PRF RainfallIndex Insurance Program: Insurance Premiums For Each Unit: Total Premium = Dollar Protection Per Acre x Number of Insured Acres/Unit x Premium Rate per $100 of Insurance x Adjustment factor (=0.01) x Producer Share Premium Subsidy = Premium per Unit x Subsidy rate Producer Premium = Total Premium per unit − Premium subsidy per unit * The adjustment factor expresses the premium rate on a per dollar of insurance rate because the premium rate is quoted in terms of dollars per $100 of insurance. 17
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Public WAN Infrastructures Cable  Network access is available from many cable television providers (using coaxial cable) which allows for greater bandwidth than the conventional telephone local loop.  Cable modems provide an always-on connection and a simple installation.  A subscriber connects a computer or a LAN router to the cable modem, which translates the digital signals into broadband frequencies used for transmitting on a cable television network.  The cable modem termination system (CMTS), which is a component located at the local cable TV office (headend), sends and receives digital cable modem signals on a cable network and is necessary for providing Internet services to subscribers. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 42
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Internet over cable • Internet over cable widely available internet service available to many in the country • Cable Internet connection is a form of broadband access. Through use of a cable modem, users can access the Internet over cable TV lines. Cable modems can provide some of the fastest speeds that are widely available to customers. • Single cable system can grow and expand easily because of their design. One cable run can provide service to many locations via ‘taps’ in the cable line
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CABLES AND CONNECTORS • TWISTED PAIR WIRE • IT IS CLASSIFIED AS CATEGORY 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5E, 6 AND 7. CATEGORY 5E, 6 AND 7 ARE HIGHSPEED CABLES THAT CAN TRANSMIT 1GBPS OR MORE. - • COAXIAL CABLE • COAXIAL CABLE MORE RESEMBLES LIKE TV INSTALLATION CABLE. IT IS MORE EXPENSIVE THAN TWISTED-PAIR CABLE BUT PROVIDE HIGH DATA TRANSMISSION SPEED. • FIBER-OPTIC CABLE • IT IS A HIGH-SPEED CABLE WHICH TRANSMITS DATA USING LIGHT BEAMS THROUGH A GLASS BOUND FIBERS. FIBER-OPTIC CABLE IS HIGH DATA TRANSMISSION CABLE COMPARING TO THE OTHER CABLE TYPES.
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A COMMUNITY NEEDS ASSESSMENT OF HOLOCAUST SURVIVORS Melissa Pullman, PhD1, Wendy Zeitlin, PhD2, Charles Auerbach, PhD1 , Kelly Klinger, BA2 Yeshiva University, New York, New York; 2Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey 1 Introduction Holocaust survivors have seen more stress and trauma than virtually any other group in recorded history. Due to the long-term deprivation and maltreatment they experienced earlier in life, survivors have magnified challenges typically associated with aging. Holocaust survivors are more likely to present with mental and physical health problems associated with aging, including high cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, vascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and depression (Eriksson, Räikkönen, & Eriksson, 2014; Keinan-Boker, Shasha-Lavsky, Eilat-Zanani, Edri-Shur, & Shasha, 2015). In New York City, which has one of the highest concentrations of survivors in the world, almost a third (31%) report being in poor overall health, and slightly more than two in five (41%) need help with activities of daily living such as shopping or bathing. These numbers are substantially higher than similarly aged foreignborn peers (Cohen et al., 2012). To further exacerbate their challenges, survivors tend to be poorer than similarly aged seniors with 25% living below the poverty line compared with 20% of their peers nationally (Meyer & Daniele, 2016; Mitka, 2014). In New York City, slightly more than half of households with Holocaust survivors are poor (52%) with 79% of households with survivors from the former Soviet Union living in poverty (Cohen et al., 2012). www.eposterboards.com Research Questions Due to the unique nature of Holocaust survivors as a group, the following research question was posed: “What are the specific needs of this population if the goal would be to identify all services required to help survivors live out the remainder of their lives with dignity and a high quality of life?” Methods We used a qualitative approach and viewed this study as a community needs assessment with the “community” being all Holocaust survivors in the large metropolitan area in which the study was conducted. One of the major challenges to conducting this research is that many Holocaust survivors do not participate in existing social service or reparations programs designed specifically for this community. Therefore, we had to be mindful to specifically seek out those “invisible” survivors who may need services now or in the future. