Distributions of Barnacles along an Intertidal Exposure Gradient • Organisms living in an intertidal zone have evolved to different degrees of resistance to drying. – Barnacles show distinctive patterns of zonation within intertidal zone. • scientist found Chthamalus stellatus restricted to upper levels while Balanus balanoides is limited to middle and lower levels. 11 11
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Marine Growth • Marine growth may influence hydrodynamic loads, dynamic response, accessibility and corrosion rate of the structure • Classified as “hard” (e.g. mussels and barnacles) and “soft” (seaweeds and kelps) Barnacles on ship http://www.dsdni.gov.uk/index/urcdg23 urban_regeneration/nomadic/dsdin_nomadic_gallery.htm
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Zooplankton Consume Primary Producers Heterotrophic plankton are collectively called zooplankton. The mass of zooplankton is typically about 10% that of phytoplankton. Most zooplankton spend their whole lives in the plankton community, so we call them holoplankton. (TOP RIGHT) Copepod. Some planktonic animals are the juvenile stages of crabs, barnacles, clams, sea stars, and other organisms that will later adopt a benthic or nektonic lifestyle. They are known as meroplankton. (BOTTOM RIGHT) Larval sea urchin.
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Arthropoda and Echinodermata Arthropoda • The phylum Arthropoda includes the lobsters, shrimp, crabs, krill, and barnacles. Arthropods are by far the most successful of Earth’s animal phyla with more than a million known species. • They exhibit three remarkable evolutionary advances : exoskeletons, striated muscles, and articulation. Ecinodermata Include sea stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers and brittle stars. Echinoderms lack eyes or brains, have a radially symmetrical body plan based on 5 sections or projections and move slowly. They also have a water vascular
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Life Cycle Information  Larval stages can provide clues about the relatedness of organisms. – Barnacles and shrimp  The – Birds and reptiles  The – 20-13 anatomy of eggs also provides clues. anatomy of seeds can be used as well. Peas, peanuts and lima beans Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
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Arthropod Groups 1. Subphylum Trilobita - extinct trilobites 2. Subphylum Chelicerata – horseshoe crabs, spiders, ticks, mites, and some extinct groups 3. Subphylum Myriapoda – centipedes, millipedes 4. Subphylum Crustacea – crabs, lobsters, shrimps, barnacles 5. Subphylum Hexapoda – Insects 14
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The Crustaceans lobsters • Phylum Arthropoda – Subphylum Crustacea • crusta= shell • Lobster, crayfish, crabs shrimp, crab, water flea, amphipods barnacles amphipods Daphnia shrimp euphausids (krill) 56
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Barnacles “nothing more than a little shrimplike animal standing on its head in a limestone house and kicking food into its mouth” -Louis Agassiz 68
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Barnacles • living and nonliving substrates • most species secrete CaCO3 shell • Head reduced, rudimentary abdomen 69
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Successional Mechanisms in Rocky Intertidal Zone • Scientist investigated mechanisms behind succession of algae and barnacles in intertidal boulder fields. – If the inhibition model is in effect, early successional species should be more vulnerable to mortality. • Results showed early successional species had lowest survivorship and were more vulnerable to herbivores.
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Distributions of Barnacles along an Intertidal Gradient • Balanus appears to be more vulnerable to desiccation, excluding it from the upper intertidal zone. – Chthamalus adults appear to be excluded from lower areas by competition with Balanus. 12 12
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Distributions of Barnacles along an Intertidal Gradient 13 13
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23. Barnacles
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Foulants • Soft Foulants (algae and seweed) • Hard Foulants (barnacles and diatoms)
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Antifoulants • Used to control the growth of marine organisms (algae and seaweed-soft foulants; barnacles and diatoms-hard foulants) • Usually mixed with the paint as it is applied to the hull • Slowly leach form the surface of the hull
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Space is an important resource for sessile animals Barnacles on the rocky coast of Maine. Above optimal range of intertidal zone (small ones are larvae)
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Competition between distantly related species is common Example 1: barnacles, mussels, alage, sponges, bryozoans, tunicates in the intertidal zone compete for spaces Example 2: fish, squid, diving birds, seals, and whales all eat krills Example 3: birds, lizards eat same insects; Ants, rodents, birds eat seeds in the desert systems.
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Consumers can influence the outcome of competition Keystone predator Starfish prey on mussels, barnacles, limpets, and chitons Remove starfish, what would happen? Species diversity increase or decrease? Why?
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Aggregation Pheromones: Barnacles Wyatt Book
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