Recent articles  Gut bacteria in Japanese people borrowed sushi-digesting genes from ocean bacteria  The bacterial zoo in your bowel  Gut bacteria – fat or thin, family or friends, shared or unique  Human gut bacteria linked to obesity  Divided by language, united by gut bacteria – people have three common gut types  Gut bacteria recap the evolution of apes  Gut bacteria change the sexual preferences of fruit flies  You are what you eat – how your diet defines you in trillions of ways  Baby’s first bacteria depend on route of delivery  The Effects of Circumcision on the Penis Microbiome  Characterization of the Oral Fungal Microbiome 30 (Mycobiome) in Healthy Individuals
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405/58. Growth of Bacteria Escherichia coli. The bacteria Escherichia coli are commonly found in the human intestines. Suppose that 3000 of the bacteria are present at time t = 0. Then under certain conditions, t minutes later, the number of bacteria present is N(t) = 3000(2) . a) How many bacteria will be present after 10 min? 20 min? 30 min? 40 min? 60 min? b) Graph the function. c) These bacteria can cause intestinal infections in humans when the number of bacteria reaches 100,000,000. Find the length of time it takes for an intestinal infection to be possible. t/20
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Antibiotic Resistance 101 • How do bacteria become resistant to antibiotics? – Bacteria have several mechanisms • Some bacteria develop the ability to neutralize the antibiotic • Other bacteria rapidly pump out the antibiotic • Still other bacteria change the antibiotic attack site (on the bacterial cell wall) so that the antibiotic can’t do its work of affecting bacterial metabolism • Additionally, some bacteria can transfer pieces of DNA that code for resistance to other bacteria 13
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Tree Topology Bacteria 1 Bacteria 2 Bacteria 3 Eukaryote 1 Eukaryote 2 Eukaryote 3 Eukaryote 4 (Bacteria1,(Bacteria2,Bacteria3),(Eukaryote1,((Eukaryote2,Eukaryote3),Eukaryote4))) Bacteria 1 Bacteria 2 Bacteria 3 Eukaryote 1 Slide adapted from Marta Riutart Eukaryote 2 Eukaryote 3 Eukaryote 4
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Different confidence intervals for the same set of measurements Density of bacteria in solution: Measurement equipment has standard deviation σ = 1 * 106 bacteria/ml fluid. Three measurements: 24, 29, and 31 * 106 bacteria/ml fluid Mean: x = 28 * 106 bacteria/ml. Find the 96% and 70% CI.  96% confidence interval for the € true density, z* = 2.054, and write σ x ±z * n = 28 ± 2.054(1/√3) = 28 ± 1.19 x 106 bacteria/ml 70% confidence interval for the true density, z* = 1.036, and write  σ = 28 ± 1.036(1/√3) x ±z * n = 28 ± 0.60 x 106 bacteria/ml
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Vent Tubeworm Predators: Crabs, shrimp, mussels, and clams Key Information: Has a symbiotic relationships with the billions of bacteria that live inside of them Image Source: Interactive Oceans Vent Bacteria These bacteria use a process called chemosynthesis to produce sugar from the chemicals spewed out by hydrothermal vents. Image Source: Interactive Oceans Blind Brachyuran Crab Predators: Squids, octopus, crabs, lobsters, large fish Key Information: They eat bacteria, shrimp, mussels, clams, tubeworms, and even each other Image Source: Discovery Zone Blue Planet Pompeii worm Predators: Many species found at hydrothermal vents can feed on worms Key Information: Feeds on the bacteria living on its back Image Source: Wikipedia Blind Vent Shrimp Predators: Many of the crabs, lobsters, and other creatures can feed on the Blind Shrimp. Key Information: Feeds on the bacteria that living on deep sea vents Image Source: Live Science Vent Amphipod Predators: Many upper level carnivores will feed on Amphipods Key Information: Feed directly on bacterial mats Image Source: Weebly
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The Health and Regulation of the GI Tract • Gastrointestinal Bacteria A healthy GI tract has many different non-disease-causing bacteria known as flora or microflora. Probiotics are bacteria found in the GI tract that can be beneficial to health. An example is the bacteria found in yogurt. Prebiotics are foods that are used as food by intestinal bacteria. © 2008 Thomson - Wadsworth
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Metabolic Diversity among Organisms Nutritional Type Energy Source Carbon Source Example Photoautotroph Light CO2 Oxygenic: Cyanobacteria plants Anoxygenic: Green, purple bacteria Photoheterotroph Light Organic compounds Green, purple nonsulfur bacteria Chemoautotroph Chemical CO2 Iron-oxidizing bacteria Chemoheterotroph Chemical Organic compounds Fermentative bacteria Animals, protozoa, fungi, bacteria. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
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Metabolic Diversity Among Organisms Nutritional type Energy source Carbon source Example Photoautotroph Light CO2 Oxygenic: Cyanobacteria plants. Anoxygenic: Green, purple bacteria. Photoheterotroph Light Organic compounds Green, purple nonsulfur bacteria. Chemoautotroph Chemical CO2 Iron-oxidizing bacteria. Chemoheterotroph Chemical Organic compounds Fermentative bacteria. Animals, protozoa, fungi, bacteria.