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen individuals representing six organizations that work with Holocaust survivors in the area. At some of these organizations, specialized services were already in place for survivors, while others operated more generally in communities that possessed concentrated numbers of Jewish immigrant senior citizens. Finally, one organization was funded by the City and provided and/or funded services to senior citizens throughout the City. Interviewees were asked to respond to the following questions: ▶ How does your organization serve Holocaust survivors? What services do you provide? ▶ Tell us about your professional and lay staff that provide services. ▶ In what ways would you like to be able to better serve survivors? ▶ If you could make a wish list of how your organization could improve the lives of the survivors that you serve, what would that look like? To supplement the interviews, a focus group was held that consisted of fourteen front-line workers who work with survivors, often in their homes, and see first-hand the unique challenges this population faces. Examples of questions posed during the focus group include: ▶ What are your major concerns for this aging population? ▶ What are the most common reasons that bring survivors to your agency? ▶ What do you see as the most pressing needs of survivors that might differ from other elderly people? ▶ What haps in services do you see? What are some needs that are not currently being addressed? Methods (cont.) Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Independently, two researchers highlighted key themes and phrases associated with both the interviews and focus group. Then, jointly, they coded the themes and phrases. Member checking from participants from both the in-depth interviews and focus group was utilized to triangulate and validate findings. Findings Several themes emerged regarding both met and unmet needs of survivors. Services fell into two general categories: needs that could being met to with services that exist to at least some extent and services that do not exist currently and will likely be unmet in the future because of structural/societal challenges. Existing services include: ▶ Professional service work services ▶ Home care ▶ Transportation ▶ Food support ▶ Emergency cash assistance Nonexistent services that likely cannot be met include: ▶ Survivor-specific congregate care ▶ In-home psychiatric care :
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§1-10 Base 7 Add/Subtract Homework - Addition table with problems including subtraction. 235 seven 235 seven 435 seven 235 seven + 121 seven + 354 seven - 121 seven - 156 seven Check your work! Check your work! 26
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§1-10 Base 7 Multiply/Divide Homework - Multiplication table with problems including division. 235 seven 235 seven x 121 seven x 354 seven Check your work! 121 seven  4 seven 15321 seven  13 seven Check your work! 27
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A COMMUNITY NEEDS ASSESSMENT OF HOLOCAUST SURVIVORS Melissa Pullman, PhD1, Wendy Zeitlin, PhD2, Charles Auerbach, PhD1 , Kelly Klinger, BA2 Yeshiva University, New York, New York; 2Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey 1 Discussion Unclosable Gaps: Two gaps were identified that would be unable to be closed by traditional resources alone, as they deal with structural problems in society-at-large. Congregate care – skilled nursing facilities and/or assisted living could be helpful for some survivors if there could be a community of survivors that could live together AND appropriate services (including home care for those who live in assisted living facilities) existed. Because this population had been traumatized by institutionalization previously, congregate care generally designed for the elderly, is considered undesirable. As such, without specialized services, it is highly desirable for survivors to remain in their homes in situations which differ from those of other elderly. To date, no such facility has been built in the US, and it is anticipated that this is a need that is not feasible to meet. In-home psychiatric care – while numerous research participants indicated that this service is needed, there are an insufficient number of psychiatrists nationwide, and the need for psychiatric care, in general, is growing for all populations. It is not likely that this gap will be closed any time as the number of psychiatrists retiring continues to rise, and the number of residency spots for new psychiatrists is held steady. www.eposterboards.com Discussion (cont.) Existing services: Professional Social Work Services - includes services such as case management, clinical social work, mental health counseling, friendly visiting, financial guardianship, and social programs. In short, social work services include all services that would include direct services provided by licensed social workers and those overseen by licensed social workers. Services such as social work/case management are not adequately funded currently. One participant stated the need for these services clearly: The social worker helps them [survivors] to get hooked up to services they are resistant to or helps them through the barriers. They help them think about what their needs are. It is hard to get through the door and win their trust. On- on-one service is very expensive. Home Care - includes services such as housekeeping, companionship, in-home nursing and home health aides. There was unanimous agreement that one of the most import factors in preserving the dignity of survivors is the ability to remain at home. An important theme, more knowledge about survivors to the home