Get Shutdown Status GET_SHUTDOWN_STATUS: RCA 0x20501 CDL Possibly caused by transient external event RCA 2 05 01 Description Get an integer value that tells the cause of the most recent rack shutdown. An integer is returned to be decoded as follows: 15- QCC Under Voltage V5   16- QCC Over Voltage V1.8 Full Quadrant Correlator Shutdown Status Definition 17- QCC Over Voltage V3.3 0- No Known Cause 18- QCC Over Voltage V5.0 1- Over Temperature 19- 6UBPS Over Current V3.3 2- 28V Voltage Lower Limit 20- No Cooling Air 3- 28V Voltage Upper Limit 21- Rectifier Major Error 4- Rectifier High Voltage 22- QPCC Under Voltage V3.3 5- Rectifier Low Voltage 23- QPCC Over Voltage V3.3 6- Over Voltage V1.8 24- QPCC Under Voltage V5.0 7- Over Voltage V3.3 25- QPCC Over Voltage V5.0 8- Over Voltage V5.0 26- Absolute Value of -48V Under Voltage 9- Rectifier Over Temperature 27- V1.8 Absolute Value of -48V Over Voltage 10- 9UBPS, 6UBPS, or Mezzanine Card Over Current 28- TFB Airflow Sensor Over Temperature 11- 9UBPS Over Current V3.3 29- QCC 125 MHz Clock has stopped 12- BPS Over Current V5 30- Probable Power outage. 13- QCC Under Voltage V1.8 48 Volts low plus other causes 14- QCC Under Voltage V3.3 31 Kill Signal from other Quadrants. 32 TFB 1.2V Supply Upper Current Limit Error >45.0 A 99- Multiple Causes ALMA Correlator Workshop, May 2016 9
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Potentiometer • A potentiometer (or pot) is a variable resistor wired to obtain a variable DC voltage proportional to position
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Potentiometer • A potentiometer (or pot) is a variable resistor wired to obtain a variable DC voltage proportional to position
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Potentiometer • A potentiometer (or pot) is a variable resistor wired to obtain a variable DC voltage proportional to position
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Chapter 21 Variable resistors Variable resistors include the potentiometer and rheostat. The center terminal of a variable resistor is R connected to the wiper. Shaft 1 3 2 Wiper Resistive element Variable resistor (potentiometer) R To connect a potentiometer as a rheostat, one of the outside terminals is connected to the wiper. Electronics Fundamentals 8th edition Floyd/Buchla Variable resistor (rheostat) © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
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Pull-up/Pull-down Resistor • In circuits where an input level is being detected, have a pull-up resistor can save the battery power. • In the accompanying diagram of a pull-up resistor, having the switch open allows the logic gate to sense the input voltage level without having to supply the voltage. When the switch is closed, the ground can be seen by the logic gate because of the voltage drop across the resistor. • Switching the position of the switch and the resistor will change what value the logic gate will sense when the switch is in the open position. In this case that would be a low so that is called a pull-down resistor. • In actual circuits the switch is replaced with a CMOS device resulting in an open-drain terminal. • This arrangement is very useful in 12C circuits.
