Abstract Diurnal Cross-Shore Exchange on the Inner-Shelf in Southern Monterey Bay, CA John Hendrickson, Jamie MacMahan, Ed Thornton, Mike Cook, Tim Stanton, Ad Reniers The effects of a strong diurnal sea-breeze on the cross-shore exchange on the inner shelf is investigated by comparing wind stress estimates and ocean currents over the vertical at three locations in southern Monterey Bay, CA . Cross-shore exchange on the inner shelf significantly impacts the ecosystem by transporting heat, nutrients, pollutants and phytoplankton between the inner-shelf and surf zone. Spectral analysis of surface winds at three coastal locations within the bay indicates a significant diurnal wind component. The observed subaqueous velocity profiles and pressure time series are measured by bottom mounted 1200-kHz Broadband Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) deployed at three separate alongshore locations in ~13 m water depth. The velocity and pressure signals were collected continuously at 1 Hz for all three locations for over 2 years. The cross-shore wind stress is significantly correlated to the cross-shore subaqueous velocity with onshore flow near the surface and offshore flow near the bottom. Cross-rotary spectral analysis is used to describe the rotational coherence and phase over the vertical with respect to the wind stress. It is further hypothesized that normally-incident sea-swell waves (0.04-0.2 Hz) will modify net cross-shore transport. Cross-shore transport is evaluated for conditions that are dominated by either waves or cross-shore wind stress. Results indicate that when waves are small, the cross-shore wind stress associated with the diurnal sea-breeze is the primary forcing mechanism for cross-shore exchange on the inner-shelf.
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Secondary Coasts: Beaches  deposits that accumulate in low energy areas  sand is always being moved  profile fig p 300  backshore - cliffs, dunes, seawall  berm crest  foreshore - intertidal zone  off shore - longshore trough and bar  rip currents  on-shore and off-shore  seasonal  big waves - sand moves off-shore  small waves - sand moves back on-shore  effect of sea walls
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The Lens of Hurricane Sandy o One of the most devastating storms in US history--$60B and counting o Sandy hit an area not frequently impacted by hurricanes. o Future:  More more-violent weather?  Sea-Level Rise o Natural Disaster o Many lessons learned (re-learned?)  Update building codes, laws and other issues that do not involve S&T  S&T can contribute to a more resilient society. o Sandy is a lens to focus attention on capability gaps. o USA is implementing: Sandy Rebuilding Task Force
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Public Opinion Polling: Statewide Population - Support For Alternative Policy Measures (%) ALTERNATIVE STRON G SUPPO RT SOMEWH AT SUPPORT COMBIN ED SUPPOR T Revert to pre-Sandy status 24 24 48 Abandon areas with excessive rebuilding costs 30 25 55 Convert high risk areas to open space 36 35 71 Replenish beaches 37 34 71 Relocate further from shore 57 27 84 Build dunes and seawalls 23 87 Source: NJ Eagleton Poll, April 25, 2013 64 Elevate buildings 64 23 87 Shore county residents display similar preferences; most opt for dunes and seawalls (84% combined); Reversion to pre-Sandy status, without other changes, is least popular (47% combined)
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Deep-Water Waves Change to Shallow-Water Waves As They Approach Shore Waves break against the shore in different ways, depending, in part, on the slope of the bottom. • Plunging waves break violently against the shore, leaving an air-filled tube, or channel, between the crest and foot of the wave. Plunging waves are formed when waves approach a shore over a steeply sloped bottom. • Spilling waves occur on gradually sloping ocean bottoms. The crest of a spilling wave slides down the face of the wave as it breaks on
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2. Applications: Derived data • Big sandy examples Upper Little Sandy Cumulative area upstream of abandoned minelands Upper Little Sandy Distance to closest upstream mine permit WV GIS Conference June 2008
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Diversity by Lake and Habitat Lake Habitat Catlin Catlin Catlin Wolf Wolf Wolf Cranberry Cranberry Cranberry Vegetated Rocky Sandy Vegetated Rocky Sandy Vegetated Rocky Sandy Simpsons Shannon Richness Eveness 0.2966 0.2988 0.2879 0.2335 0.2455 0.2299 0.3278 0.2511 0.3093 1.5535 1.3350 1.3856 1.7597 1.7127 1.7854 1.2436 1.5074 1.4677 9 6 6 16 14 12 11 6 6 0.7070 0.7451 0.7733 0.6347 0.6490 0.7185 0.5186 0.8413 0.8191
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Shannon by Habitat 1.5000 1.0000 0.5000 Rocky Sandy Vegetated Rocky Sandy Vegetated Rocky Sandy 0.0000 Vegetated Diversity 2.0000 Catlin Catlin Catlin Wolf Wolf Wolf Cran Cran Cran Lake/Habitat
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COASTAL WETLAND FLOOD CONTROL • Narayan et al. (2016) • Reduced coastal property damages due to wetlands as “living shorelines” during Hurricane Sandy: ~0.6 billion • Average of 10% reduction in losses across the region • Average of 20% reduction in losses in Ocean County, NJ for flooding from 2,000 historical storms, dating back a century • Annual flood control values would depend upon return intervals for storms (e.g., risks of Sandy-type flood recurrence) • Return intervals for Sandy-type floods are significantly shortened by sea-level rise (Sweet et al. 2012) State Avoided Damages ($m) NY 138 NJ 429 DE 24 MD 5 VA 10 TOTAL 606
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Littoral drift current Wave action creates an onshore current that lifts sand from sand bars to deposit on the beach and along shore transport. Littoral is Latin for along shore. Swimming across Monterey Bay? Here’s a fabulous simulation of the currents for a 24-hour time period of 6/1/2003 that show a large eddy and a littoral drift current that is off-shore. What is significant is none of these currents are predictable.
