for Loop Behavior #6 int product = 1; int count; for (count = 1; count <= 5; count++) { product = product * count; } /* for count */ The above program fragment behaves identically the same as: /* Program Trace */ int product = 1; /* product = 1 */ int count; /* count is undefined */ count = 1; /* count == 1, product == product *= count; /* count == 1, product == count++; /* count == 2, product == product *= count; /* count == 2, product == count++; /* count == 3, product == product *= count; /* count == 3, product == count++; /* count == 4, product == product *= count; /* count == 4, product == count++; /* count == 5, product == product *= count; /* count == 5, product == count++; /* count == 6, product == for Loop Lesson 1 CS1313 Spring 2019 1 */ 1 */ 1 */ 2 */ 3 */ 6 */ 6 */ 24 */ 24 */ 120 */ 120 */ 29
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Connections Between AER Strategy and BOR Equity Grids AER Strategy Grid Acquisition Acquisition Strategy Strategy Expansion Expansion Strategy Strategy Retention Retention Strategy Strategy Persona Persona #1 #1 Most Most effective effective acquisition acquisition strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 1 1 Most Most effective effective expansion expansion strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 1 1 Most Most effective effective retention retention strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 1 1 Persona Persona #2 #2 Most Most effective effective acquisition acquisition strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 2 2 Most Most effective effective expansion expansion strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 2 2 Most Most effective effective retention retention strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 2 2 Persona Persona #3 #3 Most Most effective effective acquisition acquisition strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 3 3 Most Most effective effective expansion expansion strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 3 3 Most Most effective effective retention retention strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 3 3 Personas account for customer heterogeneity AER stages account for customer dynamics BOR Equity Grid Marketing Marketing Objectives Objectives Relative Relative Advantages Advantages Sources Sources of of Sustainability Sustainability Brand Brand Strategy Strategy (Chapter (Chapter 5) 5) Brand Brand marketing marketing objectives objectives Relative Relative advantages advantages of of the the firm’s firm’s brand brand vs. vs. competitors’ competitors’ brands brands Brand’s Brand’s sources sources of of sustainability sustainability Offering Offering Strategy Strategy (Chapter (Chapter 6) 6) Offering Offering and and innovation innovation objectives objectives Relative Relative advantages advantages of of the the firm’s firm’s offering offering vs. vs. competitors’ competitors’ offerings offerings Offering’s Offering’s sources sources of of sustainability sustainability Relationship Relationship marketing marketing objectives objectives Relative Relative advantages advantages of of the the firm’s firm’s relationships relationships vs. vs. competitors’ competitors’ relationships relationships Relationship Relationship marketing’s marketing’s sources sources of of sustainability sustainability Environmental Trends Technology Technology trends trends Regulatory Regulatory trends trends Relationship Relationship Strategy Strategy (Chapter (Chapter 7) 7) Socioeconomic Socioeconomic trends trends © Palmatier 38
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  EVALUATION RUBRIC DEVELOPED Below Expectations (1-2 Pts) Meets Expectations (3-4 Pts) Exceeds Expectations (5-6 Pts) POINTS Aspects of background or relevant external environment variables not discussed. Research is not thorough or is missing completely. Identified target market(s) do not follow clearly from any research presented. Provides analysis of all relevant background including competition and external environment. Some research undertaken to support analysis. Target market(s) identified. Could be clearer how research led to target market. Background is comprehensively examined and assessed. Competition, external environment, and any other relevant issues thoroughly researched and discussed. Research clearly supports target market(s) choice.   Objectives Communication objectives do not flow clearly from situation analysis. One or more objective may be difficult to measure, vague, and/or not clearly distinct from Marketing objectives. Complete communication objectives presented and follow reasonably well from situation analysis. Comm objectives are generally measurable and are distinguished from Marketing objectives. Communication objectives are clearly stated and flow fully and naturally from results of situation analysis. Objectives are specific, distinct from Marketing objectives, and measurable.   