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RAPTOR Syntax and Semantics - Arrays Array variable - Array variables are used to store many values (of the same type) without having to have many variable names. Instead of many variables names a count-controlled loop is used to gain access (index) the individual elements (values) of an array variable. RAPTOR has one and two dimensional arrays of numbers. A one dimensional array can be thought of as a sequence (or a list). A two dimensional array can be thought of as a table (grid or matrix). To create an array variable in RAPTOR, use it like an array variable. i.e. have an index, ex. Score[1], Values[x], Matrix[3,4], etc. All array variables are indexed starting with 1 and go up to the largest index used so far. RAPTOR array variables grow in size as needed. The assignment statement GPAs[24] ← 4.0 assigns the value 4.0 to the 24th element of the array GPAs. If the array variable GPAs had not been used before then the other 23 elements of the GPAs array are initialized to 0 at the same time. i.e. The array variable GPAs would have the following values: 1 2 3 4… Array variables in action- Arrays and count-controlled loop statements were made for each other. Notice in each example below the connection between the Loop Control Variable and the array index! Notice how the Length_Of function can be used in the count-controlled loop test! Notice that each example below is a count-controlled loop and has an Initialize, Test, Execute, and Modify part (I.T.E.M)! Assigning values to an array variable Reading values into an array variable Writing out an array variable’s values Computing the total and average of an array variable’s values Index ← 1 Index ← 1 Index ← 1 Total ← 0 Loop Loop Loop Index ← 1 PUT “The value of the array at position “ + Index + “ is “ + GPAs[Index] Loop GPAs[Index] ← 4.0 “Enter the GPA of student “” + Index + “: “ GET GPAs[Index] Index >= 24 Index >= 24 Index >= Length_Of (GPAs) Index ← Index + 1 Index ← Index + 1 Index ← Index + 1 Total ← Total + GPAs[Index] Index >= Length_Of(GPAs) Index ← Index + 1 … 23 24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.0 The initialization of previous elements to 0 happens only when the array variable is created. Successive assignment statements to the GPAs variable affect only the individual element listed. For example, the following successive assignment statements GPAs[20] GPAs[11] ← ← 1.7 3.2 would place the value 1.7 into the 20th position of the array, and would place the value 3.2 into the 11th position of the array. i.e. GPAs[20] ← 1.7 GPAs[11] ← 3.2 1 2 3 4… … 23 24 Initialize the elements of a two dimensional array (A two dimensional array requires two loops) Row ← 1 Loop Average ← Total / Length_Of(GPAs) Find the largest value of all the values in an array variable Find the INDEX of the largest value of all the values in an array variable Highest_GPA ← GPAs[1] Highest_GPA_Index ←1 Index ← 1 Index ← 1 Loop Loop GPAs[Index] > Highest_GPA GPAs[Index] >= GPAs[Highest_GPA_Index] Column ← 1 Loop 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.7 0 0 0 4.0 An array variable name, like GPAs, refers to ALL elements of the array. Adding an index (position) to the array variable enables you to refer to any specific element of the array variable. Two dimensional arrays work similarly. i.e. Table[7,2] refers to the element in the 7 th row and 2nd column. Individual elements of an array can be used exactly like any other variable. E.g. the array element GPAs[5] can be used anywhere the number variable X can be used. The Length_Of function can be used to determine (and return) the number of elements that are associated with a particular array variable. For example, after all the above, Length_Of(GPAs) is 24. Matrix[Row, Column] ← 1 Column >= 20 Column ← Column + 1 Highest_GPA ← GPAs[Index] Highest_GPA_Index ← Index Index >= Length_Of(GPAs) Index >= Length_Of(GPAs) Index ← Index + 1 Index ← Index + 1 PUT “The highest GPA is “ + Highest_GPA¶ PUT “The highest GPA is “ + GPAs[Highest_GPA_Index] + “ it is at position “ + Highest_GPA_Index¶ Row >= 20 Row ← Row + 1
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Challenge 6B: Potentiometer Alarm  Code a program to perform the following:  If the value of the potentiometer is greater than 2000, sound the speaker at 2000 Hz for 1 second.  If the value of the potentiometer is less than 1000, sound the speaker at 1000 Hz for 0.5 seconds.  Use the flowchart in programming your code. Main Read Potentiometer True Pot > 2000 Sound speaker 2000Hz for 1 second Main False False True Pot < 1000 Sound speaker 1000Hz for 0.5 second Solution Main 128
