A Computer Specification  Consider the following specification for a personal computer: • • • • • •  600 MHz Pentium III Processor 256 MB RAM 16 GB Hard Disk 24x speed CD ROM Drive 17” Multimedia Video Display with 1280 x 1024 resolution 56 KB Modem What does it all mean? 9
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Identifying Your System Configuration Different system configurations:  One hard disk drive, one CD-ROM drive, and one floppy disk drive  One hard disk drive, one CD-ROM drive, one floppy disk drive, and one Zip drive  Two hard disk drives, one CD-ROM drive, and one floppy disk drive  One hard disk drive, one CD-ROM drive, one readwrite CD-ROM drive, and one floppy disk drive Ch1 26
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LUCENT’S OPERATING EXPOSURE Base Case Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Assumptions Exchange rate, $/€ 1.2000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 Sales volume (units) 1,000,000 1,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 Sales price per unit € 12.80 € 12.80 € 12.80 € 15.36 Direct cost per unit € 9.60 € 9.60 € 9.60 € 9.60 Annual Cash Flows before Adjustme nts Sales revenue € 12,800,000 € 12,800,000 € 25,600,000 € 15,360,000 Direct cost of goods sold 9,600,000 9,600,000 19,200,000 9,600,000 Cash operating expenses (fixed) 890,000 890,000 890,000 890,000 Depreciation 600,000 600,000 600,000 600,000 Pretax profit € 1,710,000 € 1,710,000 € 4,910,000 € 4,270,000 Income tax expense 34% 581,400 581,400 1,669,400 1,451,800 Profit after tax € 1,128,600 € 1,128,600 € 3,240,600 € 2,818,200 Add back depreciation 600,000 600,000 600,000 600,000 Cash flow from operations, in euros € 1,728,600 € 1,728,600 € 3,840,600 € 3,418,200 Cash flow from operations, in dollars $ 2,074,320 $ 1,728,600 $ 3,840,600 $ 3,418,200 Adjustme nts to Working Capital for 2003 and 2007 Caused by Change s in Conditions Accounts receivable, 25 % sales € 3,200,000 € 3,200,000 € 6,400,000 € 3,840,000 Inventory, 25 % costs 2,400,000 2,400,000 4,800,000 2,400,000 Sum € 5,600,000 € 5,600,000 € 11,200,000 € 6,240,000 Change from base conditions in 2003 € € € 5,600,000 € 640,000 Year Year-End Cash Flows 1 (2003) $ 2,074,320 $ 1,728,600 $ (1,759,400) $ 2,778,200 2 (2004) $ 2,074,320 $ 1,728,600 $ 3,840,600 $ 3,418,200 3 (2005) $ 2,074,320 $ 1,728,600 $ 3,840,600 $ 3,418,200 4 (2006) $ 2,074,320 $ 1,728,600 $ 3,840,600 $ 3,418,200 5 (2007) $ 2,074,320 $ 1,728,600 $ 9,440,600 $ 4,058,200 Year Year-End Cash Flows Change from Base 1 (2003) $ (345,720) $ (3,833,720) $ 703,880 2 (2004) $ (345,720) $ 1,766,280 $ 1,343,880 3 (2005) $ (345,720) $ 1,766,280 $ 1,343,880 4 (2006) $ (345,720) $ 1,766,280 $ 1,343,880 5 (2007) $ (345,720) $ 7,366,280 $ 1,983,880 Present Value of Increme ntal Ye ar-End Cash Flows 7 20 % WACC $ (1,033,914) $ 2,866,106 $ 3,742,892
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A Computer Specification • Consider the following specification for a personal computer:       2.8 GHz Pentium 4 Processor 512 MB RAM 80 GB Hard Disk 48x CD-RW / DVD-ROM Combo Drive 17” Video Display with 1280 x 1024 resolution 56 Kb/s Modem • What does it all mean? © 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-17
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04EI Die unterschiedlichen Derivate der C166-Familie High-Integration * 16 MByte Adreßraum * 2/4 KByte RAM * 32 CAPCOM * 4 PWM * 2 Serielle Schnittstellen * 5 Timer * Chip Selects erleichtern die Systemerweiterung * Extensive I/O C167CS * 11KB RAM * 256K Flash * 2 CAN Module * 24 ADC * RTC & Power Managem. * PLL C167CR/SR C167 * 2KB RAM C167S * CAN (nur CR) * 4K RAM * PLL * 32K ROM * 2KB RAM * PLL General Purpose * Ausgewogene Peripherie für eine Großzahl von Applikationen * 1K / 2 KB RAM * ROM / Flash / OTP Low-Cost ES - Version 2.0 * Different RAM Size * 16 M Addr. Range * 3/5 16-bit Timers * Serial i/f SSP, SSC * Reduced Chip Selects * Wide Ext. Bus Support * 3 V Options * 25 MHz Option * CAPCOM * PWM * Serial Interfaces * Timer * 10-bit / 8bit ADC * Full Bus Support/ MUX Bus only C165 * 2KB RAM * 3V * P-MQFP-100 * P-TQFP-100 27.09.08 C164CI 8xC166 * 1KB RAM * 32KB ROM * 32KB Flash * P-MQFP-100 C163 * 1KB RAM * SSP * 3V * Red. Peripherals * P-TQFP-100 * 2KB RAM * 64KB OTP/ROM/Flash * Full-CAN 2.0B * Power Management / RTC * Motor Control Peripheral * P-MQFP-80 C161RI C161xx * Großes RAM * Großes Flash * 3KB RAM * Pwr. Man. / RTC * Pwr. Man. / RTC * I2C Schnittstelle * I2C Interface * CAPCOM * 16MHz CPU * ADC * 2 USARTs * 4 M Adreßraum * CAN / J1850 * 1-2KB RAM * ADC * P-MQFP-80 C161V/K/O Seite 6