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Off Shore Wind Energy Fishing – Wind farms use relatively small area of seabed – Wind farms provide sanctuary for fish spawning  and protection Visual Intrusion – Most offshore wind farms are away from shore;  thus barely visible from shore
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Example Self Evaluation Questions… An oarsman can row his boat 3 mph is still water. He sets out on the Illinois River, which flows at 5 mph. We are interested in what an observer on shore measures. 1) When the man heads the boat directly downstream and rows as fast as he can, how fast does the observer on shore see the boat going? (a) 2 mph (b) 3 mph (c) 5 mph (d) 7 mph (e) 8 mph 2) When the man heads the boat directly downstream and rows as fast as he can, which direction does the observer on shore see the boat going? (a) upstream (b) downstream reasoning) Rochester AAPT Meeting (July/25/01): Pg 8
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Discussion • Few noticeable differences between anglers based on location of residence. • Exceptions: • Average number of trips (2005-2009) • Highest 5 to 10 miles from shore • Access and equipment • Highest 2.5 to 10 miles from shore • Lowest 10.1 to 15 miles from shore
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Modern Metagenomics Marine Near-shore water (~100 samples) Off-shore water (~50 samples) Near- and off-shore sediments Metazoan associated Corals Fish Human blood Human stool Freshwater Aquifer Glacial lake Extreme Terrestrial/Soil Terragenomics Amazon rainforest Konza prairie Joshua Tree desert Air Hot springs (84oC; 78oC) Soda lake (pH 13) Solar saltern (>35% salt)
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The Request • A conceptual design for a High Speed Assault Connector (HSAC) to enhance Joint Expeditionary Logistics (JELo) flow from the Sea Base to shore • Augment or replace existing connector platforms • Employment requirement – – – – – 03/30/19 Cargo: ~8000LT of vehicles, troops, and gear Distance: 200nm from the Sea Base to shore Time: 10 hours Sea state: 4 Interface: accept cargo and troops at the Sea Base and deliver to shore High Speed Assault Connector Brief 5
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“Super Storm Sandy: Risk Redefinition, Response and Recovery on the Jersey Shore” James K. Mitchell Rutgers University Presentation to the Workshop on Science and Technology Innovations in Hurricane Sandy Research, organized by the Center for Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science, and the Homeland Security Center for Command, Control and Interoperability Center for Advanced Data Analysis, Rutgers
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Online Survey of Experts: State and Local Floodplain And Emergency Managers (conducted January 2013; 104 respondents)  Years to recovery  Tourism industry  Damaged Properties  Mitigation of future floods 2.8 4.8 18.1  Sandy is likely to force significant improvements in flood loss reduction  88% report “very likely” or “somewhat likely”  More Sandy-like events are likely:  57% say they will occur 2 or more times in next 30 years  Worsening storms perceived as leading driver of increased risks (30%), followed by increased development in flood prone areas (22%)  Strong reliance on ABFEs as chief source of information about future flood risks (identified by 62% of respondents), followed by Hazard Mitigation Plans (25%)  Needed improvements (selected from a list of 29 possible adjustment alternatives):  Public information and education programs (68%)  Hazard Mitigation Plans (46%)  Dune Conservation Ordinances (46%)
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Characteristics Of Sandy-impacted Municipalities In Coastal New Jersey  NJ is NOT New York City in scale, composition, functions, resources  NYC >8 million people in one municipality  NJ >8 million people in 565 municipalities  Approximately 100 NJ municipalities affected by Sandy  Typical characteristics:  Metropolitan edge location  Small in area and population with a limited governmental bureaucracy  Often “built out” with few natural open spaces  Primarily residential with many homeowners (often second homeowners)  Usually ethnically homogeneous  High levels of employment in the service economy  Residents conscious of wealth/status differences among different municipalities  Strongly protective of “home rule” privileges
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Focus Groups: Knowledge Of Flooding Pre-Sandy  Well acquainted with flood risks before Sandy  Knowledge derived:  Past personal or neighbor experience (‘92 storm, Irene)  Shared community wisdom (“High Tide, Full Moon; N.E. Wind”)  Common sense (“I live on the water!”)  Limited awareness of climate change as flood forcing factor  Public officials, insurance agents and property sellers are main institutional sources of local flood information  Believe public institutions understate flood risks  Technical issues  Short flood history; confusion over meaning of 100 year flood  Issues of trust  Non-disclosure by real estate agents; municipal officials seen as having vested interest in stability
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