Message Strategy Basis of positioning is either missing or not presented clearly. If positioning is discussed, not clear what the connection between it and message strategy are. Message strategy is presented and positioning discussed but relationship between positioning platform and message strategy may not be totally clear. Message strategy is clearly presented and positions the product effectively. Positioning platform well-thought through and relationship between positioning and message are clear.   Media Strategy Important elements of media strategy may be missing. No clear connection between media & message strategies. Media strategy is presented and explained. Media strategy is reasonably consistent with message strategy. Media strategy is clearly presented. Media strategy supports and enhances message.   Other Plan Elements IMC plan omits one or more additional element that would contribute effectively. Appropriate public relations, direct marketing, Internet, sales promotion or support media are missing. IMC plan includes some additional elements that are appropriate. May include public relations, direct marketing, Internet, sales promotion or support media. IMC plan includes all additional elements that are appropriate (public relations, direct marketing, Internet, sales promotion, support media). Additional elements are clearly blended into positioning/message strategy.   Integration Lack of consistent message across two or more elements causes understanding of IMC to be questioned. Elements of IMC plan illustrate reasonable consistency and demonstrate understanding of the concept of IMC. The concept of IMC is clearly promoted and demonstrated through the consistent message woven throughout plan elements.   Budget Budget fails to clearly account for all plan items, does not support objectives, or is missing altogether. Full budget is presented and appears to support the plan’s objectives. All plan items accounted for in budget. Budget carefully and fully details each plan element. Supports stated objectives and is reasonable given any existing constraints.   Effectiveness Plan for measuring effectiveness of IMC plan is weak. Method choice questionable or plan is missing altogether. Plan for measuring effectiveness is presented. Choice of methods is reasonable. Measurement of all elements of IMC plan is clearly accounted for. Measurement methods are chosen/designed to produce clear results.   Situation Analysis
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IUC’s scope will focus on two functions (Finance and IT) Adherence to process definitions within the Hackett taxonomy is key to comparability; processes are defined end to end Selling and General Administrative Scope Finance Finance Human Human Resources Resources Sales* Sales* Executive Executive and and Corporate Corporate Services Services**  Total  Sales  General Cash Cash Disbursements Disbursements Total Rewards Rewards Administration Administration Sales Execution Execution General Administration Administration Management Management    Revenue Cycle Payroll Services Sales Operations   Travel and  Revenue Cycle Payroll Services Sales Operations Travel and Transportation Transportation Services Services  Planning  Real Accounting Accounting and and External External Reporting Reporting  Data Data Mgmt., Mgmt., Reporting Reporting & & Compliance Compliance Planning and and Strategy Strategy Real Estate Estate & & Facilities Facilities Management Management  Staffing  Function  Government Tax Tax Management Management Staffing Services Services Function Management Management Government Affairs Affairs  Labor  Legal Treasury Treasury Management Management Labor Relations Relations Legal  Workforce  Quality Compliance Compliance Management Management Workforce Development Development Services Services Service* Quality Management Management Service*  Organisational  Planning Risk  Order  Planning & & Performance Performance Management Management Organisational Effectiveness Effectiveness Risk and and Security Security Management Management Order and and Contract Contract Management Management (OTC) (OTC)  Total  Corporate Fiscal Communications  Service Fiscal Analysis Analysis Total Rewards Rewards Planning Planning Execution Corporate Communications Service Execution  Strategic  Planning Function  Service Function Management Management Strategic Workforce Workforce Planning Planning Planning and and Strategy Strategy Service Operations Operations  Function  Executive Office  Planning Function Management Management and Strategy Executive Office Planning and Strategy  Function Function Management Management Information Technology          Information Technology            Infrastructure Infrastructure Management Management End End User User