Year Current Expected Stable Terminal Cost Weights Discount Op. Riskfree Beta M Unlevered Firm’s Reinvestment Return 170.30 Lambda + C Country R X On 1.67 $ Expected ountry el ature Cashflows July Equity Assets ofD/E Growth on market 1, Equity Debt Equity Default Cashflow Value at Rate inflation Capital Growth 2009 Beta $289.06 $ Cost Rate : Risk =for 33.14(.1155-.035) of to 1 Capital Firm (WACC) 2$ = $411.6 =in 15.48% 3(.849) + 5.954(0.151) = 14.04% 5 5 + Cementos Pacasmayo: 2009 EBIT(1-t) in g 15.48% (3.5%+ E + $ 1.15 premium Sectors: Ratio: 16.45% 1.22 Premium Spread Mkt Cementos US EBIT 51.60 48.2% = Riskfree Cash: =EBIT = 3.5%; 84.9% Vol (1-t) 2% 17.8% 2.5%+ (1-t) 1.02 : Rate= Beta Price D = 12.06 2.5%)(1-.30) 15.1% ==3.5% 1.00 PEN PEN 3.01 112.35 PEN 131 121 PEN 141 PEN 152 PEN 165 ..482*.1645=0.0793 Country -= 6% 118.70 4.17% 2.5% Peru= -Debt Nt 5.95% Reinvestment CpX 5% Premium= 77.04 2.5% PEN 58 49.50 PEN 63 PEN 68 PEN 73 PEN 79 7.93% -Cost 3.58 FCFF ChgofWC Minor. capital Int. =0.60 11.55% PEN 63 4.65 PEN 68 PEN 73 PEN 79 PEN 85 = 33.14 ROC= =Equity $ Exchange FCFF11.55%; rate $223.483.10 PEN 58.20 3.19 3.28 3.38 3.48 PEN/ US Reinvestment Exchange FCFF (In $ US $)Rate=g/ROC 3.01$20.27 3.23 $21.26 $22.29 $23.37 $24.50 Reinv11.55= =3.5/ Equity Rate PEN = 30.30% (49.5+4.65)/112.35 672.67 = 48.2% Value/Share PEN 1.60 Aswath Damodaran
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P16065 Antisense Copies of Light-Regulated Genes in Rice Abstract T Mike1, N Joshi1, J Bird1, K Margavage1,2, Bryant Morocho1, X-W Deng2, W Terzaghi1,2 Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) are RNAs complementary to sense RNAs that are known to play roles in gene regulation. We studied 21 genes with NAT that are involved in light-regulated pathways in Nipponbare rice (Oryza sativa japonica). Of these genes, 17 were detected by RT-PCR in shoots and roots of Nipponbare seedlings. RTPCR of the Os12g17600 rbcS gene detected multiple small antisense fragments rather than one continuous RNA. Quantitative RT-PCR of Os12g17600 identified 5-fold more sense than NAT in shoots of seedlings grown in light, but 14-fold more sense than NAT in darkgrown seedlings. qRT-PCR of the Os03g51030 PHYA gene indicated that all light treatments decreased the ratio of sense to antisense with the exception of far-red light, which increased the ratio. Several genes exhibited reciprocal regulation of NAT and sense RNAs according to light treatment. Low molecular weight RNA blots of the Os03g07300/ Os03g07310 gene pair identified a small RNA (~40 nucleotides) that was only observed in light-treated roots. These small RNAs might be used to down-regulate the expression of genes turned on by light in roots. 1 Wilkes University, Wilkes-Barre, PA - 2YaleUniversity, New Haven, CT Os03g07300/ Os03g07310 (ribulose-3-P epimerase/ axi protein) Os02g05830 (rbcS2) Conclusions  17 of 21 light-regulated genes examined have NATs, 5 of which are regulated by light  Several genes show reciprocal regulation of mRNA and NAT  Some NATs were processed into small RNAs which may help regulate sense/ antisense RNA transcription  qRT-PCR detected:  ~14-fold more rbcS mRNA than NAT transcripts in shoots grown in continuous darkness  ~5-fold more mRNA than NAT in shoots grown in continuous light  Roots grown 4hr in white light do not increase expression of rbcS mRNA  phyA NAT expression greatly increased upon exposure to white light for 4 Hr or to1mmol. m2 red light. Introduction Discussion  Natural Antisense Transcripts (NATs) RNA molecules complementary to other “sense” RNAs  Present in a variety of organisms, NATs are involved in RNA editing, genomic imprinting, viral defense, etc.  Sense-antisense RNA pairs may reciprocally regulate each other’s production: when production of one transcript increases, production of the other decreases  Prevalence of NATs in plants suggests that NATs may help regulate light responses  Light responses are regulated by complex networks of transcripts  Some antisense RNA is involved in circadian rhythms  Although NATs have been identified in model plant species, their functions are not clear  Tiling-path microarrays identified thousands of genes with NATs   17 of 21 NATs of light-regulated genes found by microarrays were confirmed, validating this high-throughput approach.  