19. Larval Sebastes
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Larval Index CV 2,5E+13 0,6 0,5 0,4 1,5E+13 0,3 1,0E+13 0,2 5,0E+12 0,1 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 0,0 1984 0,0E+00 CV Larval Index 2,0E+13
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3,0 Serie de residuales del índice larval del stock de anchoveta del sur de Perú y norte de Chile. Período 1984-99 LARVAL INDEX 2,0 1,0 0,0 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 -1,0 -2,0 -3,0 Residuals 93 94 95 96 97 98 99
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Polychaetes and Oligochaetes  Oligochaetes differ from polychaetes in several ways: – – – 19 No parapods, fewer setae (if at all) Hermaphroditic with sex cells produced in a separate section No larval stages Phylum Annelida
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Reproduction  Can reproduce asexually by disk division  Sexual Reproduction – – 13 Dioecious with sperm or eggs produced in 2 or more gonads in each arm Larval stage = bipinnaria Phylum Echinodermata
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Phylum Arthropoda  Defining – – 2 Characteristics Epidermis produces a segmented, jointed and hardened chitinous exoskeleton with musculature between individual joints of appendages Complete loss of motile cilia in adult larval stages Phylum Arthropoda
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We will document the larval journey in their new home, and share with you!
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Parasitic Infections - Flukes B) Fasciola buski – intestinal fluke 1) Large intestinal parasite acquired by ingesting the larval form of the worm encysted on unwashed plants 2) Light infections are often asymptomatic but heavily infected individuals may experience abdominal pain, diarrhea, malabsorption and toxemia
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Feed Pellet Size • larvae: <50, 50-125, 250, 500 µM, according to larval substage • postlarvae: flakes, fine crumbles (500 µM) • juveniles to 2-3 g: medium crumble (1mm) to coarse crumble (2mm) • 3-6 g: short pellet (3/32 x 2-4 mm) • 6-10g: medium pellet (3/32 x 6 mm) • 10-16 g: long pellet (3/32 x 10 mm) • over 16 g: 1/8 in. diam, various lengths • point: one pellet per shrimp per feeding
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Feed Pellet Size • Larvae: <50, 50-125, 250, 500 µM, according to larval substage • postlarvae: flakes, fine crumbles (500 µM) • juveniles to 2-3 g: medium crumble (1mm) to coarse crumble (2mm) • 3-6 g: short pellet (3/32 x 2-4 mm) • 6-10g: medium pellet (3/32 x 6 mm) • 10-16 g: long pellet (3/32 x 10 mm) • over 16 g: 1/8 in. diam, various lengths • point: one pellet per shrimp per feeding
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Auxiliary Respiratory Structures • Skin - diffusion of oxygen from water into dense network of capillaries in skin (eels), Thin skin (larval fish) supplies 50% of O2 needed. • Swim bladder - vascularized physostomous swim bladders (gars) • Lungs - modified swim bladder (lungfishes) • Mouth - vascularized region in roof of mouth (electric eel, mudsuckers) • Gut - vascularized stomach or intestinal wall (armored catfish, loaches)
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Jan 9 Ch. 1 Intro to Course, Science of Ich., Properties of Water Jan 11 Ch. 2 Systematics (How does this stuff work?) Jan 16 MLK Holiday Jan 18, 23 Ch. 3 External Anatomy: Skeleton, Skin, Scales Jan 25, 30 Ch. 4 Internal Anatomy: Muscles, Cardiovascular, Nervous Feb 1 Ch. 5 Oxygen, Metabolism, and Energetics Feb 6 Exam 1 Feb 8, 13 Ch. 6 Sensory Systems: Vision, Taste, Electoreception Feb 15 Ch. 7 Homeostasis: Endocrine, Temperature, Osmoregulation, Immune, Stress Feb 20 President’s Day Feb 22, 27 Ch. 8 Functional Morphology: Locomotion & Feeding Mar 1 Ch. 9 Early Life History: Eggs, Sperm, Larval critters... Mar 6 Ch. 10 Juveniles, Adults, Age, Growth Mar 8 Mar 13-19 Exam 2 Spring Break
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Zooplankton Consume Primary Producers Heterotrophic plankton are collectively called zooplankton. The mass of zooplankton is typically about 10% that of phytoplankton. Most zooplankton spend their whole lives in the plankton community, so we call them holoplankton. (TOP RIGHT) Copepod. Some planktonic animals are the juvenile stages of crabs, barnacles, clams, sea stars, and other organisms that will later adopt a benthic or nektonic lifestyle. They are known as meroplankton. (BOTTOM RIGHT) Larval sea urchin.
