Agree Strongly agree   Unable to assess This cadet upholds the  core values This cadet lives by the  spirit of the honor code                             This cadet makes what  he/she believes are the  right choices even if  they are unpopular with  fellow cadets               This cadet is someone  I would want to have  on my team               When faced with  stressful situations, this  cadet works well with  his/her people to get  the job done               This cadet seems to  balance well all the  demands in his/her life               This cadet personally  accepts responsibility  for the performance of  his/her unit               This cadet lives by the  same standards in “offduty personal life” as in  “on-duty cadet  life”              
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Zone 0 – School building. Here we seek to reduce energy and water needs, harness natural resources such as sunlight, and generally create harmony. Zone 1 – This is the area for elements that require the most frequent attention, such  as the kitchen compost bin; garden for vegetables, herbs and soft fruit , and  greenhouse or hoop house, which need watering, weeding and harvesting etc.  Zone 2 – This zone contains the perennial plants that need less frequent maintenance  than plants in Zone 1, such as berry bushes, fruit orchards, pumpkins, etc. This could  also be a place for beehives or larger compost bins. Zone 3 – This is the farming zone for animal forage systems and crops that require  minimal maintenance once established, such as a nut forest, cereal production,  poultry system, or even cows, sheep or goats.    Zone 4 – This is the semi-wild forest where we can forage wild food and produce  timber for firewood, mulch or building. Complementary grazing animals can also share  this zone at low density. Zone 5 – This is the indigenous conservation zone where plants native to the region  are allowed to regrow into what will become natural forest.  There is no human  14 intervention in this zone other than observation of natural ecosystems. 
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Model Main use case diagram Shows that ‘this’ actor has a relationship to ‘these’ Use Cases Actor Associations Use Cases
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Customizing Individual Toolbars for Modeling Use Cases…2 of 2  Select Browse (Select) Use Case Diagram from icon on Menu Bar –  Tool Bar is made active. Select use case model entities – 1. Select model element from toolbar    – Click to select model element (get crosshairs) Place in diagram window by clicking at desired location Label it (use case) immediately or the use case icon later by replacing the use case name in Name space with the desired name of the use case in Use Case specification window. Click off. OR 2. Right click on Use Case View, New, Use Case   This adds a Use Case in your Browser (hence in your model). Name it right away or, –   23  Double click this in your browser and name the use case via the Name space in the specification window (same process as above). Select and drag the Use Case icon in the Browser onto the diagram window. NB: deleting a model element from the diagram window DOES NOT remove the element from the model! You must go to the Browser to remove the model element. Restrictions are discussed in slides ahead. BE CAREFUL!
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Rational Unified Process Is UseCase Driven An actor is someone or This is a Use Case Diagram. Contains UML something outside the system that interacts with the system An actor receives VALUE from the system. A MUST. Example: ATM, transfer funds, withdraw money…. symbols for Use Cases and for Actors. Also shows the relationships between an actor and the use cases. Customer Check Balance Withdraw Money Use-Cases for a Cash Machine A collective set of Use Cases is said to constitute The Use Case Model and represent all the possible ways of using the system. (end-user view; functionality!!!) Use Case is thus a model of system’s intended functions. Use Cases can serve as a contract between customer and developer, and are said to capture total functionality. Unified Software Practices v 5.0-D Copyright  1998 Rational Software, all rights reserved 12 A Use-Case (actually the Use Case Narrative or Use Case Specification!) is a sequence of actions a system performs that
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    Guidance on Façade Iteration Develop an Overall Use Case Model (all application Use 1. Cases and Actors). (System Level Graphical Use-Case Model) 2. Develop Façade Use Case Descriptions and associated Use Case Diagrams for each Use Case cited in the System Level Use-Case Model. Use template in notes. Develop Façade Use Cases using the Kulak and Guiney book. Again, see power point lectures for required attributes. See examples of ‘reasonable’ student Use Cases examples posted. Use Rose (Use Case View) for your System Level use-case model and all of your individual use-case diagrams (one per use-case). Link the Use Case Specification text (that is, the use-cases) into Rose and ensure these descriptions are on the CD you turn in for grading. (More to be discussed: You may need to use Requisite Pro. Additional information: Visual Modeling book and Rose Basics (see power point lecture slides for examples on including your Use Cases in your Rose Model in the Use Case View.)
