Emmert-Bhatia (ASIC’98) • • • • Nets connected to faulty PLB, deleted and rerouted A graph is built, from source pin to target pin Standard single-net routing mode (global then detailed) Do not perturb or move existing nets Cong-Sarrafzadeh (ISPD’00) • Single Net Routing : Route new nets without removing any existing nets. • Rip & Reroute : If some nets cannot be routed, rip-up the existing nets which occupy the resources of new nets. Reroute the ripped up nets.
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 State of the Cruise Industry, 2015  In 2014, with 22.1 million passengers cruising globally—a 4% increase over 2013’s previous high of 21.3 million—and about 12 million sourced from North America.  The cruise industry is the fastest-growing category in the leisure travel market.  Since 1980, the industry has experienced an average annual passenger growth rate of approximately 7.2% per year.  The cruise industry’s establishment of over 30 North American embarkation ports provides consumers with unprecedented convenience, cost savings and value by placing cruise ships within driving distance of 75% of North American vacationers. 2015-Cruise-Industry-Overview-and-Statistics.pdf
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 A large number of cruise ships based in and controlled by the US are not registered by US companies known as “Flags of convenience”.  Companies that owned cruise ships are typically tax-sheltered countries.  The list of Bahamas-registered cruise ships include some of the largest passenger ships in the world from the fleets of RCCL, NCL and Carnival.  Done to avoid US labor laws.   Get cheap labor and have less taxes. In terms of employment, cruise lines contribute little to US economy.  Shore-based jobs, marketing and reservations, for US owned cruises do provide jobs. Cruise ship registry: flags-of-convenience
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Our Incremental Approach Object-based G-nets (the original G-nets) Standard G-nets (support class modeling) Object-Oriented G-nets (support inheritance) Agent-based G-nets (support agent modeling) Agent-Oriented G-nets (support inheritance) 10/18/01 Computer Science Dept., UIC 15
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Methods • Trap Nets • Minnow Traps • Seine Nets • Really AWFUL gill nets • Eckman grab • Plankton Nets • Multiprobe • Secci Disk • LOTS of Time
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 Cruise Line Economics      Rapid growth since the fly/cruise introduced in 1971 The fastest growing business in the travel industry Carnival cruise lines is the biggest and most profitable CLIA 2015 Report Very successful at promotion and marketing  Mass-marketing to middle and upper class Vary in size from small exploration-type vessels to megaships  Once the breakeven point is reached, marginal cost of an additional passenger is low     Food cost does increase as number of passenger increases, but labor costs for service personnel increases very little Wages and salaries remain fixed, tipped employees’ income increases at no cost to the ship. Gambling has become a large factor in cruise ship economics.
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 Food costs are high due to top-of-the-line menus served around the clock    Effort to sail 100% booked even though some cabin styles are deeply discounted Factors that affect price are…       Sailing done at night and at slow speeds Use of lighter building materials helps to reduce weight Cruise prices include lavish food, entertainment and interesting itineraries   Cruise duration Season Cabin size and location Ship’s reputation To reduce fuel cost, use diesel fuel and sail to fewer ports   Companies that specialize in food service operate under contract with the ship’s owners Fly/cruise packages include round-trip airfare The longer the cruise, the older the traveler  Greatest number of passengers are from the US, Britain, Germany, Australia and Canada
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Stochastic Timed Petri Nets  When "time" is assigned to transitions (or places) of Petri nets, they are called Timed Petri Nets.  If the "time" is random in timed Petri nets, they are called Stochastic Timed Petri Nets. 14
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NETS Northwest Educational Technology System Jointly governing & managing a shared telecommunications infrastructure for member colleges Jeff Sinks, Coordinator of NETS Items to Be Covered What is NETS NETS Budget Regional WAN NETS Support Services Future Efforts/ New Initiatives
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Our Incremental Approach Object-based G-nets (the original Gnets) Standard G-nets (support class modeling) Object-Oriented G-nets (support inheritance) Agent-based G-nets (support agent modeling) Agent-Oriented G-nets (support inheritance) 12/03/2003 CIS Dept., UMass Dartmouth 14
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Experimental Results (Comparison of Failed Nets) Com parison of Width of Failed Nets 40.00 35.00 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 36.75 5.11 10% New Net Std 6.59 2.15 20% New Net R&R Width factor with respect to DSR Total HP factor with respect to DSR Com parison of Total HP of Failed Nets 2.50 2.00 2.06 1.60 1.52 1.50 1.29 1.00 0.50 0.00 10% New Net Std 20% New Net R&R • Unrouted nets are longer and wider when Std. and R&R used • DSR gets more compact layout by routing more and wider nets
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Chapter 14 Six Main Concepts  Plankton drift or swim weakly, going where the ocean goes, unable to move consistently against waves or current flow.  Plankton is an artificial category; a category not based on a phylogenetic (evolutionary) relationship but rather on a shared lifestyle.  Phytoplankton are autotrophic, that is, they make their own food, usually by photosynthesis. Plankton productivity depends on largely on light and nutrient availability.  The ocean’s most productive phytoplankters are very small cyanobacteria working in a “microbial loop.”  Zooplankton – drifting animals – consume phytoplankton species (diatoms, dinoflagellates, coccolithophores), forming a food web that eventually supports larger animals like fishes.  Not all producers are drifters. Seaweeds and mangroves are also important contributors.
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Plankton Drift with the Ocean Pelagic organisms live suspended in seawater. They can be divided into two broad groups based on their lifestyle:  The plankton drift or swim weakly, going where the ocean goes, unable to move consistently against waves or current flow.  The nekton are pelagic organisms that actively swim. (RIGHT) The standard plankton net is made of fine mesh and has a mouth up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in diameter. The net is towed behind a ship for a set distance.
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Plankton Drift with the Ocean Representative plankton and nekton of the pelagic zone in the region of the subtropical Atlantic Ocean. Note the relative magnification of organisms in the plankton community.
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