ANALOGY ANT COLONIES INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Members Ants Information Agents Gather Food/Building Material Information/Data From Environment Communication & Data Networks Build Ant Hills Individual User Knowledge base Communication Chemical Trails Information Beacons Goal Serve the Colony/Queen Serve the Colony/User Interaction Cooperation & Competition Cooperation & Competition Intelligence Individual Members Simple Colony Complex Superposition Principle Individual Members Simple Colony Complex Superposition Principle University of Kansas
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27. Colony of Murres
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Purpose of streaking:  To obtain pure, isolated colonies. Principle:  By spreading a large amount of bacteria over the large surface area of a plate, the amount of bacteria is diluted until individual cells are spread on the surface of the plate.  Each individual cell grows into a single colony.  All of the cells in this colony are genetically identical. Each species of bacteria produces a distinctive colony appearance. What are five (5) ways colonies can be different from each other?
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Obtaining Pure Cultures  A pure culture contains only one species or strain  A colony is a population of cells arising from a single cell or spore or from a group of attached cells  A colony is often called a colony-forming unit (CFU)  The streak plate method is used to isolate pure cultures Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
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Culture Growth • A pure culture contains only one species or strain • A colony is a population of cells arising from a single cell or spore or from a group of attached cells • A colony is often called a colony-forming unit (CFU)
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Problem Statement ● Bees must live in a healthy colony in order to thrive ● Very hard to maintain healthy colony when little is known about what goes on in hive ● Beekeepers must perform manual inspections to assess colony health ■ ■ ■ ■ Time and labor consuming Can only be done at certain times/days of year Disturbs bees Varies in accuracy ● Replacing 100 million hives is infeasible
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Problem Statement ● Bees must live in a healthy colony in order to thrive ● Very hard to maintain healthy colony when little is known about what goes on in hive ● Beekeepers must perform manual inspections to assess colony health ■ ■ ■ ■ Time and labor consuming Can only be done at certain times/days of year Disturbs bees Varies in accuracy ● Replacing 100 million hives is infeasible 22
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Problem Statement ● Bees must live in a healthy colony in order to thrive ● Very hard to maintain healthy colony when little is known about what goes on in hive ● Beekeepers must perform manual inspections to assess colony health ■ ■ ■ ■ Time and labor consuming Can only be done at certain times/days of year Disturbs bees Varies in accuracy
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Problem Statement ● Bees must live in a healthy colony in order to thrive ● Very hard to maintain healthy colony when little is known about what goes on in hive ● Beekeepers must perform manual inspections to assess colony health ■ Time and labor consuming ■ Can only be done at certain times/days of year ■ Disturbs bees ■ Varies in accuracy ● Replacing 100 million hives is infeasible
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Examples of ELAP Compensation for Eligible Losses • Honeybee Loss Due to Colony Collapse: – A Montana-based honeybee operator started the Montana pollination season with 1,000 colonies and ended the season with 200 colonies due to colony collapse disorder. It was documented that it will take $48,000 to replace the 800 colonies, or $60 per colony. – The ELAP payment calculation is: [($48,000)] x [0.60 payment portion for such a loss] x [(1.00 operator’s share of the loss)] = $28,800.
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3. Murres on Farallon Islands
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24. Common Murres on Water
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29. Schooling Fish and Murres
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Medical Uses of Growth Factors • Available through recombinant DNA technology – recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) very effective in treating decreased RBC production of end-stage kidney disease – other products given to stimulate WBC formation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy which kills bone marrow • granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor • granulocyte colony stimulating factor – thrombopoietin helps prevent platelet depletion during chemotherapy Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS 19-15
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How colonialism created bad governments? Colonial powers installed government systems designed to maximize revenue extracted from the colonies. Beginning of 20th century, France extracted 50% of the GDP of its colony Dahomey 1880-1920 Congo (Belgium Colony) 5-10 million natives died as a result of colonial brutality When the Europeans left, they left regimes which benefit the colonial power. 49
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Fig. 20-4-4 Hummingbird cell TECHNIQUE Bacterial cell ampR gene lacZ gene Bacterial plasmid Restriction site Sticky ends Gene of interest Hummingbird DNA fragments Nonrecombinant plasmid Recombinant plasmids Animation constructi ng a plasmid vector Bacteria carrying plasmids RESULTS Colony carrying nonrecombinant plasmid with intact lacZ gene Colony carrying recombinant plasmid with disrupted lacZ gene One of many bacterial clones
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Spanish Colonies • Spanish Model: search for gold and slaves – – – – Monarch tight control of colony Few European women, multiracial population Indians have a place in society Mission • 1565, Spain founds first successful settlement on mainland future United States—St. Augustine, Florida • 1598, Spain starts royal colony of New Mexico
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Mayflower Compact • IN THE NAME OF GOD, AMEN. We, whose names are underwritten, the Loyal Subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord King James, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c. Having undertaken for the Glory of God, and Advancement of the Christian Faith, and the Honour of our King and Country, a Voyage to plant the first Colony in the northern Parts of Virginia; Do by these Presents, solemnly and mutually, in the Presence of God and one another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil Body Politick, for our better Ordering and Preservation, and Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid: And by Virtue hereof do enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions, and Officers, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general Good of the Colony; unto which we promise all due Submission and Obedience. IN WITNESS whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at Cape-Cod the eleventh of November, in the Reign of our Sovereign Lord King James, of England, France, and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifyfourth, Anno Domini; 1620.
