Abstract Diurnal Cross-Shore Exchange on the Inner-Shelf in Southern Monterey Bay, CA John Hendrickson, Jamie MacMahan, Ed Thornton, Mike Cook, Tim Stanton, Ad Reniers The effects of a strong diurnal sea-breeze on the cross-shore exchange on the inner shelf is investigated by comparing wind stress estimates and ocean currents over the vertical at three locations in southern Monterey Bay, CA . Cross-shore exchange on the inner shelf significantly impacts the ecosystem by transporting heat, nutrients, pollutants and phytoplankton between the inner-shelf and surf zone. Spectral analysis of surface winds at three coastal locations within the bay indicates a significant diurnal wind component. The observed subaqueous velocity profiles and pressure time series are measured by bottom mounted 1200-kHz Broadband Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) deployed at three separate alongshore locations in ~13 m water depth. The velocity and pressure signals were collected continuously at 1 Hz for all three locations for over 2 years. The cross-shore wind stress is significantly correlated to the cross-shore subaqueous velocity with onshore flow near the surface and offshore flow near the bottom. Cross-rotary spectral analysis is used to describe the rotational coherence and phase over the vertical with respect to the wind stress. It is further hypothesized that normally-incident sea-swell waves (0.04-0.2 Hz) will modify net cross-shore transport. Cross-shore transport is evaluated for conditions that are dominated by either waves or cross-shore wind stress. Results indicate that when waves are small, the cross-shore wind stress associated with the diurnal sea-breeze is the primary forcing mechanism for cross-shore exchange on the inner-shelf.
View full slide show




Practice Area Communications  At Rocky, it is common practice to state your position on the Rocky frequency. No two aircraft are permitted to share a practice area. Therefore, it is essential that each Rocky plane is in constant communication with one another.  An example of communicating within the designated practice area is as follows: “Rocky traffic, Rocky 31, entering north practice area three, 6,500 feet, Rocky traffic.” *Please note that there may be other aircraft utilizing the practice areas. Therefore, keep a vigilant watch for other traffic. Don’t rely solely on the radios/Billings departure for your traffic advisories.
View full slide show




Secondary Coasts: Beaches  deposits that accumulate in low energy areas  sand is always being moved  profile fig p 300  backshore - cliffs, dunes, seawall  berm crest  foreshore - intertidal zone  off shore - longshore trough and bar  rip currents  on-shore and off-shore  seasonal  big waves - sand moves off-shore  small waves - sand moves back on-shore  effect of sea walls
View full slide show




Deep-Water Waves Change to Shallow-Water Waves As They Approach Shore Waves break against the shore in different ways, depending, in part, on the slope of the bottom. • Plunging waves break violently against the shore, leaving an air-filled tube, or channel, between the crest and foot of the wave. Plunging waves are formed when waves approach a shore over a steeply sloped bottom. • Spilling waves occur on gradually sloping ocean bottoms. The crest of a spilling wave slides down the face of the wave as it breaks on
View full slide show




Diversity by Lake and Habitat Lake Habitat Catlin Catlin Catlin Wolf Wolf Wolf Cranberry Cranberry Cranberry Vegetated Rocky Sandy Vegetated Rocky Sandy Vegetated Rocky Sandy Simpsons Shannon Richness Eveness 0.2966 0.2988 0.2879 0.2335 0.2455 0.2299 0.3278 0.2511 0.3093 1.5535 1.3350 1.3856 1.7597 1.7127 1.7854 1.2436 1.5074 1.4677 9 6 6 16 14 12 11 6 6 0.7070 0.7451 0.7733 0.6347 0.6490 0.7185 0.5186 0.8413 0.8191
View full slide show




Shannon by Habitat 1.5000 1.0000 0.5000 Rocky Sandy Vegetated Rocky Sandy Vegetated Rocky Sandy 0.0000 Vegetated Diversity 2.0000 Catlin Catlin Catlin Wolf Wolf Wolf Cran Cran Cran Lake/Habitat
View full slide show