Reciprocal light regulation of sense and antisense transcripts was detected for several genes, providing a potential mechanism for regulating the abundance of specific transcripts in response to light. Figure 2: The Os03g07300/ Os03g07310 (ribulose-3-P epimerase/ axi protein) gene pair. A) Low molecular weight Northern showing a 40 nt, root-specific RNA derived from Os03g07310. B) RT-PCR confirming the presence of mRNA of both genes in the leaf tissues. LL: light-grown leaf; DL: dark-grown leaf.  Overlapping NATs initiated from several start sites were identified for Figure 3: Reciprocal regulation of Os02g05830 (rbcS2). In tissues expressing higher levels of NAT, the mRNA is found at lower levels, and vice versa, indicating reciprocal regulation. Os12g17600  Suggests that antisense is not initiated from a single promoter.  Small RNAs derived from several overlapping gene pairs were detected, which may help regulate their expression. LL: light leaf; DL: dark leaf; LR: light root; DR: dark root; 4hr. WL: 4 hour white light; 4hr. WR: 4 hour white root; RL: red leaf; RR: red root; FRL: far red leaf; FRR: far red root; BL: blue leaf; BR: blue root.  NATs are induced in greater magnitudes than sense mRNA in both rbcS and phyA leaves under various light treatments  Questions that still need answers:   Os03g51030 (PHYA) Os12g17600 (rbcS)    Which photoreceptors are involved? Do NATs help modulate light-regulated gene expression? How is NAT/ mRNA production regulated? Are NATs polyadenylated? Sequence of 40nt RNA product of 07300 gene? Methods Figure 1: Antisense and light regulation. High-throughput techniques identified large numbers of antisense and lightregulated transcripts. This research tested the hypothesis that antisense may play a role in light regulation.  Identified antisense transcripts from light-regulated genes in Japonica rice  Query microarray, MPSS, and cDNA databases  Treated seedlings to a variety of lighting conditions to determine effect on mRNA and antisense transcription Plants were grown: 10 days continuous white light or continuous darkness  10 days continuous darkness followed by 4 hours white light  10 days continuous darkness followed by either 1 mmol red light, 1 mmol far red light, or 1 mmol blue, then far red  RNA was extracted from roots and leaves using Ambion’s miRvana Total RNA Isolation kit.  Detection of mRNA and antisense utilized:  Northern blots to verify presence of RNA  Reverse Transcription using the 5’ or 3’ primer only  Real time PCR to quantify relative expression   Expression of Sense and Antisense phyA Transcripts Relative to DLAS in Shoots B) Table 1: Strength of detected antisense signals. The gene pairs in the red box overlap at their annotated 3’ ends and the snoRNA are transcribed from the opposite strands of RPT2 exons. The antisense strands of the remaining genes have no annotated functions. Blue Dark Far Red Light Red 4 hr White Antisense Sense Ratio S:A 1.2 156.0 130.9 1.0 152.1 152.1 0.8 132.2 172.6 2.0 81.9 41.8 4.9 112.3 23.0 2.5 186.9 75.3 B) Expression of Sense and Antisense rbcS Transcripts Relative to DLAS in Shoots Blue Dark Far Red Light Red 4 hr White Antisense 5.8 1.0 Sense Ratio S:A 85.3 14.7 13.9 13.9 5.5 100.6 11.0 57.4 527.3 122.5 10.4 5.2 11.2 40.2 284.0 7.1 Expression of Sense and Antisense rbcS Transcripts Relative to DRAS in Roots Blue Dark Far Red Light Red 4 hr White Antisense 0.4 1.0 Sense Ratio S:A 5.5 12.5 9.8 9.8 1.2 2418.4 153.8 15.7 16842.5 1854.2 12.9 7.0 12.1 0.1 2.5 19.4 Figure 4: Induction of Os03g51030 (phyA) in seedling shoots by various light treatments. Figure 5: Induction of Os12g17600 (rbcS) in seedling shoots by various light treatments. A) Graph of level of induction of sense and antisense