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Dealing with Requirements Change Requirements Change Type Impact on Rose Models Impact on Test Cases New POTR only New requirements ids are automatically added to the ReqID list in Use Case View; Need to add links to related model element(s) in Logical View Import the use case and the scenarios contained within the use case Import the new scenarios Additional test case(s) can be generated by selecting the new requirements only Changes in an existing scenario steps If significant change, import the new scenarios into the Use Case View *and* manually update related design-level scenarios. If not significant modify manually the effected Rose scenarios If significant change, generate the new test cases, update them with the changes from the old test cases, store them, and delete the old test cases. If the change is not significant, manually modify the effected test cases New Actor New Actors are automatically imported; Make sure to generate test cases from make sure to import any new scenarios any new scenarios Inspect and manually delete Manual Change - manually rename the actor in Rose, all existing scenarios are updated automatically New Use Case added New Scenario added Deleted Actor Changed Actor 86 Generate test from the new use case only and add to the framework Generate test to include the new paths
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Use Case Associations  A use case model consists of use cases and use case associations  A use case association is a relationship between use cases  Important types of use case associations: Include, Extends, Generalization  Include  A use case uses another use case (“functional decomposition”)  Extends  A use case extends another use case  Generalization – An abstract use case has different specializations Bernd Bruegge & Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java 17
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RUP is Use-Case Driven This is a Use Case Diagram. Contains UML symbols for Use Cases and for Actors. Also shows the relationships between an actor and the use cases. Check Balance Customer Withdraw Money An actor is someone or something outside the system that interacts with the system An actor receives VALUE from the system. A MUST. Example: ATM, transfer funds, withdraw money…. Use-Cases for a Cash Machine A collective set of Use Cases is said to constitute The Use Case Model and represent all the possible ways of using the system. (end-user view; functionality!!!) Use Case is thus a model of system’s intended functions. Use Cases can serve as a contract between customer and developer, and are said to capture total functionality. Unified Software Practices v 5.0-D Copyright  1998 Rational Software, all rights reserved 19 8 A Use-Case (narrative or Use specification) is a sequence of actions a system performs yieldomg an observable
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Seismic attribute-assisted interpretation of incised valley fill geometries: A case study of Anadarko Basin Red Fork interval. Yoscel Suarez*, Chesapeake Energy and The University of Oklahoma, USA Kurt J. Marfurt, The University of Oklahoma, USA Mark Falk, Chesapeake Energy, USA Al Warner , Chesapeake Energy, USA Seismic Attribute Generation Edge Detection Relative Acoustic Impedance The Relative Acoustic Impedance (RAI) is a simplified inversion. This attribute is widely used for lithology discrimination and as a thickness variation indicator. Since the RAI enhances impedance contrast boundaries, it may help delimit different facies within an incised valley-fill complex. Figure 15 shows the better delineation of the different valley-fill episodes. The impedance amplitude variations within the system may be correlated to sand/shale ratios. Higher values of RAI seem to be related to sandier intervals (black arrow). Coherence According to Chopra and Marfurt (2007) coherence is a measure of similarity between waveforms or traces. Peyton et al. (1998) showed the value of this edge detection attribute to identify channel boundaries in the Red Fork level. Figure 11 shows the results of the modern coherence algorithm and the interpretation. The modern coherence algorithm is slightly superior. It shows additional features (blue arrows), and enhances the edge of Phase II (pink arrow). It also shows that the current outlines of Phase II could be modified in the encircled areas. Figure 15. Relative Acoustic Impedance (RAI) at the Red Fork level. Figure 11. Modern coherency horizon slice at the Red Fork level Figure 12. Other modern edge-detector attributes: a) Sobel coherence. b) Energy ratio coherence Energy Weighted Coherent Amplitude Gradients Chopra and Marfurt (2007), by using a wedge model, demonstrate that waveform difference detection algorithms are insensitive to waveform changes below tuning frequencies. In this study the energy ratio coherence, defined by the coherent energy normalized by the total energy of the traces within the calculation window, and the Sobel coherence, which is a measure of relative changes in amplitude were used. Figure 12 shows a horizon slice of the energy ratio coherence and the Sobel coherence at the Red Fork level. The results from these two energy weighted routines are very similar to the coherence attribute, however the level of detail of the coherency algorithm is greater in the encircled areas. Even though both algorithms show similar features, the Sobel coherence seems to be more affected by the acquisition footprint than does the energy ratio coherence. Seismic Attribute Blending Peak Frequency and Peak Amplitude Displays Liu and Marfurt (2007) show that by combining the peak frequency and peak amplitude volumes extracted from the spectral decomposition analysis, the interpreter can identify highly tuned intervals. Low peak frequency values correlate with thicker intervals and high peak frequencies