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Phasor Transforms of Resistors Dave Shattuck University of Houston © University of Houston The phasor transform of a resistor is just a resistor. Remember that a resistor is a device with a constant ratio of voltage to current. If you take the ratio of the phasor of the voltage to the phasor of the current for a resistor, you get the resistance. The ratio of phasor voltage to phasor current is called impedance, with units of [Ohms], or [W], and using a symbol Z. The ratio of phasor current to phasor voltage is called admittance, with units of [Siemens], or [S], and using a symbol Y. For a resistor, the impedance and admittance are real. Z R R Phasor Transform RX RX Inverse Phasor Transform YR G  1 R
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Resistors Resistors are passive elements that oppose/restrict the flow of current. A voltage is developed across its terminal, proportional to the current through the resistor. Variable resistor (potentiometer) V = IR Units: Ohms (Ω) Resistor ID and values for the IRB Marking Component ID R15 R4,5,10,11,12,13,14 R6 R16 Constant resistor Value 1k 1% 1k Ω 10k Ω 100k Ω 100Ω R3, 17,18,19,20 2.8k Ω R2 249k Ω R8 5.11k Ω R1 68.1k Ω R7 8.06k Ω R9 82.5k Ω 10k 1% 100k 1% 100Ω 1% 2.8k 1% 249k 1% 5.11k 1% 68.1k 1% 8.06k 1% 82.5k 1% 3
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POTENTIOMETER LOADING • For the unloaded potentiometer in Fig. 7.41, the output voltage is determined by the voltage divider rule, with RT in the figure representing the total resistance of the potentiometer. Introductory Circuit Analysis, 12/e Boylestad FIG. 7.41 Unloaded potentiometer. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint]
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Resistors in an AC Circuit, final The graph shows the current through and the voltage across the resistor. The current and the voltage reach their maximum values at the same time. The current and the voltage are said to be in phase. For a sinusoidal applied voltage, the current in a resistor is always in phase with the voltage across the resistor. The direction of the current has no effect on the behavior of the resistor. Resistors behave essentially the same way in both DC and AC circuits. Section 33.2
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Traffic Data               Building A, wired: mean traffic: Morning traffic: Afternoon traffic: Evening traffic: Late traffic: 1500632 Building A, wireless mean traffic: Morning traffic: Afternoon traffic: Evening traffic: Late traffic:  1338373 0635879 1567474 1658074                                   0385180 0151293 0443334 0510348 0431462         Building B, wired: mean traffic: Morning traffic: Afternoon traffic: Evening traffic: Late traffic: Building B, wireless mean traffic: Morning traffic: Afternoon traffic: Evening traffic: Late traffic: Building C, wired: mean traffic: Morning traffic: Afternoon traffic: Evening traffic: Late traffic: Building C, wireless: mean traffic: Morning traffic: Afternoon traffic: Evening traffic: Late traffic: Building D, wired: mean traffic: Morning traffic: Afternoon traffic: Evening traffic: Late traffic:  0485406 0554198 0923850 1250360 1004698       0485406 0252045 0457090 0601969 0632667       2226004 1355366 2186652 2685961 2679904       0518840 0273218 0589239 0595927 0618526 0940631 0433394 1030682 1226443 1070862           Building D, wireless: mean traffic: Morning traffic: Afternoon traffic: Evening traffic: Late traffic: 0232013 0106967 0261524 0275969 0284248 Building E, wired: mean traffic: Morning traffic: Afternoon traffic: Evening traffic: Late traffic: 2736774 1749143 2883202 2883202 3029265 Building E, wireless mean traffic: Morning traffic: Afternoon traffic: Evening traffic: Late traffic: 0220350 0095698 0238270 0266755 0279323 Building F, wired mean traffic: Morning traffic: Afternoon traffic: Evening traffic: Late traffic: 1454148 0753407 1453307 1777971 1824397 Building F, wireless mean traffic: Morning traffic: Afternoon traffic: Evening traffic: Late traffic: 0594082 0294939 0585958 0698761 0798366 Building G, wired mean traffic: Morning traffic: Afternoon traffic: Evening traffic: Late traffic: 2434864 1353150 2705124 2766664 2908279 Building G, wireless mean traffic: Morning traffic: Afternoon traffic: Evening traffic: Late traffic: 0264697 0131596 0299117 0307527 0322836
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Resistive Position Sensors Potentiometers • 3–terminal potentiometer wiring works best when the effect of the Handy Board’s 47K pull-up resistor is negligible; i.e., when the potentiometer resistance is small enough such that a 47K resistance in parallel with the pot’s resistance has only a small effect • 2–terminal potentiometer works best when the pot’s value is large and the 47K pull-up resistor would be problematic in the 3– terminal wiring Copyright Prentice Hall, 2001 11