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Leukopoiesis   Cytokines stimulate different types and stages of WBCs production. Multipotent growth factor-1, interleukin-1, and interleukin3:   Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor:   Stimulate development of different types of WBC cells. Stimulates development of neutrophils. Granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor:  Simulates development of monocytes and eosinophils.
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 Egypt: British colony in 1882; sugar, cotton  Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco: French colonies; railroads, mining, agriculture  Iran: N. Iran was Russian colony, S. Iran was British; tobacco  SE Asia: Dutch in 1917; sugar, coffee, tobacco, indigo  Malaysia: British; tin, rubber, Chinese labor
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Early Colonial America IV. The Decline of Puritan Massachusetts •Roger Williams (1631) raised questions about church-state relations & leadership. •Anne Hutchinson (1634) raised questions about women in Puritan society. •Colony matures & grows, drifts towards individualism. •By 1700, the church is largely dead as a political power. •Virginia became an Anglican colony, Maryland Catholic, Pennsylvania settled by Quakers. William Penn
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FALSE      The Spanish founded the first permanent colony at St. Augustine (Florida) in 1565 The first colony in Virginia was Jamestown, founded by the English in 1607 The Dutch founded New Amsterdam (New York) in 1608 English “pilgrims” arrive in Plymouth (Massachusetts) in 1620, and English Puritans in Boston/Salem area 1630 Image: Map depicting destruction of St. Augustine, 1586
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Regression Line A regression line is a straight line that describes how a response variable y changes as an explanatory variable x changes. We can use a regression line to predict the value of y for a given value of x. Example: Predict the number of new adult birds that join the colony based on the percent of adult birds that return to the colony from the previous year.  If 60% of adults return, how many new birds are predicted? 4
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Prediction via Regression Line 8 For the returning birds example, the LSRL is y-hat = 31.9343 - 0.3040x  y-hat is the predicted number of new birds for colonies with x percent of adults returning Suppose we know that an individual colony has 60% returning. What would we predict the number of new birds to be for just that colony? For colonies with 60% returning, we predict the average number of new birds to be: 31.9343 - (0.3040)(60) = 13.69 birds
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Exploit Prior for Concept Switching foraging foragers forage food nectar colony source hive dance forager information feeder rate recruitment individual reward flower dancing behavior 0.142473 0.0582921 0.0557498 0.0393453 0.03217 0.019416 0.0153349 0.0151726 0.013336 0.0127668 0.0117961 0.010944 0.0104752 0.00870751 0.0086414 0.00810706 0.00800705 0.00794827 0.00789228 foraging nectar food forage colony pollen flower sucrose source behavior individual rate recruitment time reward task sitter rover rovers 0.290076 0.114508 0.106655 0.0734919 0.0660329 0.0427706 0.0400582 0.0334728 0.0319787 0.0283774 0.028029 0.0242806 0.0200597 0.0197362 0.0196271 0.0182461 0.00604067 0.00582791 0.00306051
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Confusion in New Jersey • New Jersey split off from New York • Given to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret • Berkeley split colony • Reunited in 1702 as single royal colony Diversity in the Middle Colonies
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In General •Binary fission •Increase cell size and mass until the cell can divide •Doubling period/generations •Exponential growth •When there are enough bacteria (quorum), colony behaves like a multicellular organism •Normal conditions, normal patterns like on first slide. Usually nutrients on agar in a petri dish •But when the colony is stressed…
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Siphonophores: Composed of clonally produced multicellular zooids Highest division of labor & most precise organization All the zooids in a given siphonophore colony are descended from a single fertilized egg. The egg develops into the protozooid, a polyp that gives rise through budding to all the other zooids of the colony, including the float!.
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Yet more theories on the causes of democratization * Political leaders committed to democracy * Experience as a British colony * Traditions of tolerance and compromise * Occupation by a prodemocratic foreign power *Communal homogeneity Picture:http://www.madeiraedu.pt/estabensino/ebssantana/comenius/si mbols_of_colonialism.htm Experience as a British colony: “The British Colossus,” (1892) depicting British expansionist Cecil Rhodes straddling Britain’s African
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IV. COST OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR/LIVING A. INCREASED COMPETITION FOR RESOURCES Fieldfares (a song bird) nest in loose colonies in woodlands As colony size increases, the probability of nest survival increases Nestling survival However, as colony size increases the probability of survival for specific nestlings decreases
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