The less-simplified Punnett square Now that I have learned that genes for eye color happen on multiple chromosomes and have been identified on chromosomes 15 and 19, I can create a Punnett square that more accurately reflects my potential offspring. It also reflects why the simpler form is normally used. Parent 1: brown eyes Genotype: bey2: brown-blue, gey: green-blue Parent 2: blue eyes Genotype: bey2: blue-blue gey: blueblue bey2: gey: Brown blue Brown Green blue Green blue blue blue blue Brown-blue blue-blue Brown-blue blue-blue Green-blue Green-blue blue-blue blue-blue blue blue Brown-blue blue-blue Brown-blue blue-blue Green-blue Green-blue blue-blue blue-blue blue blue Brown-blue blue-blue Brown-blue blue-blue Green-blue Green-blue blue-blue blue-blue blue blue Brown-blue blue-blue Brown-blue blue-blue Green-blue Green-blue blue-blue blue-blue
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Example Contd. SALES Model Year Color Chevy 1990 red Chevy 1990 white Chevy 1990 blue Chevy 1991 red Chevy 1991 white Chevy 1991 blue Chevy 1992 red Chevy 1992 white Chevy 1992 blue Ford 1990 red Ford 1990 white Ford 1990 blue Ford 1991 red Ford 1991 white Ford 1991 blue Ford 1992 red Ford 1992 white Ford 1992 blue Madhavi Sales 5 87 62 54 95 49 31 54 71 64 62 63 52 9 55 27 62 39 CUBE Data Cube and OLAP Server DATA CUBE Model Year Color ALL ALL ALL chevy ALL ALL ford ALL ALL ALL 1990 ALL ALL 1991 ALL ALL 1992 ALL ALL ALL red ALL ALL white ALL ALL blue chevy 1990 ALL chevy 1991 ALL chevy 1992 ALL ford 1990 ALL ford 1991 ALL ford 1992 ALL chevy ALL red chevy ALL white chevy ALL blue ford ALL red ford ALL white ford ALL blue ALL 1990 red ALL 1990 white ALL 1990 blue ALL 1991 red ALL 1991 white ALL 1991 blue ALL 1992 red ALL 1992 white ALL 1992 blue Sales 942 510 432 343 314 285 165 273 339 154 199 157 189 116 128 91 236 183 144 133 156 69 149 125 107 104 104 59 116 110 17
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OJJDP Comprehensive Strategy: Five Key Objectives Provide immediate intervention and appropriate sanctions and treatment for delinquents (e.g., graduated sanctions) 1.  Example: Safe Futures—continuum of care for youths and their families (includes human service and juvenile justice systems, health, mental health, child welfare, education, police, probation, courts, and corrections) Prosecute serious, violent, chronic juvenile offenders in criminal court 2.  Example: Include waiver and transfer mechanisms that allow serious juvenile offenders to be tried as adults in criminal court Reduce youth involvement with guns, drugs, and gangs 3.  Example: Partnerships to Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence—attempts to strengthen linkages among community groups, schools, law enforcement, and the juvenile justice system Providing opportunities for children and youth 4.  Examples: Mentoring, after-school activities, conflict-resolution training, remedial education, and vocational education Breaking the cycle of violence by addressing youth victimization, abuse, and neglect 5.  Example: Safe Kids/Safe Streets—strengthens the response of criminal and juvenile justice systems to child abuse and neglect
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Juvenile Corrections and Sentencing: Campbell Collaboration studies Study USA Canada UK Aust Other Aftercare programs for reducing recidivism among juvenile and young adult offenders (2010). 21 0 1 0 0 22 Drug Courts’ Effects on Criminal Offending for Juvenile and Adults (2012). 146 2 0 4 2i 154 Serious (Violent and Chronic) Juvenile Offenders: A systematic review of treatment effectiveness in Secure Corrections (2010 & 2007). 22 4 4 0 0 30 Scared Straight and Other Juvenile Awareness Programs for Preventing Juvenile Delinquency: A Systematic Review (2013). 9 0 0 0 0 9 Effects of Early Family/Parent Training Programs on Antisocial Behavior and Delinquency: A Systematic Review (2008). 38 2 5 7 3ii 55 i New Zealand and Guam. ii China, New Zealand and Netherlands. Total
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  Disposition: the equivalent of sentencing in adult court Blended sentences: state laws that allow juvenile judges to impose both juvenile & adult correctional sanctions • In some states, the sentence starts in the juvenile system but when the offender reaches adulthood, the case is transferred to the adult system • In other states, the adult sanction is suspended unless the juvenile violates the juvenile sanction • Blended sentences are a “middle ground” between traditional juvenile & adult sanctions • 21 states currently have some form of blended sentencing laws
