Math & Nature References ◦ Bishop, K.L., Wainwright, P.C., and Holzman, R. (2008). Anterior to posterior wave of buccal expansion in suction feeding fish is critical for optimizing fluid flow velocity profile. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface. 5:1309-1316. ◦ Ferry-Graham, L.A., Wainwright, P.C., and Bellwood, D.R. (2001). Prey capture in long-jawed butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae): the functional basis of novel feeding habits. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 256:167-184. ◦ Galileo Galilei, The Assayer, as translated by Stillman Drake (1957), Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo pp. 237 - 238. New York: Doubleday & Company. ◦ Gibb, A.C. and Ferry-Graham, L.A. (2005). Cranial movements during suction feeding in teleost fishes: Are they modified to enhance suction production? Zoology. 108(2): 141-153. ◦ Grubich, J.R. (2001). Prey Capture in Actinopterygian Fishes: A Review of Suction Feeding Motor Patterns with New Evidence from an Elopomorph Fish, Megalops atlanticus. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 41(6): 1258-1265. ◦ Holzman, R., Day, S.W., and Wainwright, P.C. (2007). Timing is everything: coordination of strike kinematics affects the force exerted by suction feeding fish on attached prey. Journal of Experimental Biology. 210: 3328-3336. ◦ Holzman, R., Day, S.W., Mehta, R.S., and Wainwright, P.C. (2008). Jaw protrusion enhances forces exerted on prey by suction feeding fishes. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface. 5(29): 1445-1457.

Math & Nature References ◦ Liem, K., Bemis, W., Walker, W.F., and Grande, L. (2001). Functional Anatomy of the Vertebrates: An Evolutionary Perspective. New York. Cengage Learning. ◦ Merrill, M.D. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development. 50 (3): 43 – 59. ◦ Motta, P.J., Hueter, R.E., Tricas, T.C., Summers, A.P., Huber, D.R., Lowry, D., Mara, K.R., Matott, M.P., Whitenack, L.B., and Wintzer, A.P. (2008). Functional morphology of the feeding apparatus, feeding constraints, and suction performance in the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum. Journal of Morphology. 269(9): 1041-1055. ◦ Motta, P.J., Maslanka, M., Hueter, R.E., Davis, R.L., de la Parra, R., Mulvany, S.L., Habegger, M.L., Strother, J.A., Mara, K.R., Gardiner, J.M., Tyminski, J.P., and Zeigler, L.D. (2010). Feeding anatomy, filter-feeding rate, and diet of whale sharks Rhincodon typus during surface ram filter feeding off the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Zoology. 113: 199-212. ◦ Sanford, C.P.J. and Wainwright, P.C. (2002). Use of sonomicrometry demonstrates the link between prey capture kinematics and suction pressure in largemouth bass. Journal of Experimental Biology. 205: 3445-3457. ◦ Svanback, R., Wainwright, P.C., and Ferry-Graham, L.A. (2002). Linking cranial kinematics, buccal pressure, and suction feeding performance in largemouth bass. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 75(6): 532-543.

Math & Nature Fish feeding mechanisms ◦ Suction feeding Goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara Questions What fluid velocity can the goliath grouper generate during suction feeding? How does suction feeding by the goliath grouper compare to other fish?

X1 has a geometric distribution with p = 1, that is, X1 = 1. X2 has a geometric distribution with p = 7/8. X3 has a geometric distribution with p = 6/8 = 3/4. X4 has a geometric distribution with p = 5/8. X5 has a geometric distribution with p = 4/8 = 1/2. X6 has a geometric distribution with p = 3/8. X7 has a geometric distribution with p = 2/8 = 1/4. X8 has a geometric distribution with p = 1/8. For k = 1, 2, …, 8, Xk has a geometric distribution with p = (9 – k) / 8 , and E(Xk) = 8 / (9 – k) . E(X1) + E(X2) + … + E(X8) = 8/8 + 8/7 + 8/6 + … + 8/2 + 8/1 21.743

Math & Nature Suction feeding in the snook Centropomus undecimalis ◦ Given Dimensions of cones A and B at rest (t0) and at maximum expansion of the feeding mechanism (t1) Duration of the feeding event (t1 - t0) 5) Find the velocity of water flow into the mouth of the snook during suction feeding.

Math & Nature Suction feeding in the longjaw butterfly fish Forcipiger longirostris ◦ Given Dimensions of cones A and B at rest (t0) and at maximum expansion of the feeding mechanism (t1) Duration of the feeding event (t1 - t0) 6) Find the velocity of water flow into the mouth of the longjaw butterfly fish during suction feeding.

Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 N/A b 153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 Time 0 c 54.3 N/A d 6.4 e Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a N/A b Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a Time 1 c d e Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) Volume (mm3) Volume (mm3) Volume (mm3) 0.132

Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 N/A b 153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 Time 0 c 54.3 N/A d 6.4 e 12.2 Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a N/A b Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a Time 1 c d e Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) 195916.8 Volume (mm3) 84289.7 180206.5 Volume (mm3) Volume (mm3) 0.132

Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 N/A b 153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 Time 0 c 54.3 N/A d 6.4 e 12.2 Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 39.5 N/A b 161.3 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 39.5 Time 1 c 56.4 d 32.6 e Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) 195916.8 Volume (mm3) 84289.7 280206.5 Volume (mm3) Volume (mm3) 0.132

Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 N/A b 153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 Time 0 c 54.3 N/A d 6.4 e 12.2 Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 39.5 N/A b 161.3 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 39.5 Time 1 c 56.4 d 32.6 e 266.5 Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) 195916.8 Volume (mm3) 84289.7 280206.5 Volume (mm3) 263547.1 Volume (mm3) 230974.7 494521.7 214315.3 0.132

Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 N/A b 153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 Time 0 c 54.3 N/A d 6.4 e 12.2 Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 39.5 N/A b 161.3 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 39.5 Time 1 c 56.4 3338.8 d 32.6 e 266.5 Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) 195916.8 Volume (mm3) 84289.7 280206.5 Volume (mm3) 263547.1 Volume (mm3) 230974.7 494521.7 214315.3 0.132 3338.8

Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 N/A b 153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9 Time 0 c 54.3 N/A d 6.4 e 12.2 Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 39.5 N/A b 161.3 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 39.5 Time 1 c 56.4 3338.8 d 32.6 e 266.5 Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) 195916.8 Volume (mm3) 84289.7 280206.5 Volume (mm3) 263547.1 Volume (mm3) 230974.7 494521.7 214315.3 0.132 3338.8 486

Snook Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 2.1 N/A b 27.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 2.1 Time 0 c 12.3 N/A d 1.8 e Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 7.0 N/A b 28.9 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 7.0 Time 1 c 12.3 d 5.9 e Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) Volume (mm3) Volume (mm3) Volume (mm3) 0.036

Snook Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 2.1 N/A b 27.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 2.1 Time 0 c 12.3 N/A d 1.8 e 73.8 Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 7.0 N/A b 28.9 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 7.0 Time 1 c 12.3 109.4 d 5.9 e 66.0 Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) 127.5 Volume (mm3) 147.2 274.7 Volume (mm3) 1482.9 Volume (mm3) 1611.5 3094.4 2819.7 0.036 109.4 716

Longjaw Butterfly Fish Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 5.0 N/A b 14.9 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 5.0 Time 0 c 31.2 N/A d 1.1 e Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 5.0 N/A b 14.9 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 5.0 Time 1 c 31.6 d 1.1 e Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) Volume (mm3) Volume (mm3) Volume (mm3) 0.022

Longjaw Butterfly Fish Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 5.0 N/A b 14.9 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 5.0 Time 0 c 31.2 N/A d 1.1 e 8.8 Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 5.0 N/A b 14.9 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 5.0 Time 1 c 31.6 3.8 d 1.1 e 8.9 Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) 390.1 Volume (mm3) 1036.0 1426.1 Volume (mm3) 390.1 Volume (mm3) 1049.3 1439.4 13.3 0.022 3.8 159

Geometric Mean • Geometric Mean = Average Compounding Rate per Period • Geometric Mean Formula 1: • Use when you are given all the "Growth Rates" or "Rates of Change“: • Formulas: • GEOMEAN(RangeOfGrowthRates+1) = Growth Factor • GEOMEAN(RangeOfGrowthRates+1)-1 = Geometric Mean • Geometric Mean Formula 2: • Use when you are given the Begin Value, End Value and the number of periods • Formulas: • (EndValue/BegValue)^(1/NumberOfPeriods)-1 1 = Geometric Mean • RRI(NumberOfPeriods,BegValue, EndValue) or RRI(n,PV,FV) 1 = Geometric Mean 47

Geometric Mean of Ratios The geometric mean of a ratio is the ratio of the geometric means of the numerator and denominator => the choice of the base does not change the conclusion It is because of this property that sometimes geometric mean is recommended for ratios However, if the geometric mean of the numerator or denominator do not have any physical meaning, the geometric mean of their ratio is meaningless as well 23