standardized to the corresponding dark sample. A)Graph of level of induction of sense and antisense standardized to the corresponding dark sample. B) Expression levels of sense and antisense RNA in shoots relative to dark shoot antisense along with the ratio of sense to antisense. B)Expression levels of sense and antisense RNA in shoots (left) relative to dark shoot antisense and roots (right) relative to dark root antisense along with the ratio of sense to antisense. Acknowledgements This research was primarily supported by NSF grant DBI-0421675: Virtual Center for Analysis of Rice Genome Transcription (XingWang Deng, PI). Additional support from Wilkes University, Yale University, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute is also gratefully acknowledged.
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Input / Output Devices Monitor Keyboard Monitor screen Keyboard Mouse Bar code scanner Light pen Touch screen Central Processing Unit I/O devices allow user interaction Hard Disk Main Memory Floppy Disk 4
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XP JavaScript Event Holders This figure describes event handlers that JavaScript provides. Category Event Handler Description Netscape IE Window and Document events onload The browser has completed loading the document. 2.0 3.0 onunload The browser has completed unloading the document. 2.0 3.0 onabort onerror The transfer of an image as been aborted. An error has occurred in the JavaScript program. 3.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 onmove onresize onscroll onfocus onblur onchange onselect The user has moved the browser window. The user has resized the browser window. The user has moved the scrollbar. The user has entered an input field. The user has exited an input field. The content of an input field has changed. The user has selected text in an input or textarea field. 4.0 4.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 onsubmit onreset onkeydown onkeyup onkeypress onclick ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmousemove onmouseover onmouseout A form has been submitted. The user has clicked the Reset button. The user has begun pressing a key. The user has released a key. The user has pressed and released a key. The user has clicked the mouse button. The user has double-clicked the mouse button. The user has begun pressing the mouse button. The user has released the mouse button. The user has moved the mouse pointer. The user has moved the mouse over an element. The user has moved the mouse out from an element. 2.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 2.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 2.0 3.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 4.0 Form events Keyboard and Mouse events Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e Prepared by: C. Hueckstaedt, Tutorial 9 36
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Input / Output Devices Monitor Keyboard Monitor screen Keyboard Mouse Joystick Bar code scanner Touch screen © 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Central Processing Unit I/O devices facilitate user interaction Hard Disk Main Memory Floppy Disk 1-8
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Using Interview Results To Construct Personas Step 2: Map interview subjects to behavioral variables User 8 Place each interviewee variable’s range of values. User 7 within each User User 3 Variable 1: Frequency of photo-taking (in photos/month) User 5 0 Variable 2: Frequency of photo- Never viewing Variable 3: User 9 Frequency of photoNever sharing 1 2 3 4 User User 4 10 7 User 2 User Rarely User 8 User 1 Rarely Variable 4: Photo User 8 User 4 CS 321 organization Lesson Six strategy Unorganized Date Only Personas Page 7 User 6 User 9 10 1 User 4 User User 6 Occasionally User 3 User 2 Occasionally User 7 User 2 User 1 Date & Site 5 User 2 6 User 8 User 3 User 1 7 User 9 Frequently User 7 User 5 User 4 8+ Daily User User 10 6 Frequently Daily User User 10 3 User 9 User 6 User 5 Date & Person All 3