Support Support Infrastructure Infrastructure Development Development Application Application Maintenance Maintenance Application Application Development Development & & Implement. Implement. Quality Quality Assurance Assurance Risk Risk Management Management IT IT Business Business Planning Planning Enterprise Enterprise Architecture Architecture Planning Planning Emerging Emerging Technologies Technologies Function Function Management Management Procurement Procurement            Supply Supply Data Data Management Management Requisition Requisition and and PO PO Processing Processing Supplier Scheduling Supplier Scheduling Receipt Receipt Processing Processing Compliance Compliance Management Management Customer Customer Management Management Sourcing Sourcing Execution Execution Supplier Supplier Management Management and and Development Development Sourcing Sourcing & & Supply Supply Base Base Strategy Strategy Function Function Strategy Strategy and and Performance Performance Management Management Function Function Management Management Marketing* Marketing*      Marketing Marketing Communication Communication Brand Brand and and Product Product Management Management Planning and Planning and Strategy Strategy Market Market Research Research and and Analytics Analytics Function Management Function Management Capture FTEs and Costs as defined regardless of where they are organizationally located
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Simulation Results Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Strategy of AoC Introduction Development of Mobile Network Future Works Simulation Conclusion • Zero-determinant Strategy • Tit-for-Tat Strategy • Pavlov Strategy • Cooperative Strategy • Non-cooperative Strategy ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Strategy of PoC • Any Strategy • Tit-for-Tat Strategy • Pavlov Strategy • Cooperative Strategy • Non-cooperative Strategy ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
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strategy connectNewEvents(min_new, computeTEnSnpGuard(min_old, max_new: min_new, interger) max_new : integer; TEnSnpGuardStr : string) { if (min_old << max_new) if(min_new max_new) then then computeTEnSnpGuard(min_old + 1, min_new, max_new, connectOneNewEventToOtherNewEvents(min_new, max_new); TEnSnpGuardStr + "(#S" + intToString(min_old) + " == 0)&&"); else connectNewEvents(min_new+1, max_new); endif; addEventswithGuard(min_new, max_new, TEnSnpGuardStr + "(#S" + intToString(min_old) + "== 0))?1:0"); } endif; } strategy connectOneNewEventToOtherNewEvents(event_num, max_new: integer) {... // several strategies not show here (e.g., addEventswithGuard) strategy if(event_num addEvents(min_new, < max_new) then max_new : integer; TEnSnpGuardStr : string) { connectTwoEvents(event_num, max_new); if connectNewEvents(event_num, (min_new <= max_new) then max_new-1); endif; addNewEvent(min_new, TEnSnpGuardStr); } addEvents(min_new+1, max_new, TEnSnpGuardStr); strategy endif; connectTwoEvents(first_num, second_num : integer) {} strategy declare firstinProg, addNewEvent(event_num secondinProg : :atom; integer; TEnSnpGuardStr : string) { declare secondTProc1, secondTProc2 : atom; declare first_numStr, start, stTran, inProg, second_numStr, endTran :TProcSnp_guard1, atom; TProcSnp_guard2 : string; declare TStSnp_guard : string; first_numStr := intToString(first_num); start := findAtom("StSnpSht"); second_numStr := intToString(second_num); stTran := addAtom("ImmTransition", TProcSnp_guard1 := "((#S" + first_numStr "TStSnp" +"+ ==intToString(event_num)); 0) && (#S" + second_numStr + " == 1))?1 : 0"; TStSnp_guard := "(#S" TProcSnp_guard2 := "((#S" + intToString(event_num) + second_numStr + " +==" == 0) && 1)?1 (#S" : 0";+ first_numStr + " == 1))?1 : 0"; stTran.setAttribute("Guard", firstinProg := findAtom("SnpInProg" TStSnp_guard); + first_numStr); secondinProg := findAtom("SnpInProg" + second_numStr); inProg := addAtom("Place", secondTProc1 := addAtom("ImmTransition", "SnpInProg" + intToString(event_num)); "TProcSnp" + first_numStr + "," + second_numStr); endTran := addAtom("ImmTransition", secondTProc1.setAttribute("Guard", TProcSnp_guard1); "TEnSnp" + intToString(event_num)); endTran.setAttribute("Guard", secondTProc2 := addAtom("ImmTransition", TEnSnpGuardStr); "TProcSnp" + second_numStr + "," + first_numStr); addConnection("InpImmedArc", start,TProcSnp_guard2); secondTProc2.setAttribute("Guard", stTran); addConnection("OutImmedArc", stTran, inProg); addConnection("InpImmedArc", firstinProg, inProg, endTran); secondTProc1); addConnection("OutImmedArc", secondTProc1, endTran, start); secondinProg); } addConnection("InpImmedArc", secondinProg, secondTProc2); addConnection("OutImmedArc", secondTProc2, firstinProg); } Scaling a Base SRN Model strategy computeTEnSnpGuard(min_old, min_new, max_new : integer; TEnSnpGuardStr : string) { if (min_old < max_new) then computeTEnSnpGuard(min_old + 1, min_new, max_new, TEnSnpGuardStr + "(#S" + intToString(min_old) + " == 0)&&"); else addEventswithGuard(min_new, max_new, TEnSnpGuardStr + "(#S" + intToString(min_old) + "== 0))?1:0"); endif; } ... // several strategies not show here (e.g., addEventswithGuard) strategy addEvents(min_new, max_new : integer; TEnSnpGuardStr : string) { if (min_new <= max_new) then addNewEvent(min_new, TEnSnpGuardStr); addEvents(min_new+1, max_new, TEnSnpGuardStr); endif; } strategy addNewEvent(event_num : integer; TEnSnpGuardStr : string) { declare start, stTran, inProg, endTran : atom; declare TStSnp_guard : string; strategy connectNewEvents(min_new, max_new: interger) { if(min_new < max_new) then connectOneNewEventToOtherNewEvents(min_new, max_new); connectNewEvents(min_new+1, max_new); endif; } strategy connectOneNewEventToOtherNewEvents(event_num, max_new: integer) { if(event_num < max_new) then connectTwoEvents(event_num, max_new); connectNewEvents(event_num, max_new-1); endif; } strategy connectTwoEvents(first_num, second_num : integer) { declare firstinProg, secondinProg : atom; declare secondTProc1, secondTProc2 : atom; declare first_numStr, second_numStr, TProcSnp_guard1, TProcSnp_guard2 : string; first_numStr := intToString(first_num); second_numStr := intToString(second_num); TProcSnp_guard1 := "((#S" + first_numStr + " == 0) && (#S" + second_numStr + " == 1))?1 : 0"; TProcSnp_guard2 := "((#S" + second_numStr + " == 0) && (#S" + first_numStr + " == 1))?1 : 0"; firstinProg := findAtom("SnpInProg" + first_numStr); secondinProg := findAtom("SnpInProg" + second_numStr); secondTProc1 := addAtom("ImmTransition", "TProcSnp" + first_numStr + "," + second_numStr); secondTProc1.setAttribute("Guard", TProcSnp_guard1); secondTProc2 := addAtom("ImmTransition", "TProcSnp" + second_numStr + "," + first_numStr); secondTProc2.setAttribute("Guard", TProcSnp_guard2); start := findAtom("StSnpSht"); stTran := addAtom("ImmTransition", "TStSnp" + intToString(event_num)); TStSnp_guard := "(#S" + intToString(event_num) + " == 1)?1 : 0"; stTran.setAttribute("Guard", TStSnp_guard); inProg := addAtom("Place", "SnpInProg" + intToString(event_num)); endTran := addAtom("ImmTransition", "TEnSnp" + intToString(event_num)); endTran.setAttribute("Guard", TEnSnpGuardStr); addConnection("InpImmedArc", start, stTran); addConnection("OutImmedArc", stTran, inProg); addConnection("InpImmedArc", inProg, endTran); addConnection("OutImmedArc", endTran, start); addConnection("InpImmedArc", firstinProg, secondTProc1); addConnection("OutImmedArc", secondTProc1, secondinProg); addConnection("InpImmedArc", secondinProg, secondTProc2); addConnection("OutImmedArc", secondTProc2, firstinProg); } } 28
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Selecting Strategies That Capture Opportunities Cost-Based Cost-Based Strategy Strategy Broad-Based Broad-Based Strategy Strategy Choosing Choosing the the Right Right Strategy Strategy for for Performance Performance Differentiati Differentiati on-Based on-Based Strategy Strategy © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Focus Focus Strategy Strategy 3–20
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for Loop With Explicit Increment #3 int product; int count; product = 1; for (count = 1; count <= 5; count += 2) { product *= count; } /* for count */ The above program fragment behaves identically to: int product = 1; int count; count = 1; product *= count; count += 2; product *= count; count += 2; product *= count; count += 2; /* /* /* /* /* /* /* count count count count count count count == == == == == == == 1, 1, 3, 3, 5, 5, 7, for Loop Lesson 2 CS1313 Spring 2019 product product product product product product product == 1 */ == 1 */ == 1 */ == 3 */ == 3 */ == 15 */ == 15 */ 9
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KU Group Consumers What to Share with Each KU Group Instrumental Use: Must Instrumental Use: Must demonstrate value of product demonstrate value of to end users (clinician or their product to end users via clients) via informational product packaging and literature, conference marketing efforts. presentations and marketing efforts. How to Reach Each Group Use sales representatives, product training sessions, news media (print, broadcast and internet based forms); product Use news media placement in stores. Offer Use email, phone calls (targeted print, product demonstrations at and web links to news broadcast and internet conferences and tradeshows. stories regarding the based forms); product Offer assessment tools that product. Report in formal placement in stores; help determine if a product is annual performance demonstration packages appropriate for a client, or the report. and trial use of product. ideal configuration, accessories, etc. for product. Provide