NullPointerExceptions main(…) real Complex(double real, double imag) this 85638 real 3.0 r3 85638 Complex ref n null Complex ref 85638 double imag double Complex 85642 real null result double imag 0.0 Complex ref other Complex ref 0.0 prod Complex ref 0.0 85642 Complex ref double Complex public … void main(…) { … Complex n = null; Complex r3 = new Complex(3); prod = r3.multBy(n); … } public Complex multBy(Complex other) Complex result = new Complex(); // HERE result.real = this.real * other. - this.imag * other.imag; result.imag = this.real * other. + this.imag * other.imag; return result; } 7
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Extreme Questionnaire An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing the moderately worded SUS with versions with the neutral SUS Wording statements replaced by statements that were worded in an extremely positive or an extremely negative fashion. The System Usability Scale (SUS) The Extremely Positive System Usability Scale (XP-SUS) The Extremely Negative System Usability Scale (XN-SUS) 1. I think that I would like to use 1. I think that this is one of my all1. I think I never want to use the web this system frequently. time favorite web sites. site again. 2. I found the system unnecessarily 2. I found the web site was really 2. I found the web site to be horribly complex. straightforward. complex for no good reason. 3. I thought the system was easy to 3. I thought the web site was 3. I thought the web site was very use. amazingly easy to use. difficult to use. 4. I think that I would need the 4. I think that technical support 4. I think that I would need a permanent support of a technical person to services are just not required for hot-line to the help desk to be able to be able to use this system. the web site. use the web site.* 5. I found the various functions in 5. I found the various pages on the 5. I found all the pages on the web site this system were well integrated. web site worked together very to be an ugly mess. 6. I thought there was too much smoothly. 6. I thought the inconsistency in the web inconsistency in this system. 6. I thought the web site was site would kill it. 7. I would imagine that most people consistent throughout. 7. I found the web site to be completely would learn to use this system 7. I would imagine anybody could use impossible to use. very quickly. the web site like a pro from day 8. I found that this web site was 8. I found the system very one. extremely awkward to use. cumbersome to use. 8. I found the web site was a delight 9. I felt utterly confused by the web site. 9. I felt very confident using the to use. 10.Absolutely nothing about the web system. 9. I felt completely confident using the site worked 10.I needed to learn a lot of things web site. before I could get going with this 10.Everything to know about A set of volunteersI needed was asked to evaluate a website, with one-third CS 321 system. using the website was there for me. Lesson Twenty-Two Questionnaires Page 6 of the volunteers randomly assigned the traditional SUS questionnaire, one-third randomly assigned the XP-SUS questionnaire, and the final one-third randomly assigned the XN-
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FOOD INSECURITY AND RISK FACTORS HOUSEHOLD RESOURCES (money, time, information, health) NON-FOOD EXPENDITURES FOOD ACQUISITION housing hospital care emergencies taxes discretionary items gasoline heating, cooling other NORMAL FOOD SYSTEM grocery stores and food service operations food availability (type and quantity) food accessibility (cost and distance) GOVERNMENT FOOD ASSISTANCE Food Stamps WIC School Lunch and Breakfastfor Nutrition Program the Elderly (Title 3c) ALTERNATE FOOD SOURCES PRIVATE FOOD ASSISTANCE gifts from family & friends gardening, hunting, fishing scavenging HOUSEHOLD FOOD SUPPLY Modified from Campbell, CC: Food Insecurity: A Nutritional Outcome or a Predictor Variable? J Nutr. 1991.121:408
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the multBy method main(…) real Complex(double real, double imag) this 85638 real 3.0 r3 85638 Complex ref 85642 double imag double Complex i 85642 85642 Complex ref real double imag Complex ref other 85638 Complex ref 0.0 prod Complex ref 0.0 1.0 double Complex 85646 real 0.0 double imag 0.0 double Complex result 85646 Complex ref public Complex multBy(Complex other) { Complex result = new Complex(); // HERE result.real = this.real * other.real - this.imag * other.imag; result.imag = this.real * other.imag + this.imag * other.real; return result; } 8
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the multBy method main(…) real Complex(double real, double imag) this 85638 real 3.0 r3 85638 Complex ref 85642 double imag double Complex i 85642 85642 Complex ref real double imag Complex ref other 85638 Complex ref 0.0 prod Complex ref 0.0 1.0 double Complex 85646 real 0.0 double imag result 85646 Complex ref public Complex multBy(Complex other) { Complex result = new Complex(); result.real = this.real * other.real - this.imag * other.imag; result.imag = this.real * other.imag 3.0 double Complex + this.imag * other.real; // HERE return result; } 9