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Using Interview Results To Construct Personas Step 3: Identify significant behavior patterns Look for sets of subjects who cluster in several Users 1, 4, & 7 variables. User take few User User pictures and are Variable 1: User User User User User 7 10 Frequency of pretty average 9 5 4 1 6 photo-taking in viewing, 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (in sharing, and User photos/mont Users 5&6 organizing. User User User 8 h) share photos 10 User 4 User User User 3 rather heavily Variable 7 2 6 1 and want 2: Rarel Occasionall Frequentl maximum Frequency Never y y Usery organization. of photoUsers 2 & 3 are User User User User 7 viewing User heavy photo 3 5 Variable User User User User 8 10 9 takers, but only 3: 1 2 4 6 average when it Frequency Never Rarel Occasionall Frequentl comes to of photoy y y User viewing, sharing User 7 User Variable 4: sharing, and User User User 2 User 10 Photo CS 321 organizing. 4 1 3 organizatio 8 Lesson Six Personas n strategyUnorganize Date Only Date & Site Date & Page 8 d Person User 8 User 3 2 8 + User 9 Daily Daily User User 9 User 6 5 All 3
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Tracing our algorithm • call stack: The method invocations running at any one time. public static void reverseLines(Scanner input) { reverseLines(new Scanner("poem.txt")); if (input.hasNextLine()) { String line = input.nextLine(); // "Roses are red," public static void reverseLines(Scanner input) { reverseLines(input); if (input.hasNextLine()) { System.out.println(line); String line = input.nextLine(); // "Violets are blue." } static public void reverseLines(Scanner input) { reverseLines(input); } if (input.hasNextLine()) { System.out.println(line); String line = input.nextLine(); // "All my base" } static public void reverseLines(Scanner input) { reverseLines(input); } if (input.hasNextLine()) { System.out.println(line); String line = input.nextLine(); // "Are belong to you." } static public void reverseLines(Scanner input) { reverseLines(input); } if (input.hasNextLine()) { // false System.out.println(line); ... } } file: output: } input } Roses are red, Are belong to you. Violets are blue. All my base All my base Violets are blue. Are belong to you. Roses are red, 32
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21.1 Input/Output Devices and Controllers Table 3.3 Some input, output, and two-way I/O devices. Input type Prime examples Other examples Data rate (b/s) Main uses Symbol Keyboard, keypad Music note, OCR 10s Ubiquitous Position Mouse, touchpad Stick, wheel, glove 100s Ubiquitous Identity Barcode reader Badge, fingerprint 100s Sales, security Sensory Touch, motion, light Scent, brain signal 100s Control, security Audio Microphone Phone, radio, tape 1000s Ubiquitous Image Scanner, camera Graphic tablet 1000s-106s Photos, publishing Video Camcorder, DVD VCR, TV cable 1000s-109s Entertainment Output type Prime examples Other examples Data rate (b/s) Main uses Symbol LCD line segments LED, status light 10s Ubiquitous Position Stepper motor Robotic motion 100s Ubiquitous Warning Buzzer, bell, siren Flashing light A few Safety, security Sensory Braille text Scent, brain stimulus 100s Personal assistance Audio Speaker, audiotape Voice synthesizer 1000s Ubiquitous Image Monitor, printer Plotter, microfilm 1000s Ubiquitous Video Monitor, TV screen Film/video recorder 1000s-109s Entertainment Two-way I/O Prime examples Other examples Data rate (b/s) Main uses Mass storage Hard/floppy disk CD, tape, archive 106s Ubiquitous Network 9 Modem, fax,Computer LAN Cable, DSL, ATM s Architecture, Input/Output and1000s-10 Interfacing Ubiquitous Slide 5
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Mouse Events • Events related to the mouse are separated into mouse events and mouse motion events • Mouse Events: mouse pressed the mouse button is pressed down mouse released the mouse button is released mouse clicked the mouse button is pressed down and released without moving the mouse in between mouse entered the mouse pointer is moved onto (over) a component mouse exited the mouse pointer is moved off of a component © 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 7-49