Examples (From Rocky to the north practice area) So, what do you really need to say when contacting ground? Include the following information: who you are, that you have listened to the ATIS, what runway you want to taxi to, where you want to go, and how high you want to climb. Example: “Billings ground, Rocky 31 is at Rocky base, with information Bravo, request taxi to runway 28R, north practice area, 6,500 feet.” *Information Bravo is an example of the ATIS (weather information) that you received. Every hour it is identified by a different letter of the alphabet, sequentially.
View full slide show




Examples (From Rocky to the north practice areas)  What to say to tower: You have completed your run-up and you are ready for departure. Taxi to the hold short line, stop and contact tower. You must tell tower: Who you are, where you are at, and that you are ready for take off. Example: Billings tower, Rocky 31 is holding short of runway 28R on Alpha, ready for departure. You must read back your take off clearance. Include your call sign and departure runway. Example: Rocky 31 cleared take off runway 28R.
View full slide show




Examples (From the north practice area to Rocky)  Contacting approach from the north practice area when you are inbound you would tell them the following information: Who you are, where you are at, that you have the current weather information, and your intentions. Example: “Billings approach, Rocky 31 is 14 miles north, currently 6,500, information Charlie, request inbound, full stop 28R.” *In the Billings vicinity, you must contact Billings at least 10nm out. This is so that you may properly enter class C airspace. While in the practice area, Rocky aircraft usually on Billing’s radar during maneuvers.
View full slide show




Examples (From the north practice area to Rocky)  After you land, and cross back over the hold short line, you will contact ground control. You will tell ground the following information: Who you are, where you are at, and where you want to go. Example: “Billings ground, Rocky 31 off runway 28R at Charlie, request taxi back to Rocky hangars.”
View full slide show




Modeling Methods (Overview) Data 1. Limber pine occurrence data from the vegetation inventory (polygon map) for Rocky Mountain NP 2. Current climate data from PRISM, 1981-2010 normals (800 m); Rocky veg extent 3. Future climate data (2035-2100, by year; time series of 30-yr normals) from PRISM-downscaled CMIP5 under both low (RCP 2.6 W/m2) and high (RCP 8.5 W/m2) emission scenarios (Thrasher et al. in prep); Rocky veg extent 4. All monthly tmin, tmax, and precip variables transformed into 19 bioclimatic variables (see http://www.worldclim.org/bioclim) Models 5. Weighted limber occurrences based on the % of each 800 m climate pixel covered by the species 6. Used the weighted occurrences and current climate grids to develop a maximum entropy (Maxent) distribution model 7. Projected current model to each future 30-yr normal (n=66) under both the RCP 2.6 and 8.5 W/m2 scenarios
View full slide show




Littoral drift current Wave action creates an onshore current that lifts sand from sand bars to deposit on the beach and along shore transport. Littoral is Latin for along shore. Swimming across Monterey Bay? Here’s a fabulous simulation of the currents for a 24-hour time period of 6/1/2003 that show a large eddy and a littoral drift current that is off-shore. What is significant is none of these currents are predictable.
View full slide show




Off Shore Wind Energy Fishing – Wind farms use relatively small area of seabed – Wind farms provide sanctuary for fish spawning  and protection Visual Intrusion – Most offshore wind farms are away from shore;  thus barely visible from shore
View full slide show




Example Self Evaluation Questions… An oarsman can row his boat 3 mph is still water. He sets out on the Illinois River, which flows at 5 mph. We are interested in what an observer on shore measures. 1) When the man heads the boat directly downstream and rows as fast as he can, how fast does the observer on shore see the boat going? (a) 2 mph (b) 3 mph (c) 5 mph (d) 7 mph (e) 8 mph 2) When the man heads the boat directly downstream and rows as fast as he can, which direction does the observer on shore see the boat going? (a) upstream (b) downstream reasoning) Rochester AAPT Meeting (July/25/01): Pg 8
View full slide show