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NullPointerExceptions main(…) real Complex(double real, double imag) this 85638 real 3.0 r3 85638 Complex ref n null 85638 double imag Complex ref 0.0 double Complex Complex ref other null Complex ref prod Complex ref public … void main(…) { … Complex n = null; Complex r3 = new Complex(3); prod = r3.multBy(n); … } public Complex multBy(Complex other) // HERE Complex result = new Complex(); result.real = this.real * other. - this.imag * other.imag; result.imag = this.real * other. + this.imag * other.imag; return result; } 6
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Operator Overloading What happens when the assignment exists as in operators +=, -=, *= assume we will add the following member functions to class Complex Complex& operator +=(Complex&); Complex& operator -=(Complex&); Complex& operator *=(Complex&); Complex& Complex::operator +=(Complex& a){ real += a.real; imag += a.imag return *this;} Complex& Complex::operator *=(Complex& a){ real = real*a.real - imag * a.imag; // there is an error here imag = real * a.imag + imag * a.real; return *this;}
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Structs and Classes Structs A struct can be used to define a data structure type as follows: struct Complex { double real, imag;} // specifying a Complex type of objects void assign(Complex& w, double r, double i){w.real = r; w.imag=i;} Complex add(Complex a, Complex b){ Complex temp; temp.real = a.real + b.real; temp.imag = a.imag + b.imag; return temp;} main(){ Complex x,y,z; assign(x,1.15,2.0); assign(y,0.01,0.0); z = add(x,y);….} For data encapsulation, a struct can be used like a class, struct Complex{ private: double real,imag; public: assign(double r, double i){real = r; imag = i;} // similar to assign() above? Complex add(Complex a){ Complex temp; temp.real = real + a.real; temp.imag = imag + a.imag; return temp;} } main(){Complex x,y,z; x.assign(1.15,2.0); y.assign(0.01,0.0); z = x.add(y);….}
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the multBy method main(…) real Complex(double real, double imag) this 85638 real 3.0 r3 85638 Complex ref 85642 double imag Complex ref 0.0 double Complex i 85642 85642 Complex ref real other 85638 Complex ref 0.0 double imag prod Complex ref 1.0 double Complex public static void main(String []) { … // HERE prod = i.multBy(r3); … } public Complex multBy(Complex other) // HERE Complex result = new Complex(); result.real = this.real * other. - this.imag * other.imag; result.imag = this.real * other. + this.imag * other.imag; return result; } 5
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the multBy method main(…) real Complex(double real, double imag) this 85638 real 3.0 r3 85638 Complex ref 85642 double imag Complex ref 0.0 double Complex i 85642 85642 Complex ref real other 85638 Complex ref 0.0 double imag prod Complex ref 1.0 double Complex public Complex multBy(Complex other) { // HERE Complex result = new Complex(); result.real = this.real * other.real - this.imag * other.imag; result.imag = this.real * other.imag + this.imag * other.imag; return result; } 7
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MULTIPLICATION PORTION // Look up e^2PIki/N avoiding trig calculations here. realW = sines[(k+(N>>2))%N]; // cos(2PIk/N); imagW = -sines[k%N]; // -sin(2PIk/N); // Complex multiplication of the odd entry of the subgroup // with (e^2PIi/N)^k = (cos(2PI/N) - i * sin(2*PI/N)^k j = (element + gap); tempReal = realW * complex[j] - imagW * complex[j+1]; tempImag = realW * complex[j+1] + imagW * complex[j]; // Adjust the odd entry (subtract: the fft is periodic). complex[j] = complex[element] - tempReal; complex[j+1] = complex[element+1] -tempImag; //Adjust the even entry. complex[element] += tempReal; complex[element+1] += tempImag;
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Simple Recursive FFT Solution Complex[] fft(Complex[] x) { int N = x.length; Complex[] y = new Complex[N]; if (x.length==1) {y[0] = x[0]; return y; } Complex[] even = new Complex[N/2]; Complex[] odd = new Complex[N/2]; for (int m=0; m
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Multiplication Portion // Look up e^2PIki/N avoiding trig calculations here. realW = sines[(k+(N>>2))%N]; // cos(2PIk/N); imagW = -sines[k%N]; // -sin(2PIk/N); // Complex multiplication of the odd entry of the subgroup // with (e^2PIi/N)^k = (cos(2PI/N) - i * sin(2*PI/N)^k j = (element + gap); tempReal = realW * complex[j] - imagW * complex[j+1]; tempImag = realW * complex[j+1] + imagW * complex[j]; // Adjust the odd entry (subtract: the fft is periodic). complex[j] = complex[element] - tempReal; complex[j+1] = complex[element+1] -tempImag; //Adjust the even entry. complex[element] += tempReal; complex[element+1] += tempImag;