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The Requirements for Growth: Chemical Requirements Macro & Micro Elements • • • Macro in large amounts, micro in small (CHOPKiNS) Macro elements: Nitrogen • In amino acids, proteins • Most bacteria decompose proteins • Some bacteria use NH4+ or NO3 • A few bacteria use N2 in nitrogen fixation • Sulfur • In amino acids, thiamine, biotin • Most bacteria decompose proteins • Some bacteria use SO42 or H2S
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The Nitrogen Cycle   Role of producers and consumers: Plants use the ammonia released by these bacteria to make organic molecules. Animals get their nitrogen from plants. – Animals release their excess nitrogen as ammonia or urea. Role of decomposers and other soil bacteria: – – – 15-28 Decomposers break down nitrogen-containing organic molecules to ammonia. Nitrifying bacteria convert ammonia to nitrite, which is converted by other bacteria to nitrate, which can be used by plants. Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrites back into nitrogen gas and release it into the atmosphere. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
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7. Una de las siguientes oraciones sobre los bacteriófagos es incorrecta a. Los bacteriófagos son un tipo de bacterias que atacan a los virus b.Están constituidos por ADN y una cubierta de proteínas. c. Se sabe que los bacteriófagos infectan una célula inyectándole su ADN d. El ADN del bacteriófago toma control de la maquinaria de la bacteria e. El ADN se encuentra en la cabeza del fago.
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Impoundment Aeration / Biological Treatment • Aeration – Increases dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in water water – DO + food source (hydrocarbons) sustain aerobic bacteria – Eliminates hydrocarbons and other organics from the water – Prevents water from “Flipping” – Reduces the proliferation of Anaerobic Bacteria • Aerobic bacteria – Control anaerobic bacteria – Manage with biocides during frac operations • Anaerobic bacteria – More problematic (e.g., SRB’s create H2S / Souring) – More expensive to manage with biocides October 2018 Copyright © 2018 ALL Consulting 22
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Antibiotic Resistance 101 • What happens when bacteria become resistant to antibiotics? – Selective pressure: resistant bacteria survive, multiply, and replace all the sensitive (susceptible) bacteria that were killed off – Just like antibiotic-susceptible bacteria, resistant bacteria can spread to other people and cause colonization or serious infections 14
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Carbon and electron flow in methanogenic environments Complex organic matter Carbohydrates, nucleic acids proteins, lipids 1 Lactate Propionate Higher fatty acids Alcohols Aromatic compounds 2 H2, CO2 3 Acetate 4 CH4, CO2 1 = fermentative bacteria, e.g., lactic acid bacteria, clostridia, enteric bacteria, propionibacteria 2 = proton-reducing, syntrophic bacteria, e.g., Syntrophomonas spp, Syntrophobacter 3 = homoacetogenic bacteria, e.g., Acetobacterium woodii, Clostrodium aceticum 4 = methanogenic archaea, e.g., Methanosarcina spp, Methanobacterium spp., Methanospirillum spp.
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Sulfate-reducing bacteria - all sulfate-reducing bacteria are strict anaerobes - phylogenetically heterogeneous group: gram + : Desulfotomaculum spec., some Clostridia gram - : Desulfovibrio spec., Desulfobacterium spec., Desulfobacter spec., Thermodesulfobacterium spec. archaea: Archaeoglobus spec. General characteristics of catabolism in sulfate-reducing bacteria 2- SO 4 nXH 2 [H] ATP nX H2 S N.B.: All sulfate-reducers are specialized to use products of the primary fermenting bacteria XH 2 = H2 , HCOO - , Acetate, Propionate, Butyrate, Stearate (C18 ), Fumarate, Succinate, Malate, Ethanol, Methanol, Alkane Benzoate, Phenylacetate, Toluene, Alanine, Glutamate, Cholin, Nicotinate, Indole Based on their metabolic properties sulfate-reducing bacteria can be subdivided into 2 groups: A) Incomplete oxidizers : organic substrates Acetate + CO2 e.g.: Desulfovibrio spec., Desulfobulbus spec., Desulfotomaculum (some) B) Complete oxidizers: organic substrates CO 2 (some acetate can be excreted) e.g.: Desulfobacter spec., Desulfococcus spec., Desulfosarcina spec., Desulfonema spec., Desulfobacterium spec., Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans N.B.: The complete oxidizers can use the citric acid cycle or the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway for complete oxidation of acetyl-CoA.
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