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I/O Devices • Very diverse devices — behavior (i.e., input vs. output) — partner (who is at the other end?) — data rate Device Keyboard Mouse Voice input Scanner Voice output Line printer Laser printer Graphics display Modem Network/LAN Floppy disk Optical disk Magnetic tape Magnetic disk CSE 45432 SUNY New Paltz Behavior input input input input output output output output input or output input or output storage storage storage storage Partner human human human human human human human human machine machine machine machine machine machine Data rate (KB/sec) 0.01 0.02 0.02 400.00 0.60 1.00 200.00 60,000.00 2.00-8.00 500.00-6000.00 100.00 1000.00 2000.00 2000.00-10,000.00 4
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public static void main ( String s[] ) { Scanner in = new Scanner( System.in ); //prompt for a date System.out.print( "Enter date --> " ); //read the date int month = in.nextInt(); int day = in.nextInt(); int year = in.nextInt(); //echo the input System.out.println(); System.out.println( "You entered m=" + month + " d=" + day + " y=" + year ); //convert the date //output the converted date in.close(); } Run: Enter date --> 12/1/2008 Exception in thread "main" java.util.InputMismatchException at java.util.Scanner.throwFor(Scanner.java:819) at java.util.Scanner.next(Scanner.java:1431) at java.util.Scanner.nextInt(Scanner.java:2040) at java.util.Scanner.nextInt(Scanner.java:2000) at Convert.main(Convert.java:10) Humph! Integers aren’t delimited (separated) by /. They are only separated by whitespace (return/enter, spacebar, or tab).
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ASCII Confirmation Program #3 ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII Characters & Strings Lesson 1 CS1313 Fall 2016 Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ 16
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Sample Student Schedule Grade 9 English Social Studies Math Science Foreign Language Intro to Engineering Design Physical Education Grade 10 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit .5 unit Grade 11 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit .5 unit Grade 12 English Social Studies Math Science Digital Electronics 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit *Computer Integrated Manufacturing 1 unit *Civil Engineer and Architecture *Biotechnical Engineering *Aerospace Engineering Physical Education English Social Studies Math Science Foreign Language Principles of Engineering Physical Education 1 unit .5 unit English Social Studies Math Science Engineering Design and Development Health Physical Education 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit .5 unit .5 unit
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ASCII Confirmation Program #4 ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code # 96 # 97 # 98 # 99 #100 #101 #102 #103 #104 #105 #106 #107 #108 #109 #110 #111 is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: ‘ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII Characters & Strings Lesson 1 CS1313 Fall 2016 Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code #112 #113 #114 #115 #116 #117 #118 #119 #120 #121 #122 #123 #124 #125 #126 is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ~ 17
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Identifying Your System Configuration Different system configurations:  One hard disk drive, one CD-ROM drive, and one floppy disk drive  One hard disk drive, one CD-ROM drive, one floppy disk drive, and one Zip drive  Two hard disk drives, one CD-ROM drive, and one floppy disk drive  One hard disk drive, one CD-ROM drive, one readwrite CD-ROM drive, and one floppy disk drive Ch1 26
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