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Overfished Stocks (47) – as of September 30, 2010 New England: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. North Pacific: 1. Blue King Crab – Pribilof Islands Atlantic Cod – Georges Bank Yellowtail Flounder – Georges Bank Yellowtail Flounder – Southern New England/Middle Atlantic Yellowtail Flounder – Cape Cod/Gulf of Maine White Hake Winter Flounder - Southern New England / Mid-Atlantic Ocean Pout Atlantic Halibut Windowpane - Gulf of Maine / Georges Bank Winter flounder - Georges Bank Witch flounder - Northwestern Atlantic Coast Smooth Skate 14. Thorny Skate Atlantic Salmon1 15. Atlantic Wolffish - Gulf of Maine / Georges Bank1 Highly Migratory Species: 1. Blue Marlin – Atlantic2 2. White Marlin – Atlantic2 3. Albacore – North Atlantic2 4. Bluefin Tuna – West Atlantic2 5. Sandbar Shark Mid-Atlantic: 6. Porbeagle Shark 1. Butterfish (Atlantic) 7. Dusky Shark 8. Blacknose Shark ific: Cowcod Yelloweye Rockfish Canary rockfish - Pacific Coast Petrale sole – Pacific Coast Coho salmon - Washington Coast: Queets1 Coho salmon - Washington Coast: Western Strait of Juan de Fuca1 Chinook salmon - California Central Valley: Sacramento (fall)1 Gulf of Mexico: Western Pacific 3/27/19 1. Seamount Groundfish Complex – Hancock Seamount U.S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration South Atlantic: 1. Red Snapper 2. Greater Amberjack 3. Gray Triggerfish 4. Gag 1. Indicates non-FSSI stock 2. Stock is fished by U.S. and International fleets. 1. Pink Shrimp 2. Snowy Grouper 3. Black Sea Bass 4. Red Porgy 5. Red Snapper 6. Red Grouper Caribbean: 1. Grouper Unit 1 2. Grouper Unit 2 3. Grouper Unit 4 4. Queen Conch National Marine Fisheries Service Office of Sustainable Fisheries 13
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Blue Jay Life Cycle ~ ~ maturation timing birth timing infected mosq real data ~ juvenile birds healthy birds births maturation birth rate death healthy infected mosq dr adult death juvenile infection adult bird ir mosq to bird immune birds immune birds death immune birds dr juvenile infection juvenile birds healthy birds immunity infected birds ir juvenile ir bird to mosq death infected birds weather ~ immunity percent mosq pop dehybernation timing death fraction infection mosq ~ death infected mosq dehybernation infected mosq Mosquito Life Cycle infected mosq dr infected mosq
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From Juvenile to Adult Sex Offender • Not all juvenile sex offenders will become adult sex offenders • Long term risk for competently treated juvenile sex offenders is encouraging • High value on identifying and properly managing juvenile sex offenders • Not all adult sex offenders were juvenile sex offenders 129
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Changes in variables: ~ maturation timing ~ birth timing infected mosq real data ~ juvenile birds healthy birds births maturation birth rate death healthy infected mosq dr adult death juvenile infection adult bird ir mosq to bird immune birds immune birds death immune birds dr juvenile infection juvenile birds healthy birds immunity infected birds ir juvenile ir bird to mosq weather death infected birds ~ mosq pop dehybernation timing infection mosq ~ immunity percent death infected mosq dehybernation infected mosq infected mosq dr infected mosq death fraction
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Gray Blue Blue Gray Black Blue Gray Black Blue Gray Gray Black Black Blue Black Blue Blue Gray Black Black Blue Black Visual Layout
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Independent Events A bag contains three marbles, 1 blue and 2 red. If you draw a red marble, what is the probability the next marble you draw is blue? Blue = 0 P(Blue)=1/3 Blue = 1/3 Red= 1 Blue = 1/2 P(Blue|Red)=1/2 P(Red)=2/3 P(Red|Blue)=1 Red= 2/3 Red= 1/2 Slide 18
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(b) Ceased to be criminal - ‘child in need’ (c) First step: juvenile justice - “civil” juvenile system (2) First juvenile court - 1899 - Cook County, Illinois (Chicago) (a) Family court - juvenile matters - identify underlying problem