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04EI The different derivate of the C166-family (since 1993) High-Integration * 16 MByte Address space * 2/4 KByte RAM * 32 CAPCOM * 4 PWM * 2 Serial interfaces * 5 Timers • Chip Selects makes the extension of the system Easier * Extensive I/O C167CS * 11KB RAM * 256K Flash * 2 CAN Module * 24 ADC * RTC & Power Managem. * PLL C167CR/SR C167 * 2KB RAM C167S * CAN (nur CR) * 4K RAM * PLL * 32K ROM * 2KB RAM * PLL General Purpose * Balanced peripherial * CAPCOM devices for a great number * PWM of applications * Serial Interfaces * Timer * 10-bit / 8bit ADC * 1K / 2 KB RAM * Full Bus Support/ * ROM / Flash / OTP MUX Bus only Low-Cost ES - Version 2.0 * Different RAM Size * 16 M Addr. Range * 3/5 16-bit Timers * Serial i/f SSP, SSC * Reduced Chip Selects * Wide Ext. Bus Support * 3 V Options * 25 MHz Option C165 * 2KB RAM * 3V * P-MQFP-100 * P-TQFP-100 12.08.2013 C164CI 8xC166 * 1KB RAM * 32KB ROM * 32KB Flash * P-MQFP-100 C163 * 1KB RAM * SSP * 3V * Red. Peripherals * P-TQFP-100 * 2KB RAM * 64KB OTP/ROM/Flash * Full-CAN 2.0B * Power Management / RTC * Motor Control Peripheral * P-MQFP-80 C161RI C161xx * Großes RAM * Großes Flash * 3KB RAM * Pwr. Man. / RTC * Pwr. Man. / RTC * I2C Schnittstelle * I2C Interface * CAPCOM * 16MHz CPU * ADC * 2 USARTs * 4 M Adreßraum * CAN / J1850 * 1-2KB RAM * ADC * P-MQFP-80 C161V/K/O page 7
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Older Vector Machines Machine Cray 1 Cray XMP Cray YMP Cray C-90 Cray T-90 Conv. C-1 Conv. C-4 Fuj. VP200 Fuj. VP300 NEC SX/2 NEC SX/3 03/24/19 Year 1976 1983 1988 1991 1996 1984 1994 1982 1996 1984 1995 Clock Regs Elements FUs LSUs 80 MHz 8 64 6 1 120 MHz 8 64 8 2 L, 1 S 166 MHz 8 64 8 2 L, 1 S 240 MHz 8 128 8 4 455 MHz 8 128 8 4 10 MHz 8 128 4 1 133 MHz 16 128 3 1 133 MHz 8-256 32-1024 3 2 100 MHz 8-256 32-1024 3 2 160 MHz 8+8K 256+var 16 8 400 MHz 8+8K 256+var 16 8 41
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Winnow - Example f  x1  x2  x1023  x1024 Initialize :  1024; w (1,1,...,1)  (1,1,...,1),   w  x  w (1,1,...,1)  (0 ,0,...,0),-  w x  w (1,1,....,1)  (0,0,111, , , ,0),   (1,0,0,...,0),   (1,0,1,1,0..,0),    (1,0,1,0,0..,1),   w x  w x  w x  w x  .......................  (1,0,1,0...,1),   ok ok w (1,1,....,1) ok w (2,1,....,1) mistake w (4,1,2,2...,1) mistake w (8,1,4,2...,2) mistake Notice that the same algorithm will learn a conjunction over these variables (w=(256,256,0,…32, …256,256) ) log(n/2) (for each good variable) w (512,1,256,256,....,256) w  x  w (512,1,256,256,....,256) ok  (0,0,1,0.111..,0),   w  x  w (512,1,0,..0,...,256) mistake (eliminationversion) .......................... w (1024,1024,0,0,0,1,32,...,1024,1024) (fi nal hypothesis) ONLINE LEARNING CS446 -Spring ‘17 21
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CD-ROM/DVD-ROM/BD-ROM: Disadvantage Disadvantage of CD-ROM/DVD-ROM/BD-ROM compared to ROM: speed.  CD-ROM/DVD-ROM/BD-ROM are much slower than ROM.   CD-ROM is 7.6 MB/sec (peak); DVD-ROM is 16 MB/sec; BD-ROM is 17 MB/sec. Most ROM these days is 21,328 MB/sec (1200+ times as fast as DVD or Blu-ray and 2800 times as fast as CD). Hardware Lesson CS1313 Spring 2009 30
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802.11n Channel Bonding and 20/40 MHz Operation 20 MHz operation Transition 40  20 MHz, see: Traffic in overlapping cells in 20 MHz channel (including control frames) Traffic in this cell in 40 MHz channel (HT greenfield mode) mode) 20 MHz operation Phased Coexistence Operation (PCO) Traffic in this cell in 20 MHz channel (HTHT-Mixed mode or NonNon-HT mode) mode) Transition 20  40 MHz, see: In both 20 MHz and 40 MHz operation, all control and management frames are transmitted in primary channel 40 MHz operation Phased Coexistence Operation (PCO) Secondary 20 MHz channel Primary 20 MHz channel Frequency Traffic in this cell in 20 MHz channel (HTHT-Mixed mode or NonNon-HT mode) mode) Traffic in overlapping cells in 20 MHz channel (including control frames)
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