Magnetostrictive Pos. Sensor • Pulse sent down magnetostrictive material • Pulse reflects off position magnet’s field • Position is proportional to trcvd - tsent • Pulse propagates at ~2800 m/s • Resolution is ~.001” with tupdate ~1msec/in.
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Magnetostrictive Pos. Sensor • Pulse sent down magnetostrictive material • Pulse reflects off position magnet’s field • Position is proportional to trcvd - tsent • Pulse propagates at ~2800 m/s • Resolution is ~.001” with tupdate ~1msec/in.
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Magnetostrictive Pos. Sensor • Pulse sent down magnetostrictive material • Pulse reflects off position magnet’s field • Position is proportional to trcvd - tsent • Pulse propagates at ~2800 m/s • Resolution is ~.001” with tupdate ~1msec/in.
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/** * Attempts to recursively traverse the maze. Inserts special * characters indicating locations that have been TRIED and that * eventually become part of the solution PATH. * * @param row row index of current location * @param column column index of current location * @return true if the maze has been solved */ public boolean traverse() { boolean done = false; int row, column; Position pos = new Position(); Deque stack = new LinkedList(); // keeps track of possible path Deque path = new LinkedList(); stack.push(pos); // If the top of both stacks are not adjacent then we went down a bad path // we remove the bad path from the stack to the last "fork" in the path if (!done && (!stack.isEmpty() && !path.isEmpty())) { while (!adjacentPosition(stack.peek(),path.peek())) { path.pop(); } } } /// while (!(done) && !stack.isEmpty()) { pos = stack.pop(); //possible path path.push(pos); maze.tryPosition(pos.getx(),pos.gety()); // this cell has been tried if (pos.getx() == maze.getRows()-1 && pos.gety() == maze.getColumns()-1) done = true; // the maze is solved else { push_new_pos(pos.getx() - 1,pos.gety(), stack); push_new_pos(pos.getx() + 1,pos.gety(), stack); push_new_pos(pos.getx(),pos.gety() - 1, stack); push_new_pos(pos.getx(),pos.gety() + 1, stack); } Java Foundations, 3rd Edition, Lewis/DePasquale/Chase mark the good path if (done) { Position posTemp = new Position(); while (!path.isEmpty()) { posTemp = path.pop(); maze.markPath(posTemp.getx(), posTemp.gety()); } } return done; } 5 - 33
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Model-based feedback Improves over Simple LM [Zhai & Lafferty 01b] collection AvgPr 0.21 0.296 InitPr 0.617 0.591 3067/4805 3888/4805 AvgPr 0.256 0.282 InitPr 0.729 0.707 2853/4728 3160/4728 AvgPr 0.281 0.306 InitPr 0.742 0.732 Recall 1755/2279 1758/2279 AP88-89 Recall TREC8 Recall WEB Simple LM Mixture Improv. pos +41% pos -4% pos +27% pos +10% pos -3% pos +11% pos +9% pos -1% pos +0% Div.Min. Improv. pos +40% 0.295 pos +0% 0.617 3665/4805 pos +19% pos +5% 0.269 pos -3% 0.705 3129/4728 pos +10% pos +11% 0.312 pos -2% 0.728 1798/2279 pos +2% 44
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/** * Attempts to traverse the maze using a stack. Inserts special * characters indicating locations that have been TRIED and that * eventually become part of the solution PATH. * * @param row row index of current location * @param column column index of current location * @return true if the maze has been solved */ public boolean traverse() { boolean done = false; int row, column; Position pos = new Position(); Deque stack = new LinkedList(); stack.push(pos); Need another Stack while (!(done) && !stack.isEmpty()) { pos = stack.pop(); maze.tryPosition(pos.getx(),pos.gety()); // this cell has been tried if (pos.getx() == maze.getRows()-1 && pos.gety() == maze.getColumns()-1) done = true; // the maze is solved else { push_new_pos(pos.getx() - 1,pos.gety(), stack); push_new_pos(pos.getx() + 1,pos.gety(), stack); push_new_pos(pos.getx(),pos.gety() - 1, stack); push_new_pos(pos.getx(),pos.gety() + 1, stack); } } Bunch of Code missing here return done; } Java Foundations, 3rd Edition, Lewis/DePasquale/Chase 13 - 30
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The Maze class (continued) public boolean traverse () { boolean done = false; Position pos = new Position(); Object dispose; StackADT stack = new LinkedStack(); stack.push(pos); while (!(done)) { pos = stack.pop(); grid[pos.getx()][pos.gety()] = TRIED; // this cell has been tried if (pos.getx() == grid.length-1 && pos.gety() == grid[0].length-1) done = true; // the maze is solved else { stack = push_new_pos(pos.getx(),pos.gety() - 1, stack); stack = push_new_pos(pos.getx(),pos.gety() + 1, stack); stack = push_new_pos(pos.getx() - 1,pos.gety(), stack); stack = push_new_pos(pos.getx() + 1,pos.gety(), stack); } } © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-39 1-39
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Clustering of S&P 500 Stock Data  Observe Stock Movements every day.  Clustering points: Stock-{UP/DOWN}  Similarity Measure: Two points are more similar if the events described by them frequently happen together on the same day.  We used association rules to quantify a similarity measure. Discovered Clusters Industry Group 1 2 Applied-Matl-DOW N,Bay-Net work-Down,3-COM-DOWN, Cabletron-Sys-DOWN,CISCO-DOWN,HP-DOWN, DSC-Co mm-DOW N,INTEL-DOWN,LSI-Logic-DOWN, Micron-Tech-DOWN,Texas-Inst-Down,Tellabs-Inc-Down, Natl-Semiconduct-DOWN,Oracl-DOWN,SGI-DOW N, Sun-DOW N Apple-Co mp-DOW N,Autodesk-DOWN,DEC-DOWN, ADV-M icro-Device-DOWN,Andrew-Corp-DOWN, Co mputer-Assoc-DOWN,Circuit-City-DOWN, Co mpaq-DOWN, EM C-Corp-DOWN, Gen-Inst-DOWN, Motorola-DOW N,Microsoft-DOWN,Scientific-Atl-DOWN 3 4 © Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Fannie-Mae-DOWN,Fed-Ho me-Loan-DOW N, MBNA-Corp -DOWN,Morgan-Stanley-DOWN Baker-Hughes-UP,Dresser-Inds-UP,Halliburton-HLD-UP, Louisiana-Land-UP,Phillips-Petro-UP,Unocal-UP, Schlu mberger-UP Introduction to Data Mining Technology1-DOWN Technology2-DOWN Financial-DOWN Oil-UP 4/18/2004 20
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Observations vs. Models Other considerations for observational data accuracy - how well the sensor measures the environment in an absolute sense resolution / precision - the ability of a sensor to see small differences in readings e.g. a temperature sensor may have a resolution of 0.000,01º C, but only be accurate to 0.001º C range - the maximum and minimum value range over which a sensor works well. repeatability - ability of a sensor to repeat a measurement when put back in the same environment - often directly related to accuracy drift/stability - low frequency change in a sensor with time - often associated with electronic aging of components or reference standards in the sensor hysteresis - present state depends on previous state; e.g., a linear up and down input to a sensor, results in output that lags the input, i.e., one curve on increasing pressure, and another on decreasing response time - typically estimated as the frequency response of a sensor assuming exponential behavior self heating - to measure the resistance in the thermistor to measure temperature, we need to put current through it settling time - the time for the sensor to reach a stable output once it is turned on Sundermeyer MAR 550 Spring 2013 13
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