Discussion • Few noticeable differences between anglers based on location of residence. • Exceptions: • Average number of trips (2005-2009) • Highest 5 to 10 miles from shore • Access and equipment • Highest 2.5 to 10 miles from shore • Lowest 10.1 to 15 miles from shore
View full slide show




Modern Metagenomics Marine Near-shore water (~100 samples) Off-shore water (~50 samples) Near- and off-shore sediments Metazoan associated Corals Fish Human blood Human stool Freshwater Aquifer Glacial lake Extreme Terrestrial/Soil Terragenomics Amazon rainforest Konza prairie Joshua Tree desert Air Hot springs (84oC; 78oC) Soda lake (pH 13) Solar saltern (>35% salt)
View full slide show




The Request • A conceptual design for a High Speed Assault Connector (HSAC) to enhance Joint Expeditionary Logistics (JELo) flow from the Sea Base to shore • Augment or replace existing connector platforms • Employment requirement – – – – – 03/30/19 Cargo: ~8000LT of vehicles, troops, and gear Distance: 200nm from the Sea Base to shore Time: 10 hours Sea state: 4 Interface: accept cargo and troops at the Sea Base and deliver to shore High Speed Assault Connector Brief 5
View full slide show




Teacher/Mentor Institute Welcome SoCo BEST @ Trinidad State! Congratulations on becoming a Hub in Colorado JoseBEST Lopez, Rocky Mountain BEST June 2, 2015 BEST Robotics Video, 2014 Rocky Mountain BEST from their Denver Events https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xYqziRjgsOU
View full slide show




Rocky shores Most organisms live on the surface (epifauna) Zonation of rocky shores: Spray zone (rarely covered by water) High tide zone Middle tide zone Low tide zone (rarely exposed) Upper zones have mostly shelled organisms Lower zones have many soft-bodied organisms and algae
View full slide show




chapter 9 Bandura’s Bobo doll study Nursery school children watched a film of two men (Johnny and Rocky) playing with toys. Johnny refuses to share, and Rocky hits him, getting all the toys. Children who watched the video were significantly more violent afterward than children in a control group.
View full slide show




Ergo – the Outer Planets • Jupiter (2.5 times the mass of ALL other planets put together), with enough mass to make enough pressure to form liquid hydrogen, and rocky core at the bottom • Saturn – small rocky core surrounded by a little liquid hydrogen and then deep layer of H and He • Uranus and Neptune – smaller, small rock core and H, He envelope • All have large natural moon systems • All have rings of icy and/or dusty material
View full slide show




Clearly, We Don’t Think Such “Jupiters” Can Form So Close to Stars • It’s too hot, and the amount of rocky material is always a tiny fraction of the total mass – which is mostly Hydrogen and Helium and would not collect onto such a massive small rocky core to make a “hot Jupiter”.
View full slide show




5.4 Interiors •Crust is very thin, rocky, and least dense •Mantle is more dense than crust, but still rocky and much less dense than core •Core is metallic – iron and nickel •Temperature and pressure increase with depth •Outer core is liquid; inner core is solid, due to pressure
View full slide show




Examples (From the north practice area to Rocky)  Approach control will advise you on how to proceed inbound. At their discretion, they will ask you to contact tower. You will tell tower the following information: Who you are, how you are intending to enter the traffic pattern, and what type of landing you want. Example: “Billings tower, Rocky 31 is entering right downwind for 28R, full stop.” You must get a landing clearance from tower.
View full slide show




Uncontrolled Fields  It is imperative that you are monitoring an airports CTAF prior to communicating on it. This will allow you to be situationally aware prior to entering the area. * At Billings, it is ok to use a Rocky call sign (Rocky 31). Elsewhere, you must use the full tail number (Archer 431RM).
View full slide show