health aides, emerged from the data. Specialized home care services were addressed by one participant: Aides are trained to understand the history and special needs of the survivors. For example, even knowing that chemical smells can trigger memories for the client. Transportation - includes door-to-door transportation to both medical appointments and social events designed for Holocaust survivors. While underfunded, participants agreed that this service was needed to help survivors remain in their homes and maintain their dignity: Survivors need transportation, otherwise they can’t access the city services. Food support - includes Meals-On-Wheels and additional supplementary support for food, including grocery store vouchers. Having abundant food was an important issue to survivors, who often hoard because they are afraid food will run out. One provider commented on the importance of food in keeping survivors in the community. Another noted the needed for Meals-On-Wheels: Food stamps don’t fulfill food for a whole week; some can’t go to the grocery store, so they need already made meals. Emergency Cash Assistance - The German government currently provides a limited amount of emergency cash to survivors for one-time expenses. This is similar to a small business’s “petty cash.” This is currently used for a wide range of expenses, some of which are actually long-term needs. Examples of how emergency cash is used includes: rent, utility bill, durable medical equipment such as hearing aids or hospital beds, and dental bills. One interviewee noted how this is often insufficient: It is not a generous enough cap for the survivors to maintain their dignity.… basic needs aren’t even met, capped at $2,500 is too little. Sometimes they are in the middle of their medical/dental work and they don’t know what to do when the $2,500 runs out. Conclusion and Implications While it is unlikely that some needs identified in this research will be able to be met in survivors’ lifetimes, many could. While most services identified in this research currently exist, all service providers indicated that inadequate funding make it likely that an increasing number of survivors’ needs will go unmet in the future. The population of Holocaust survivors is aging with the youngest being in their 70s. Research indicates that this population is expected to be reduced by 74% within 15 years (SSRS, 2016); however, the needs of the existing survivors will increase as they age. This will likely put a strain on survivors, their families, and the communities in which they live. Future research should focus on how to best expand and fund services for Holocaust survivors as they continue to age. References Cohen, S. M., Ukeles, J. B., & Miller, R. (2012). Jewish community study of New York: 2011 comprehensive report. New York: UJA Federation of New York. Eriksson, M., Räikkönen, K., & Eriksson, J. G. (2014). Early life stress and later health outcomes—findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. American Journal of Human Biology, 26(2), 111–116. Keinan-Boker, L., Shasha-Lavsky, H., Eilat-Zanani, S., Edri-Shur, A., & Shasha, S. M. (2015). Chronic health conditions in Jewish Holocaust survivors born during World War II. The Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ, 17(4), 206–212. Meyer, M. H., & Daniele, E. A. (2016). Gerontology: Changes, Challenges, and Solutions [2 volumes]: Changes, Challenges, and Solutions. ABC-CLIO. Mitka, M. (2014). Holocaust survivors’ health needs. JAMA, 311(10), 1005. SSRS. (2016). Gap analysis of services to holocaust survivors in New York City, Westchester, and Long Island. Media, PA: Author. Funding for this study was provided by UJA-Federation of New York
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Current Changes in Retirement Age and Service (A) (current) Benefit Formula (B) (current) General General Unreduced - 30 years/ any age, or age 65 w/5 yrs of service Unreduced - 2.2% x FAS for first 30 yrs of service, 2.5% thereafter COLA (C) (current) Percentage - 3% simple COLA FAS (F) (current) 3 year FAS Timing - COLA begins 12 months after retirement Reduced - age 55 w/25 yrs of service, or age 60 w/5 yrs of service Law Unreduced - age 48 w/25 yrs of service, or age 62 w/15 yrs of service Law Unreduced - 2.5% x FAS for the first 25 yrs of service; 2.1% thereafter Reduced - age 52 w/15 yrs of service Reduced - age 52 and 15 yrs of service 1.5% x FAS x yrs of service Public Safety Unreduced - age 52 w/25 yrs of service or age 62 w/15 yrs of service Public Safety Unreduced - 2.5% x FAS for the first 25 yrs of service; 2.1% thereafter Reduced - age 48 w/25 yrs of service, or Reduced - age 52 and 15 yrs of service age 52 w/15 yrs of service 1.5% x FAS x yrs of service Reduced - age 48 and 25 yrs of service 17
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Media Tester (continued) – Capacitance • Capacitance is measured in pF, or picofards per foot. This measurement can tell you if the cable is kinked or if it has been stretched. – Cable Tracing • Tracing is used to trace the path a cable takes through a wall or ceiling. Cable tracing uses a tone generator to send a signal through the cable. While the tone is traveling through the cable, you can listen through the wall or ceiling for the tone. • When purchasing a cable tester, be sure you pick one that meets the requirements of the cable type you are testing.
