Math & Nature Suction feeding in the goliath grouper ◦ Given Volume of the goliath grouper feeding mechanism at rest (t0) and at maximum expansion (t1) Duration of the feeding event (t1 - t0) Area of the mouth opening at maximum expansion (t1) 4) Find the velocity of water flow into the mouth of

Math & Nature Fish feeding mechanisms ◦ Suction feeding Goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara Questions What fluid velocity can the goliath grouper generate during suction feeding? How does suction feeding by the goliath grouper compare to other fish?

Math & Nature Suction feeding in the goliath grouper ◦ Given Dimensions of cone B at maximum expansion (t1) 3) Find the area of the goliath grouper mouth at maximum expansion (t1). A. Collins mouth

Math & Nature Goliath grouper model ◦ Objective Determine the velocity of water flow into the mouth ◦ Procedure Determine the area of the mouth at maximum expansion (t1) t1 = time at maximum expansion A A B B

Math & Nature Goliath grouper model ◦ Objective Determine the velocity of water flow into the mouth ◦ Procedure Determine the volume of components A and B at rest (t0) and at maximum expansion (t1) t0 = time at rest t1 = time at maximum expansion A B Determine the volume change during feeding A B

Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 N/A b 153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 Time 0 c 54.3 N/A d 6.4 e Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a N/A b Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a Time 1 c d e Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) Volume (mm3) Volume (mm3) Volume (mm3) 0.132

Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 N/A b 153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 Time 0 c 54.3 N/A d 6.4 e 12.2 Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a N/A b Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a Time 1 c d e Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) 195916.8 Volume (mm3) 84289.7 180206.5 Volume (mm3) Volume (mm3) 0.132

Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 N/A b 153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 Time 0 c 54.3 N/A d 6.4 e 12.2 Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 39.5 N/A b 161.3 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 39.5 Time 1 c 56.4 d 32.6 e Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) 195916.8 Volume (mm3) 84289.7 280206.5 Volume (mm3) Volume (mm3) 0.132

Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 N/A b 153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 Time 0 c 54.3 N/A d 6.4 e 12.2 Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 39.5 N/A b 161.3 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 39.5 Time 1 c 56.4 d 32.6 e 266.5 Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) 195916.8 Volume (mm3) 84289.7 280206.5 Volume (mm3) 263547.1 Volume (mm3) 230974.7 494521.7 214315.3 0.132

Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 N/A b 153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 Time 0 c 54.3 N/A d 6.4 e 12.2 Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 39.5 N/A b 161.3 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 39.5 Time 1 c 56.4 3338.8 d 32.6 e 266.5 Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) 195916.8 Volume (mm3) 84289.7 280206.5 Volume (mm3) 263547.1 Volume (mm3) 230974.7 494521.7 214315.3 0.132 3338.8

Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 N/A b 153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 Time 0 c 54.3 N/A d 6.4 e 12.2 Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 39.5 N/A b 161.3 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 39.5 Time 1 c 56.4 3338.8 d 32.6 e 266.5 Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) 195916.8 Volume (mm3) 84289.7 280206.5 Volume (mm3) 263547.1 Volume (mm3) 230974.7 494521.7 214315.3 0.132 3338.8 486

PLACEMENT HOW? Placement Placement Test Test Transfer Transfer Credits Credits SAT SAT or or ACT ACT Scores Scores High High School School AP AP Scores Scores (Mathematics) (Mathematics) WHAT TO DO? Take Take placement placement test test on on any any campus campus at at Testing Testing Center. Center. Accuplacer Accuplacer MATH MATH can can be be taken taken twice. twice. Students Students who who wish wish higher higher placement placement must must then then “appeal”. “appeal”. Appeal Appeal is is request to take a pencil-and-paper type test on material from the course they request to take a pencil-and-paper type test on material from the course they placed placed into. into. Bring Bring transcript transcript showing showing general general education education math math credits credits from from another another college college or or university university to to CCBC CCBC for for evaluation. evaluation. If If completed completed in in Maryland, Maryland, the the highest highest level level developmental math course, Intermediate Algebra can be used for placement. developmental math course, Intermediate Algebra can be used for placement. Placement Placement by by SAT SAT MATH MATH score score of of 500 500 or or higher higher (or (or by by ACT ACT MATH MATH score score 21 21 or or higher) places the student into an entry-level general education math course higher) places the student into an entry-level general education math course (MATH (MATH 111, 111, 125, 125, 131/2/3, 131/2/3, 135, 135, 163). 163). For For higher higher placement, placement, the the student student must must take take Accuplacer MATH. MATH. Accuplacer Students Students with with documentation documentation of of AP AP math math scores scores of of 3, 3, 4, 4, or or 5 5 from from high high school school can can be awarded college credit and placement according to this chart. be awarded college credit and placement according to this chart.

Math & Nature Suction feeding in the goliath grouper ◦ Given Dimensions of cones A and B at maximum expansion (t1) 2) Find the volume of the goliath grouper feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1).