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Multiplication Portion // Look up e^2PIki/N avoiding trig calculations here. realW = sines[(k+(N>>2))%N]; // cos(2PIk/N); imagW = -sines[k%N]; // -sin(2PIk/N); // Complex multiplication of the odd entry of the subgroup // with (e^2PIi/N)^k = (cos(2PI/N) - i * sin(2*PI/N)^k j = (element + gap); tempReal = realW * complex[j] - imagW * complex[j+1]; tempImag = realW * complex[j+1] + imagW * complex[j]; // Adjust the odd entry (subtract: the fft is periodic). complex[j] = complex[element] - tempReal; complex[j+1] = complex[element+1] -tempImag; //Adjust the even entry. complex[element] += tempReal; complex[element+1] += tempImag;
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the multBy method main(…) real 85638 real 3.0 r3 85638 Complex ref double imag 0.0 double Complex i 85642 85642 Complex ref real 0.0 double imag prod 1.0 double Complex 85646 Complex ref 85646 real 0.0 double imag 3.0 double Complex public static void main(String[] args) { Complex r3 = new Complex(3); Complex i = new Complex(0,1); Complex prod = i.multBy(r3); // HERE System.out.println("result: "+prod); } 10
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Biology Department (past participants in red) Field Biology/Ecology/Classical Genetics: Dr. Gordon Brown: Terrestrial plant ecology, ecology and evolution of interactions between plants and herbivores, Web site * Dr. Philip Chu: ornithology, systematics, Web site Dr. Larry Davis: geology, paleontology,Web site *Dr. William Lamberts: aquatic ecology, phycology, Web site (next year’s director) Dr. Jeanne Marie Lust OSB: amphibian deformities, hematology, Web site Dr. James Poff: entomology, behavioral ecology of social wasps, Web site Dr. Charles Rodell: ecological genetics, evolution of sexual reproduction, Web site Dr. Steven Saupe: plant taxonomy, secondary metabolism of plants and fungi, Web site Dr. Shawn Thomas: animal behavior and sociobiology using evolutionary theory to test hypotheses regarding mate choice and sexual selection, Web site Dr. Marcus Webster: physiological ecology, energetics of birds, Web site Cell/Molecular/Biochemistry *Dr. Barb May: immunology, microbiology, cell and molecular biology, Web site Dr. Manuel Campos: signal transduction in cells and its relation to disease, Web site Dr. Ellen Jensen: virology, biology of fungi, immunology, Web site Dr. David Mitchell: protein structure, biochemistry, Web site Dr. Michael Reagan: molecular biology, DNA repair mechanisms, Web site Dr. Elizabeth Wurdak: biology of rotifers, histology, cell biology, Web site
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Community Food Projects (CFP) ● Eligible private nonprofit organizations and food program service providers that need a one-time infusion of federal assistance to establish and carry out multipurpose community food projects. ● Projects are funded from $10,000–$400,000 and from one to four years. They are onetime grants that require a dollar-for-dollar match in resources. ● Requirements ○ Meet the food needs of low-income individuals through food distribution, outreach to increase participation in federally assisted nutrition programs, or improve access to food as part of a comprehensive service; ○ Increase the self-reliance of communities to meet their own food needs; ○ Promote comprehensive responses to local food access, farm, and nutrition issues; and ○ Meet specific state, local, or neighborhood food and agricultural needs, including equipment necessary for the efficient operation of a project, planning for long-term solutions, or innovative marketing activities that mutually benefit agricultural producers and low-income consumers. 27
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• Foodborne Illnesses • Food intoxication: food poisoning in which food is contaminated by natural toxins – Botulism • Food infection: food poisoning in which food is contaminated by disease-causing microorganisms, or pathogens – Norovirus, E. coli, salmonella, campylobacter – Pet food can contain salmonella • Use safe food practices and store food safely, especially leftovers ©McGraw-Hill Education.
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Figure 23.13 Deglutition (swallowing). Slide 1 Bolus of food Tongue Uvula Pharynx Bolus Epiglottis Epiglottis Glottis Trachea Esophagus 1 During the buccal phase, the upper esophageal sphincter is contracted. The tongue presses against the hard palate, forcing the food bolus into the oropharynx. Relaxed muscles 2 The pharyngeal-esophageal phase begins as the uvula and larynx rise to prevent food from entering respiratory passageways. The tongue blocks off the mouth. The upper esophageal sphincter relaxes, allowing food to enter the esophagus. 4 Peristalsis moves food through the esophagus to the stomach. Circular muscles contract Upper esophageal sphincter 3 The constrictor muscles of the pharynx contract, forcing food into the esophagus inferiorly. The upper esophageal sphincter contracts (closes) after food enters. Relaxed muscles 5 The gastroesophageal sphincter surrounding the cardial oriface opens, and food enters the stomach. Bolus of food Longitudinal muscles contract Circular muscles contract Gastroesophageal sphincter closed Gastroesophageal sphincter opens Stomach © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Bolus
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