demonstration packages and trial use of product. Anticipated Knowledge Translation Outcomes Clinicians Policy Makers Researchers Brokers Manufacturers Strategic Use: If public funds were used for product development, demonstrate return on investment (ROI). Conceptual Use: Provide information on path to market, barriers encountered and carriers used to overcome barriers to provide product development insights to other researchers. Conceptual Use: Demonstrate ROI (financial, university publicity, student training, etc.). Strategic Use: Demonstrate ROI and identify partnering opportunities with companies producing complementary products. Innovation Outputs. Consumers can use products, leading to a better QoL. Clinicians may use products directly or recommend products, leading to improved QoL. Present findings at research oriented conferences Use formal reports, (RESNA, etc.). Use email, phone calls and research papers and power face to face meetings. point presentations. Researchers will gain a greater appreciation and understanding of the Policy makers can share Knowledge to Axtion (KTA) ROI information with process, leading to an oversight organizations increased liklihood that new (ex. Office of Management research will be conducted and Budget). using the Need to Knowledge and KTA models. Brokers can use ROI information to justify future investments in similar products. Face to face meetings may be most effective. Seek out manufacturers at offices, conferences and tradeshows. Manufacturers can increase ROI by teaming up with companies selling complementary products.
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SAP Product Lifecycle Management Product Strategy and Planning Product Development and Collaboration Engineering, R&D Collaboration Product Data Management PLM Foundation Product Portfolio Management Innovation Management Requirements Management Service and Product Quality Product Change Maintenance Management Management Collaboration Service and Product Master and Specification and Maintenance Visualization and Configuration Structure Recipe Structure Publications Management Management Management Management Tool and Project and Product Product Document Product Costing Workgroup Resource Compliance Intelligence Management Integration Management Supplier Collaboration Manufacturing Collaboration Copyright SAP AG 2008 11 Market Launch Management Magal and Word ! Essentials of Business Processes and Information Systems | © 2009 SAP NetWeaver Product Management
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AER Strategy Grid: Micro-Analysis of Customer Heterogeneity and Dynamics  Output of MP#2 is a microanalysis of customer heterogeneity and dynamics in the firm’s customer portfolio  The insights from MP#2 then can be inserted into the AER strategy grid to reveal highimpact strategies  Each box in this grid describes the most effective strategy for a unique persona at a single point in time AER Strategy Grid Acquisition Acquisition Strategy Strategy Expansion Expansion Strategy Strategy Retention Retention Strategy Strategy Persona Persona #1 #1 Most Most effective effective acquisition acquisition strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 1 1 Most Most effective effective expansion expansion strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 1 1 Most Most effective effective retention retention strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 1 1 Persona Persona #2 #2 Most Most effective effective acquisition acquisition strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 2 2 Most Most effective effective expansion expansion strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 2 2 Most Most effective effective retention retention strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 2 2 Persona Persona #3 #3 Most Most effective effective acquisition acquisition strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 3 3 Most Most effective effective expansion expansion strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 3 3 Most Most effective effective retention retention strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 3 3 © Palmatier 39
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• Some Definitions – Maxi-min (mini-max) strategy: The maxi-min strategy is the path with the highest possible (maximum) worst (minimum) outcome. – Dominant strategy: A strategy is dominant if it does better than all other strategies in at least one circumstance and as well as every other strategy in all circumstances. – Dominated strategy: A strategy is dominated if it does worse than another strategy in at least one circumstance and no better than that strategy in all circumstances. – Nash Equilibrium: An outcome is in Nash equilibrium if, given that outcome, no party regrets its choice of strategy (cannot do better).
