Math & Nature    Suction feeding in the snook Centropomus undecimalis ◦ Given  Dimensions of cones A and B at rest (t0) and at maximum expansion of the feeding mechanism (t1)  Duration of the feeding event (t1 - t0) 5) Find the velocity of water flow into the mouth of the snook during suction feeding.
View full slide show




Snook Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 2.1  N/A b  27.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  2.1 Time 0 c  12.3 N/A d  1.8 e   Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  7.0 N/A b  28.9 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  7.0 Time 1 c  12.3   d  5.9 e   Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3)   Volume (mm3)     Volume (mm3)   Volume (mm3)        0.036    
View full slide show




Snook Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 2.1  N/A b  27.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  2.1 Time 0 c  12.3 N/A d  1.8 e 73.8  Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  7.0 N/A b  28.9 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  7.0 Time 1 c  12.3  109.4 d  5.9 e  66.0 Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) 127.5  Volume (mm3)  147.2  274.7 Volume (mm3) 1482.9  Volume (mm3)  1611.5 3094.4   2819.7  0.036  109.4  716
View full slide show




Math & Nature    Suction feeding in the longjaw butterfly fish Forcipiger longirostris ◦ Given  Dimensions of cones A and B at rest (t0) and at maximum expansion of the feeding mechanism (t1)  Duration of the feeding event (t1 - t0) 6) Find the velocity of water flow into the mouth of the longjaw butterfly fish during suction feeding.
View full slide show




Math & Nature  References ◦ Bishop, K.L., Wainwright, P.C., and Holzman, R. (2008). Anterior to posterior wave of buccal expansion in suction feeding fish is critical for optimizing fluid flow velocity profile. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface. 5:1309-1316. ◦ Ferry-Graham, L.A., Wainwright, P.C., and Bellwood, D.R. (2001).  Prey capture in long-jawed butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae): the functional basis of novel feeding habits. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 256:167-184. ◦ Galileo Galilei, The Assayer, as translated by Stillman Drake (1957), Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo pp. 237 - 238. New York: Doubleday & Company. ◦ Gibb, A.C. and Ferry-Graham, L.A. (2005). Cranial movements during suction feeding in teleost fishes: Are they modified to enhance suction production? Zoology. 108(2): 141-153. ◦ Grubich, J.R. (2001). Prey Capture in Actinopterygian Fishes: A Review of Suction Feeding Motor Patterns with New Evidence from an Elopomorph Fish, Megalops atlanticus. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 41(6): 1258-1265. ◦ Holzman, R., Day, S.W., and Wainwright, P.C. (2007). Timing is everything: coordination of strike kinematics affects the force exerted by suction feeding fish on attached prey. Journal of Experimental Biology. 210: 3328-3336. ◦ Holzman, R., Day, S.W., Mehta, R.S., and Wainwright, P.C. (2008). Jaw protrusion enhances forces exerted on prey by suction feeding fishes. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface. 5(29): 1445-1457.
View full slide show




Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9  N/A b  153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  34.9 Time 0 c  54.3 N/A d  6.4 e   Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a   N/A b   Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a   Time 1 c     d   e   Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3)   Volume (mm3)     Volume (mm3)   Volume (mm3)       0.132     
View full slide show




Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9  N/A b  153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  34.9 Time 0 c  54.3 N/A d  6.4 e  12.2 Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a   N/A b   Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a   Time 1 c     d   e   Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3)  195916.8 Volume (mm3)  84289.7  180206.5 Volume (mm3)   Volume (mm3)       0.132     
View full slide show




Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9  N/A b  153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  34.9 Time 0 c  54.3 N/A d  6.4 e 12.2 Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  39.5 N/A b  161.3 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  39.5 Time 1 c  56.4   d  32.6 e   Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) 195916.8  Volume (mm3) 84289.7   280206.5 Volume (mm3)   Volume (mm3)        0.132    
View full slide show




Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9  N/A b  153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  34.9 Time 0 c  54.3 N/A d  6.4 e 12.2 Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  39.5 N/A b  161.3 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  39.5 Time 1 c  56.4   d  32.6 e  266.5 Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) 195916.8  Volume (mm3) 84289.7   280206.5 Volume (mm3)  263547.1 Volume (mm3)  230974.7  494521.7  214315.3  0.132    
View full slide show




Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9  N/A b  153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  34.9 Time 0 c  54.3 N/A d  6.4 e 12.2 Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  39.5 N/A b  161.3 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  39.5 Time 1 c  56.4  3338.8 d  32.6 e  266.5 Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) 195916.8  Volume (mm3) 84289.7   280206.5 Volume (mm3)  263547.1 Volume (mm3)  230974.7  494521.7  214315.3  0.132 3338.8   
View full slide show




Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9  N/A b  153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  34.9 Time 0 c  54.3 N/A d  6.4 e 12.2 Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  39.5 N/A b  161.3 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  39.5 Time 1 c  56.4  3338.8 d  32.6 e  266.5 Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) 195916.8  Volume (mm3) 84289.7   280206.5 Volume (mm3)  263547.1 Volume (mm3)  230974.7  494521.7  214315.3  0.132 3338.8   486
View full slide show




Longjaw Butterfly Fish Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 5.0 N/A b 14.9 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 5.0 Time 0 c 31.2 N/A d 1.1 e   Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 5.0 N/A b 14.9 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 5.0 Time 1 c 31.6   d 1.1 e   Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3)   Volume (mm3)     Volume (mm3)   Volume (mm3)        0.022    
View full slide show




Longjaw Butterfly Fish Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 5.0 N/A b 14.9 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 5.0 Time 0 c 31.2 N/A d 1.1 e  8.8 Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 5.0 N/A b 14.9 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 5.0 Time 1 c 31.6  3.8 d 1.1 e  8.9 Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) 390.1  Volume (mm3)  1036.0  1426.1 Volume (mm3)  390.1 Volume (mm3)  1049.3  1439.4  13.3  0.022  3.8  159
View full slide show




EmptyPersistentList public public class class NonEmptyPersistentList NonEmptyPersistentList extends extends AbstractPersistentList AbstractPersistentList { { private private final final E E first; first; private private final final PersistentList PersistentList rest; rest; public public NonEmptyPersistentList(E NonEmptyPersistentList(E first, first, PersistentList PersistentList rest) rest) { { this.first this.first = = first; first; this.rest this.rest = = rest; rest; } } public public E E get(int get(int index) index) { { if(index if(index == == 0) 0) { { return return first; first; } } else else { { return return rest.get(index-1); rest.get(index-1); } } } } public public int int size() size() { { return return 1 1 + + rest.size(); rest.size(); } } public public E E first() first() { { return return first; first; } } public public PersistentList PersistentList rest() rest() { { return return rest; rest; } } public public PersistentList PersistentList append(PersistentList append(PersistentList suffix) suffix) { { return new NonEmptyPersistentList(first, rest.append(suffix)); return new NonEmptyPersistentList(first, rest.append(suffix)); } } public public PersistentList PersistentList reverse() reverse() { { return return rest.reverse().append(new rest.reverse().append(new NonEmptyPersistentList(first, NonEmptyPersistentList(first, new new EmptyPersistentList())); EmptyPersistentList())); } } public public boolean boolean contains(Object contains(Object obj) obj) { { return return first.equals(obj) first.equals(obj) || || rest.contains(obj); rest.contains(obj); } } public public boolean boolean isEmpty() isEmpty() { { return return false; false; } } public public PersistentList PersistentList add(E add(E elem) elem) { { return return new new NonEmptyPersistentList(elem, NonEmptyPersistentList(elem, this); this); } } } }
View full slide show




Math & Nature   Suction feeding in the goliath grouper ◦ Given  Volume of the goliath grouper feeding mechanism at rest (t0) and at maximum expansion (t1)  Duration of the feeding event (t1 - t0)  Area of the mouth opening at maximum expansion (t1) 4) Find the velocity of water flow into the mouth of
View full slide show




Math & Nature  Suction feeding in the snook Centropomus undecimalis  Korhnak  JJ Photo Wainwright et al (2006)
View full slide show




PLACEMENT HOW? Placement Placement Test Test Transfer Transfer Credits Credits SAT SAT or or ACT ACT Scores Scores High High School School AP AP Scores Scores (Mathematics) (Mathematics) WHAT TO DO? Take Take placement placement test test on on any any campus campus at at Testing Testing Center. Center. Accuplacer Accuplacer MATH MATH can can be be taken taken twice. twice. Students Students who who wish wish higher higher placement placement must must then then “appeal”. “appeal”. Appeal Appeal is is request to take a pencil-and-paper type test on material from the course they request to take a pencil-and-paper type test on material from the course they placed placed into. into. Bring Bring transcript transcript showing showing general general education education math math credits credits from from another another college college or or university university to to CCBC CCBC for for evaluation. evaluation. If If completed completed in in Maryland, Maryland, the the highest highest level level developmental math course, Intermediate Algebra can be used for placement. developmental math course, Intermediate Algebra can be used for placement. Placement Placement by by SAT SAT MATH MATH score score of of 500 500 or or higher higher (or (or by by ACT ACT MATH MATH score score 21 21 or or higher) places the student into an entry-level general education math course higher) places the student into an entry-level general education math course (MATH (MATH 111, 111, 125, 125, 131/2/3, 131/2/3, 135, 135, 163). 163). For For higher higher placement, placement, the the student student must must take take Accuplacer MATH. MATH. Accuplacer Students Students with with documentation documentation of of AP AP math math scores scores of of 3, 3, 4, 4, or or 5 5 from from high high school school can can be awarded college credit and placement according to this chart. be awarded college credit and placement according to this chart.
View full slide show