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(7) Material witness - protect child (a) No definition for juvenile delinquency in Washington state (b) Juvenile offender - “Any juvenile who has been found by the juvenile court to have committed an offense.” c. Sources of criminal data
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Juvenile Units • Responsibilities – Investigation of juvenile cases. Those cases involving status offenses or child victims should be handled juvenile unit personnel. These personnel should have family intervention and counseling skills. • Example: Child abuse, juvenile sexual assault
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Drug Courts’ Effects on Criminal Offending for Juvenile and Adults (2012).  Study found for juvenile drug courts, these courts have considerably smaller effects on recidivism than either adult or DWI (DUI) drug courts. Evaluations of these courts indicate that the average participation in a juvenile drug court is equivalent to a reduction in:  Recidivism from 50% to approximately 43.5%.  This average effect is more than 40% smaller than the average estimated effects of participation in an adult or DWI court.  Programs with less severe populations are more effective in reducing general recidivism.  That courts with violent offenders are less effective in reducing general recidivism.  Why are Juvenile Drug Courts less effective than adult and DWI (DUI) courts?  Generally provide services to relatively high-risk offenders, whereas other kinds of drug courts typically exclude high-risk offenders; and  Appear to be less demanding interventions than adult drug courts, in that, drug testing and status hearings appear to be less frequent, and the program participation appears to be shorter in duration.
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 Despite the growing similarity between juvenile & adult criminal proceedings, some differences persist: • The juvenile court judge takes a more active role than judges in adult courts • Juvenile judges & intake officers have more discretion than with adults to dismiss or divert a case, or choose from an array of graduated sanctions • Punishment is less severe in the juvenile system
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 All states provide the means for the transfer of jurisdiction from juvenile to adult courts by 1 of the following ways: • Judicial Waiver: the juvenile judge has the authority to transfer the case • Concurrent Jurisdiction (prosecutorial waiver): jurisdiction is shared by both courts & discretion lies with the prosecutor to file in either court • Statutory exclusion: the state legislature excludes certain juvenile offenders from juvenile court jurisdiction, requiring they be directly filed in adult criminal courts
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Once transferred, the juvenile becomes an adult for purposes of the trial & sentence  In theory, the transfer decision rests on:  • Severity of the offense • Prior juvenile record • Responses juvenile had to prior juvenile supervision & treatment • Future danger to the community
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 Procedure before Adjudication • Juvenile behavior is brought to the attention of the government by diverse sources • Juvenile cases can be handled formally or informally  The Intake Stage: a probation officer screens the juvenile to determine how the case should proceed: • • • • • A warning is sufficient An outside referral to social service agency or drug court Diversion The case should move toward adjudication in the juvenile system The case is serious enough to consider a waiver to adult court
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Juvenile judges have considerable discretion when imposing probation conditions  Conditions include those designed both to control & rehabilitate the juvenile, & can be both mandatory & discretionary  Changing attitudes & behaviors is difficult & painstaking. The change process is the essence of juvenile probation.  Jacobs (1990) calls juvenile probation officers modern day “superheroes” & praises their creativity & sacrifice 
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