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Div. of State Group Insurance Employer Health Insurance Premium Rate Increase • • Rate increase effective PPE 4/25/13, May 3rd pay date New rates for June 1st coverage Premium effective for June 1st Coverage Individual $499.80 $537.74 Family $1,063.34 $1,149.14 Spouse $606.68 $649.58 For departments who employ 9M faculty members, this change went into effect on the March 22, 2013 payroll (PPE 3/14/13) Employee-paid portion of the premium is not increasing for employee’s with 1.0 FTE Coverage • • – – Current Premium Employees with an FTE < 1.0 will pay a higher premium as they are paying a pro-rated portion of the employer premium Employees with Overage Dependents health coverage will see an increase in their premium
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“Software Defined Networking” approach to open it LB service IP routing service FW service Network Operating System Service Service Service Operating Operating System System Service Specialized Specialized Packet Packet Forwarding Forwarding Hardware Hardware Service Service Service Service Operating System System Specialized Packet Forwarding Forwarding Hardware Hardware Service Operating System System Service Specialized Packet Forwarding Forwarding Hardware Hardware Service Service Operating Operating System System Service Service Service Operating Operating System System Specialized Specialized Packet Packet Forwarding Hardware Forwarding Hardware Specialized Specialized Packet Packet Forwarding Forwarding Hardware Hardware
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Cable modems • Cable modems are devices that allows high speed access to networks such as internet via the same connection we use for cable television • This physical device separates the computer data from the cable television video signal, but many people refer to the entire system a cable service • Modem is short for ‘modulize/demodulize’ which is the process the cable modem uses to convert data from a frequency in the the coaxial cable into data that can be transferred over ethernet or other media
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The UL Cable Certification Program offers five levels of performance: Level I - cable performance intended for use as basic communications and power-limited circuit cable. There are no performance requirements for cable at this level. Level II - cable performance that is similar to that for Type 3 cable (multipair communications cable) of the IBM Cabling System Technical Interface Specification GA27-3773-1. These requirements apply to cables with between two and 25 twisted-pair conductors that are either shielded or unshielded.
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Media Tester • Media testers are used to test cable media, or in plain language, network and telephone cables. • Most cable testers can be used to test both twisted pair and coaxial cable. Media testers can test and confirm the actual wiring configuration for twisted pair cable to include whether or not the RJ-45 connectors are attached correctly. • With coaxial cable, the physical cable and termination can be tested. • Media testers work by sending an electrical signal down the length of the cable. Once the signal reaches the other end, the quality and strength of the signal is evaluated. (continued)
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Link Lights (continued) – At the hub or switch, check the corresponding link light. If it is not lit, plug the cable into another port. If link connectivity is established, you’ll know the port on the hub was defective. – Check to make sure the hub or switch has power. – If you are using a managed switch, check to see if someone has made changes to the switch configuration, or if a port has been disabled. – While at the hub, check the cable and connector just as you did at the workstation. Replace the cable if you have any questions about its dependability. – Use a cable tester to verify that all of the patch cables and network cable runs are operating correctly. – If a new patch cable has been installed, check to make sure it is not a crossover cable.
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Tools Used By Network Technicians • Cable tester: used to test a cable – Can also find out what type of cable it is if it is not labeled and to locate the ends of a network cable in a building – Has two components: remote and the base Figure 16-37 Use a cable tester pair to determine the type of cable and/or if the cable is good A+ Guide to Managing & Maintaining Your PC, 8th Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 35
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Community Antenna Television • When number of subscribers grew additional cables were spliced onto the original cable and amplifiers were added as needed • Transmission was one way, from the headend to the user • In 1974, Time Inc. started a new channel, Home Box Office, with new content distributed only on cable • Large corporations began buying up existing cable systems and laying new cable to acquire new subscribers • The need to connect multiple system rose, to distribute new cable channels to distant cities • Cable companies began to lay cable between cities, to connect them into a single system
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