with thinner features. Figures 16 (a,b) show the peak frequency and peak amplitude volumes respectively. Figure 16(c) shows the combination of both displays, which simplifies the interpretation of multiple volumes of data. Figure 16(d) shows the blended image with the overlain geological interpretation. This combination iof attributes shows a better definition of the Phases boundaries especially the Phase II in the NW corner of the survey, in between the two valley branches. The changes in facies within the Phase V are evident in the southernmost green arrow. The differentiation between the Phase III and Phase V is sharper (northernmost green arrow). Outside of the incised valley system the lithology relationship with frequency is still unclear. The dashed orange lines show the proposed changes to the Phase II outline. Curvature Although successful in delineating channels in Mesozoic rocks in Alberta, Canada (Chopra and Marfurt, 2008), for this study, volumetric curvature does not provide images of additional interpretational value. While the Red Fork channel boundaries can be delineated using this attribute (Figure 13), the results shown by the coherence and spectral decomposition are superior. In this situation the acquisition footprint negatively impacts the lateral resolution quality of the attribute. Blue arrows indicate channel edges. Figure 13. Other modern edge-detector attributes: a) Sobel coherence. b) Energy ratio coherence Figure 16. Peak Frequency and Peak Amplitude analysis at the Red Fork level. (a) Peak Frequency volume, red corresponds to higher frequencies. (b) Peak Amplitude volume, white corresponds to higher peak amplitude values. (c) Peak frequency and peak amplitude blended volume. The co-rendered image shows valley-fill boundaries. (d) co-rrendered image with interpretation Spectral Decomposition Matching pursuit spectral decomposition was used to generate individual frequency volumes as well as peak amplitude and peak frequency datasets. Castagna et al. (2003) discuss the value of using matching pursuit spectral decomposition and how we can associate different “tuning frequencies” to different reservoir properties like fluid content, thickness and/or lithology. Figure 14 shows a matching pursuit 36 Hz spectral component at the Red Fork level. The level of detail using matching pursuit spectral decomposition is superior to that provided by the DFT Figure 14. 36 Hz matching pursuit spectral decomposition. Note the enhanced level of detail offered by the matching pursuit spectral decomposition. a) without geological interpretation b) with geological interpretation This study has identified correlations between attribute expressions of Red Fork channels that can be applied to underexploited exploration areas in the Mid-continent, and to fluvial deltaic channels in Paleozoic rocks in general. When it comes to answer the key questions discussed at the beginning of this paper, we learned that the coherence and energy weighted attributes help improve the resolution of subtle features like small channels and channel levees. They also help differentiate the cutbank from the gradational inner bank. It is also evident from this study that even though there have been some improvements in the coherence routines, the differences between current algorithms with the ones applied by Peyton et al. in 1998 are minimal. Additionally, detailed channel geomorphology and lithology discrimination were possible by introducing the spectral decomposition and relative acoustic impedance attributes in the analysis. On one hand, the use of spectral decomposition helped define different facies within the channel system and increased the resolution of channel boundaries. On the other hand, the variations in the RAI values were found to be correlative to lithology infill, for instance higher values of RAI show direct relationship to shalier intervals within the channel complex. One of the key findings of this study is the great value that blended images of attributes bring to the interpreter. Such technology was not available ten years ago. But today, by combining multiple attributes, fluvial facies delineation is possible when co-rendering edge detection attributes with lithology indicators. It is important to mention that the signal/noise ratio of the data is a key factor that will determine the resolution and quality of the seismic attribute response. In this study, curvature did not provide images of additional interpretational value. These unsatisfactory results may be related to acquisition footprint contamination. Therefore, footprint removal methods will be performed in an attempt to enhance signal-tonoise ratio. Acknowledgments We thank Chesapeake Energy for their support in this research effort. We give special thanks to Larry Lunardi, Carroll Shearer, Mike Horn, Mike Lovell and Travis Wilson for their valuable contribution and feedback. And to my closest friends Carlos Santacruz and Luisa Aurrecoechea for cheering me up at all times. Amplitude Variability Semblance of the Relative Acoustic Impedance Chopra and Marfurt (2007) define semblance as “the ratio of the energy of the average trace to the average energy of all the traces along a specified dip.” Since RAI has sharper facies boundaries the semblance computed from RAI should be crisper than semblance computed from the conventional seismic. Figure 17 shows the value of combining these attributes. Outside of the channel complex the lithology relationship with frequency is still unclear(red arrow). The yellow arrow points to a potential fluvial channel outside of the incised valley-system. The dashed orange lines show the proposed changes to the Phase II outline. Conclusions Figure 17 a) the Semblance of the RAI and b) RAI and RAI semblance blended image. The combination of both attributes helps delineate Relative Acoustic Impedance boundaries.
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