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Product Factors Product Product Complexity Complexity Product Product Price Price Product Product Standardization Standardization Product Product Factors Factors That That Affect Affect Channel Channel Choices Choices Product Product Life Life Cycle Cycle Product Product Delicacy Delicacy LO4 Chapter 13 Copyright ©2012 by Cengage Learning Inc. All rights reserved 26
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Strategy as a Source of Information Implications Implications of of the the Chosen Chosen Strategy Strategy Growth Growth strategy strategy Stability Stability strategy strategy Reduction Reduction strategy strategy © 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–10
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Product Attributes Developing a Product or Service Involves Defining the Benefits that it Will Offer Such as: Ability of a Product to Perform Product Product Quality Quality Ability of a Product to Perform Its Its Functions; Functions; Includes Includes Level Level & & Consistency Consistency Product Product Features Features Differentiates Differentiates the the Product Product from from Competitors’ Competitors’ Products Products Product Product Style Style & & Design Design Process Process of of Designing Designing aa Product’s Product’s Style Style & & Usefulness Usefulness 8-6
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CROSS PRODUCT APPLICATION: POLYGON CONVEXITY A POLYGON IS CONVEX THE SEGMENT BETWEEN ANY TWO POINTS ON ITS BOUNDARY IS COMPLETELY CONTAINED WITHIN THE POLYGON. SOME GRAPHICAL ALGORITHMS DEPEND ON POLYGONS BEING CONVEX. TO DETERMINE WHETHER A POLYGON IS CONVEX, TAKE THE CROSS PRODUCT OF EACH PAIR OF VECTORS BETWEEN CONSECUTIVE VERTEX TRIPLES. IF ALL OF THESE CROSS PRODUCTS HAVE THE SAME SIGN, THEN THE POLYGON IS CONVEX. POSITIVE CROSS PRODUCT POSITIVE CROSS PRODUCT POSITIVE CROSS PRODUCT CS 482 – Fall 2017 POSITIVE CROSS PRODUCT POSITIVE CROSS PRODUCT POSITIVE CROSS PRODUCT POSITIVE CROSS PRODUCT NEGATIVE CROSS PRODUCT POSITIVE CROSS PRODUCT CHAPTER 7: VECTORS AND MATRICES POSITIVE CROSS PRODUCT PAGE 7
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$3,900 Expected Profit (Correlation = -0.3) $3,850 6 $1,700 Std Dev of Profit (Correlation = -0.3) 10 $1,600 $3,800 9 $1,500 $3,750 5 $1,400 $3,700 $3,650 $1,300 Expected Profit 10 $1,200 $3,600 $1,100 6 $3,550 1 9 $3,500 $1,000 $900 $3,450 5 $3,400 1000 1200 Product 2 Ordered 900 1100 800 1000 900 700 1200 Product 1 Ordered Product 2 Ordered $3,900 $800 1000 1 1100 900 800 1000 900 Expected Profit (Correlation = -0.5) 700 Product 1 Ordered $1,700 Std Dev of Profit (Correlation = -0.5) $3,850 $1,600 10 $3,800 6 $1,500 $3,750 9 Std Dev of Profit $1,400 $3,700 5 $3,650 $1,300 Expected Profit 10 $1,200 $3,600 6 $3,550 $1,100 9 $1,000 $3,500 1 $3,450 $900 5 $3,400 Product 2 Ordered $800 1 1000 1200 900 1100 800 1000 900 700 1000 1200 Product 1 Ordered Product 2 Ordered 900 1100 800 1000 900 $3,900 Expected Profit (Correlation = -0.7) 700 Product 1 Ordered $1,700 Std Dev of Profit (Correlation = -0.7) $3,850 $1,600 $3,800 10 6 $1,500 $3,750 $1,400 $3,700 9 $3,650 5 $1,300 Expected Profit 10 $1,200 $3,600 6 9 $1,000 $3,500 $900 5 $3,450 $800 $3,400 1 1000 1200 Product 2 Ordered 900 1100 800 1000 900 700 Product 1 Ordered Decision Models -- Prof. Juran Std Dev of Profit $1,100 $3,550 1 Std Dev of Profit 1000 1200 Product 2 Ordered 900 1100 800 1000 900 700 Product 1 Ordered 35
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The Right Investment Philosophy   Single Best Strategy: You can choose the one strategy that best suits you. Thus, if you are a long-term investor who believes that markets overreact, you may adopt a passive value investing strategy. Combination of strategies: You can adopt a combination of strategies to maximize your returns. In creating this combined strategy, you should keep in mind the following caveats: • You should not mix strategies that make contradictory assumptions about market behavior over the same periods. Thus, a strategy of buying on relative strength would not be compatible with a strategy of buying stocks after very negative earnings announcements. The first strategy is based upon the assumption that markets learn slowly whereas the latter is conditioned on market overreaction. • When you mix strategies, you should separate the dominant strategy from the secondary strategies. Thus, if you have to make choices in terms of investments, you know which strategy will dominate. Aswath Damodaran 13
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15. Total product will decrease as more of an input is added to the production process only if a. marginal product is decreasing b. marginal product is negative c. the product is an inferior good d. marginal product is zero B. Marginal product is the change in total product that occurs when the usage of a particular resource increases by one unit, all other resources constant. For example, if a firm hires one more worker and its total product increases, marginal product is positive; if its total product declines when an additional worker is hired, the marginal 16 product is negative.