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Life Cycle Information  Larval stages can provide clues about the relatedness of organisms. – Barnacles and shrimp  The – Birds and reptiles  The – 20-13 anatomy of eggs also provides clues. anatomy of seeds can be used as well. Peas, peanuts and lima beans Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
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Figure 9.8 (abc) Flagellated cells cover outer surface Development of Sponge Larval Stages choanocytes pinacocytes
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Nephron evolution Examination of larval or early vertebrate groups suggests nephrons evolved from pockets of coelum 
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Salientia Ecology: Environmental Controls on Larval Development and Survival • Hydroperiod • Canopy cover • Phenotypic plasticity
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Salientia Ecology: Environmental Controls on Larval Development and Survival • Hydroperiod
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Salientia Ecology: Environmental Controls on Larval Development and Survival • Hydroperiod • Canopy cover
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Forest Canopy and Larval Performance Open Canopy Spring Peeper Wood Frog • Light • Temperature • DO2 Closed Canopy • Periphyton
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The Mechanics of Reproduction in Ambystomatids • Males deposit spermatophores, then females pick up with cloaca • Females attach eggs to substrate – sticks, logs, rocks • Larval development highly variable – weeks, months, multiple years in stable habitats
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Neoteny: Retention of larval characteristics in mature adults (aka, facultative metamorphosis) • In cold, high-elevation ponds in CO, also in springs and cattle tanks in Mexico • Favored in stable and productive habitats, or where low temps constrain full metamorphosis • See this in other salamanders too, especially cave species
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Cannibalism • 2 larval morphotypes in A. tigrinum • Normal eats invertebrates and zooplankton • Cannibal eats other salamander larvae
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Mesozooplankton Taxa Feeding on Microzooplankton Suspension Feeding Copepods Acartia clausi (Ayukai 1987; Wiadnyana & Rassoulzadegan 1989; Broglio et al. 2001) Acartia hudsonica (Wiadnyana & Rassoulzadegan 1989) Acartia longiremis (Levinson et al. 2000) Acartia spp. (Batten et al. 2001) Acartia tonsa (Robertson 1983; Gifford & Dagg 1988; Stoecker & Egloff 1989; Jonsson & Tiselius 1990) Calanus finmarchicus (Gifford, submitted; Levinson et al. 2000) Calanus glacialis (Levinson et al. 2000) Calanus hyperboreus (Levinson et al. 2000) Calanus pacificus (Fessenden & Cowles 1994) Calanus propinquus (Atkinson 1995) Calanus spp. (Batten et al. 2001) Centropages typicus (Wiadnyana & Rassoulzadegan 1989) Centropages cherchiae (Batten et al. 2001) Centropages abdominalis (Fessenden & Cowles 1994) Clausocalanus spp. (Batten et al. 2001) Eucalanus pileatus (Verity & Paffenhofer 1996) Eurytemora affinis (Berk et al. 1977) Metridia gerlachei (Atkinson 1995) Neocalanus plumchrus (Gifford 1993) Neocalanus tonsus (Zeldis et al. 2002) Oithona spp. (Atkinson 1995) Pseudocalanus sp. (Fessenden & Cowles 1994) Para-pseudocalanus spp. (Batten et al. 2001) Decapod larvae Hemigrapsis sanguinea (Gifford & O’Connor, unpubl.) Cancer magister (Sulkin et al. 1998) Miscellaneous crustaceans Balanus cf. Crenatus nauplii (Turner et al. 2001) Freshwater cladocera (Wickham & Gilbert 1991; Pace & Vaque 1994; Wiakowsji et a. 1994; Adrian & Schneider-Olt 1999) Bivalves Crassostrea gigas (Dupuy et al. 1999) Gelatinous zooplankton Aurelia aurita (Stoecker et al. 1987) Mnemiopsis leidyi (Stoecker et al. 1987; Sullivan & Gifford, submitted) Larval fish Theragra chalcogramma (Lessard et al. 1996; Nishiyama & Hirano 1985) Gadus morhua (Von Herbing & Gallager 2000))
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 VI. HELMINTHS (Continued)  Two main groups (phyla) Platyhelminths (Flatworms) Nematoda (Roundworms) Life Cycle Extremely complex Intermediate hosts harbor larval (developmental) stage. Definitive host harbors adult stage. Sexual reproduction strategies:         Dioecious: Male and female reproductive organs are found in separate individuals.  Monoecious (Hermaphroditic): One animal has both male and female sex organs. Most hermaphrodites copulate with other animals, a few copulate with themselves.
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