LED Driver Addressing LED Driver LED Driver LED Driver LED Driver LED Driver LED Driver LED Driver LED Driver LED Driver LED Driver LED Driver LED Driver LED Driver LED Driver LED Driver LED Driver LED Driver LED Driver LED Driver LED Driver MODE, SIN, SCLK, BLANK, GSCLK All Common to MCU 5:32 Decoder selects 20 Addresses(0 – 19) to XLAT pins 5:32 Decoder A4 MCU A3 A2 A1 A0
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Absolute Encoders • doubling resolution requires adding another photodiode/LED pair • cost is much higher than incremental • does not require seeking to establish reference location
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Absolute Encoders • doubling resolution requires adding another photodiode/LED pair • cost is much higher than incremental • does not require seeking to establish reference location
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Absolute Encoders • doubling resolution requires adding another photodiode/LED pair • cost is much higher than incremental • does not require seeking to establish reference location
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24 Functions are not Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods F are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods Methods are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are are not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not not Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions Functions
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Introduction Research Objective Design & Methodology Model Development Data Collection Results & Analysis Conclusions Contributions & Limitations Future Research Example: Extreme future scenarios Ancillary benefits potential Energy savings potential -0.02 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 -0.02 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 Bi-level lighting controls for commercial offices Bi-level lighting controls for commercial offices Bi-level lighting controls for parking lots and garages Bi-level lighting controls for parking lots and garages Bi-level lighting controls for stairwells Bi-level lighting controls for stairwells LED lighting for area and parking lot lighting LED lighting for area and parking lot lighting LED lighting for street lighting LED lighting for street lighting LED lighting for outdoor wall-mounted area luminaries LED lighting for outdoor wall-mounted area luminaries LED lighting for commercial offices Variable capacity compressors for packaged rooftop units Demand-controlled ventilation for commercial kitchens Variable capacity compressors for packaged rooftop units 3rd Air side economizers for data centers Advanced controls with remote access and energy monitoring for packaged rooftop units 2nd Low-cost energy management and control systems for small to medium size commercial buildings Web-enabled thermostats for small to medium size commercial buildings Web-enabled thermostats for small to medium size commercial buildings Market dissemination potential Program development and implementation potential -0.02 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 -0.02 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 Bi-level lighting controls for commercial offices Bi-level lighting controls for commercial offices Bi-level lighting controls for parking lots and garages Bi-level lighting controls for parking lots and garages Bi-level lighting controls for stairwells LED lighting for street lighting LED lighting for outdoor wall-mounted area luminaries 2nd Air side economizers for data centers Low-cost energy management and control systems for small to medium size commercial buildings LED lighting for area and parking lot lighting 3 LED lighting for commercial offices 1st Demand-controlled ventilation for commercial kitchens Advanced controls with remote access and energy monitoring for packaged rooftop units 1st rd 2nd Bi-level lighting controls for stairwells 3 rd LED lighting for area and parking lot lighting 1 2nd st LED lighting for street lighting LED lighting for outdoor wall-mounted area luminaries LED lighting for commercial offices LED lighting for commercial offices Demand-controlled ventilation for commercial kitchens Demand-controlled ventilation for commercial kitchens Variable capacity compressors for packaged rooftop units Variable capacity compressors for packaged rooftop units Advanced controls with remote access and energy monitoring for packaged rooftop units Advanced controls with remote access and energy monitoring for packaged rooftop units Air side economizers for data centers Air side economizers for data centers Low-cost energy management and control systems for small to medium size commercial buildings Low-cost energy management and control systems for small to medium size commercial buildings Web-enabled thermostats for small to medium size commercial buildings Web-enabled thermostats for small to medium size commercial buildings 1st 3 rd 21
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Precision or Resolution it’s not the same as scale or accuracy! • resolution and scale 3.2ft Precision: the exactness of measurement or description • the “size” of the “smallest” feature which can be displayed, recognized, or described • Can apply to space, time (e.g. daily versus annual), or attribute (douglas fir v. conifer) • for raster data, it is the size of the pixel (resolution) – e.g. for NTGISC digital orthos is 1.6ft (half meter) 3.2ft • raster data can be resampled by combining adjacent cells; this decreases resolution but saves storage 1.6ft – eg 1.6 ft to 3.2 ft (1/4 storage); to 6.4 ft (1/16 storage) – generally, increasing to larger scale allows features to be observed better and requires higher resolution – but, because of the human eye’s ability to recognize patterns, features in a lower resolution data set can sometimes be observed better by decreasing the scale (6.4 ft resolution shown at 1:400 rather than 1:200) • resolution and positional accuracy – you can see a feature (resolution), but it may not be in the right place (accuracy) – higher accuracy generally costs much more to obtain than higher resolution – accuracy cannot be greater (but may be much less) than resolution (e.g. if pixel size is one meter, then best accuracy possible is one meter) 7 03/18/19 Ron Briggs, UTDallas GISC 6381 GIS Fundamentals
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Quadrature Shaft Encoding • Basic shaft encoding method: measures how far an axle rotates and its speed, but cannot tell when the axle changes direction • Quadrature Shaft Encoding: measures precise rotation of axles and velocity; maintains accurate counts even when the axle’s direction of rotation changes • Applications: – Position monitoring of trapped systems, where the mechanics of a system limit travel between known stop positions, e.g., rotary robot arms, where encoders are used to measure joint angles, and Cartesian robots, where the rotation of a long worm screw moves a rack back and forth – Measure the motion of robot wheels, as part of dead-reckoning robot positioning systems. By accumulating the result of a robot’s wheels driving it along a surface, an estimate of overall translational movement can be made. A pair of encoders is used on a single shaft. The encoders are aligned so that their two data streams are one quarter cycle (90 deg.) out of phase. When rapidly sampling the data from the two encoders, only one of the encoders will change state at a time. Which encoder changes determines the direction that the shaft is rotating. Copyright Prentice Hall, 2001 12
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Doubling Metrics ( Definition (doubling dimension Metric (X,δ) has doubling dimension d if every ball can be covered by 2d balls of half the radius. • FACT: Euclidean space ℝd has doubling dimension Ѳ(d) Doubling metric = constant doubling dimension Extensively studied [Assouad83, Clarkson97, GKL03, …]
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Doubling Metrics ( Definition (doubling dimension Metric (X,δ) has doubling dimension d if every ball can be covered by 2d balls of half the radius. • FACT: Euclidean space ℝd has doubling dimension Ѳ(d) Doubling metric = constant doubling dimension constant-dim Euclidean metrics Extensively studied [Assouad83, Clarkson97, GKL03, …]
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Doubling Dimension  Definition: Ball B(x,r) = all points within distance r from x.  The doubling constant (of a metric M) is the minimum value >0 such that every ball can be covered by  balls of half the radius   First used by [Assoud ‘83], algorithmically by [Clarkson ‘97]. The doubling dimension is ddim(M)=log(M)    [Gupta,Krauthgamer,Lee ‘03] A metric is doubling if its doubling dimension is constant Packing property of doubling spaces  A set with diameter D and min. inter-point distance a, contains at most (D/a)O(ddim) points Here ≤7. 7
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Joining Tables with SELECT Backus Naur Form (BNF) Notation [} [ FROM { | } [WHERE [{ }...]] [GROUP BY ] [HAVING [{ }...]] [ORDER BY ] [LIMIT [,] ] ] ::= {
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