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Marketing Strategy Over the Product Life Cycle INTRODUCTION GROWTH MATURITY DECLINE Marketing strategy emphasis Market development Increase market share Defend market share Maintain efficiency in exploiting product Pricing strategy High price/unique Lower price Price at or below Set price to product / cover over time production costs competition remain profitable or reduce to Promotion Strategy Place strategy Low price/gain market share liquidate Mount sales promotion for product awareness Appeal to mass market Emphasize brand differences, benefits & loyalty Reinforce loyal customers; reduce promotion costs Distribute through selective outlets Build intensive network of outlets Enlarge distribution network Be selective in distribution, trim unprofitable outlets
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Our Roles – Working Together to Make Change Happen Planning Planning & & Readiness Readiness •• •• •• Generate Generate Awareness Awareness Link Link to to Outcomes Outcomes /Build /Build Case Case for for Change Change Commit Commit & & Set Set Direction Direction Strategic Strategic Communication Communication & & Engagement Engagement •• •• •• Communicate Communicate Enable Enable & & Empower Empower Others Others to to Act Act Create Create Short-term Short-term Wins Wins Operational Operational Implement Implement & & Sustain Sustain Change Change •• •• •• Monitor Monitor & & Adjust; Adjust; Use Use Data Data to to Learn Learn Align Align Systems Systems & & Processes Processes Embed Embed into into Culture Culture –– Continue Continue Cycle Cycle Tactical Tactical Leaders Leaders Personalize, Personalize, Readies Readies self self && team team for change, builds case, aligns for change, builds case, aligns team team Models Models behavior, behavior, shares shares openly openly Determine Determine measures measures of of success success Leads Leads Cascade, Cascade, Supports Supports Action Action Plans, Plans, solicits solicits Monitors Monitors activity activity and and outcomes outcomes feedback ,Reinforces behaviors that embody Provides data to team feedback ,Reinforces behaviors that embody Provides data to team and and other other values values ,participates ,participates in in activity, activity, integrates integrates into into leaders, leaders, process process improvements improvements team team practices, practices, reward reward && recognition recognition Individuals Individuals Personalize, Personalize, Readies Readies self self for for change, change, aligns aligns own own behavior behavior shares shares openly openly Creates Creates Action ActionPlans, Plans, provides provides feedback feedback Recognizes Recognizes behaviors behaviors that that embody embody values, values, participates in activity participates in activity Use Use data data to to learn learn and and make make improvements improvements Marketing Marketing Develops Develops Messaging Messaging && Communication Communication Strategy Strategy Develops Develops materials materials Implements Implements Communication Communication Strategy Strategy Supports training efforts Supports training efforts Tracks Tracks progress progress Reports Reports successes successes && makes makes recommendations recommendations HR HR // OED OED Develops Develops Learning Learning Strategy Strategy Supports Cascade Meetings Supports Cascade Meetings Supports Supports leader leader && individual individual development development Supports Supports communication communication strategy strategy Supports and/or facilitates Supports and/or facilitates sessions sessions Supports Supports reward reward && recognition recognition efforts efforts Supports Supports development development Tracks Tracks progress progress Reports Reports successes successes && makes makes recommendations recommendations Supports Supports process process improvements improvements
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