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Reflective Optosensors Interfacing • Light-sensitive current source: the more light reaching the phototransistor, the more current passes through it – This creates a voltage drop in the 47K pull-up resistor on HB – This voltage drop is reflected in a smaller voltage on the Vsens sensor signal line, which has a level that is equal to 5 volts minus the 47K resistor’s voltage drop • Smaller values than 47K may be required to obtain good performance from the circuit – If transistor can typically generate currents >= 0.1 mA, then voltage drop across the pull-up resistor will be so high as to reduce Vsens to zero The current, i, flowing through the Q1 phototransistor is indicated by the dashed line. – Solution is to wire a smaller pull-up resistor with the sensor itself Copyright Prentice Hall, 2001 29
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Reflective Optosensors Interfacing • Light-sensitive current source: the more light reaching the phototransistor, the more current passes through it – This creates a voltage drop in the 47K pull-up resistor –This voltage drop is reflected in a smaller voltage on the Vsens sensor signal line, which has a level that is equal to 5 volts minus the 47K resistor’s voltage drop • Smaller values than 47K may be required to obtain good performance from the circuit – If transistor can typically generate currents >= 0.1 mA, then voltage drop across the pull-up resistor will be so high as to reduce Vsens to zero The current, i, flowing through the Q1 phototransistor is indicated by the dashed line. – Solution is to wire a smaller pull-up resistor with the sensor itself Copyright Prentice Hall, 2001 6
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BOOST PULSE WIDTH ALGORITHM          Add 200V internal supply reading with boost diode drop voltage to acquire effective boost switcher output voltage Get rectified AC voltage reading and convert to 200V reading scale Subtract AC rectified voltage from effective boost switcher output voltage to obtain boost difference voltage If result is negative, clip at 0 Divide boost difference voltage by boost output voltage to obtain duty cycle Take the square root to obtain scaled pulse width, and restore original scale Compare computed duty cycle to maximum duty cycle If computed duty cycle is out of range, set maximum duty cycle Set boost switcher pulse width for the next PWM period
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Open-Circuit (or No-Load) Test Here one winding is open-circuited and voltage---usually, rated voltage at rated frequency--is applied to the other winding. Voltage, current, and power at the terminals of this winding are measured. The open circuit voltage of the second winding is also measured, and from this measurement a check on the turns ratio can be obtained. It is usually convenient to apply the test voltage to the winding that has a voltage rating equal to that of the available power source. In step-up voltage transformers, this means that the open-circuit voltage of the second winding will be higher than the applied voltage, sometimes much higher. Care must be exercised in guarding the terminals of this winding to ensure safety for test personnel and to prevent these terminals from getting close to other electrical circuits, instrumentation, grounds, and so forth. In presenting the no-load parameters obtainable from test data, it is assumed that voltage is applied to the primary and the secondary is open-circuited. The no-load power loss is equal to the wattmeter reading in this test; core loss is found by subtracting the ohmic loss in the primary, which is usually small and may be neglected in some cases. Thus, if Po, Io and Vo are the input power, current, and voltage, then the core loss is given by:
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Instrumental Uncertainties     When evaluating the effect of uncertainties on a result, one has to be aware of the underlying principles of the experiment. As an important example, consider an electrical experiment involving a resistor with a 1% tolerance. Say you connect such a resistor to a battery and measure the current through it, I = V/R. The resistor’s value can be within 1% of the stated value, so say instead of 100 ohm it is 99 ohm. But repeated experiments with the same resistor will all be with a 99 ohm resistor. The error is a systematic error. However, let’s say an entire class is doing the experiment, each with their own 1%-tolerance resistor. Some will be 99 ohm, some will be 100 ohm, some will be 101 ohm. The collection of results with that 1%-tolerance resistor now has a random error of order 1%. Mar 5, 2010
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