The less-simplified Punnett square Now that I have learned that genes for eye color happen on multiple chromosomes and have been identified on chromosomes 15 and 19, I can create a Punnett square that more accurately reflects my potential offspring. It also reflects why the simpler form is normally used. Parent 1: brown eyes Genotype: bey2: brown-blue, gey: green-blue Parent 2: blue eyes Genotype: bey2: blue-blue gey: blueblue bey2: gey: Brown blue Brown Green blue Green blue blue blue blue Brown-blue blue-blue Brown-blue blue-blue Green-blue Green-blue blue-blue blue-blue blue blue Brown-blue blue-blue Brown-blue blue-blue Green-blue Green-blue blue-blue blue-blue blue blue Brown-blue blue-blue Brown-blue blue-blue Green-blue Green-blue blue-blue blue-blue blue blue Brown-blue blue-blue Brown-blue blue-blue Green-blue Green-blue blue-blue blue-blue
View full slide show




Example Contd. SALES Model Year Color Chevy 1990 red Chevy 1990 white Chevy 1990 blue Chevy 1991 red Chevy 1991 white Chevy 1991 blue Chevy 1992 red Chevy 1992 white Chevy 1992 blue Ford 1990 red Ford 1990 white Ford 1990 blue Ford 1991 red Ford 1991 white Ford 1991 blue Ford 1992 red Ford 1992 white Ford 1992 blue Madhavi Sales 5 87 62 54 95 49 31 54 71 64 62 63 52 9 55 27 62 39 CUBE Data Cube and OLAP Server DATA CUBE Model Year Color ALL ALL ALL chevy ALL ALL ford ALL ALL ALL 1990 ALL ALL 1991 ALL ALL 1992 ALL ALL ALL red ALL ALL white ALL ALL blue chevy 1990 ALL chevy 1991 ALL chevy 1992 ALL ford 1990 ALL ford 1991 ALL ford 1992 ALL chevy ALL red chevy ALL white chevy ALL blue ford ALL red ford ALL white ford ALL blue ALL 1990 red ALL 1990 white ALL 1990 blue ALL 1991 red ALL 1991 white ALL 1991 blue ALL 1992 red ALL 1992 white ALL 1992 blue Sales 942 510 432 343 314 285 165 273 339 154 199 157 189 116 128 91 236 183 144 133 156 69 149 125 107 104 104 59 116 110 17
View full slide show




Overfished Stocks (47) – as of September 30, 2010 New England: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. North Pacific: 1. Blue King Crab – Pribilof Islands Atlantic Cod – Georges Bank Yellowtail Flounder – Georges Bank Yellowtail Flounder – Southern New England/Middle Atlantic Yellowtail Flounder – Cape Cod/Gulf of Maine White Hake Winter Flounder - Southern New England / Mid-Atlantic Ocean Pout Atlantic Halibut Windowpane - Gulf of Maine / Georges Bank Winter flounder - Georges Bank Witch flounder - Northwestern Atlantic Coast Smooth Skate 14. Thorny Skate Atlantic Salmon1 15. Atlantic Wolffish - Gulf of Maine / Georges Bank1 Highly Migratory Species: 1. Blue Marlin – Atlantic2 2. White Marlin – Atlantic2 3. Albacore – North Atlantic2 4. Bluefin Tuna – West Atlantic2 5. Sandbar Shark Mid-Atlantic: 6. Porbeagle Shark 1. Butterfish (Atlantic) 7. Dusky Shark 8. Blacknose Shark ific: Cowcod Yelloweye Rockfish Canary rockfish - Pacific Coast Petrale sole – Pacific Coast Coho salmon - Washington Coast: Queets1 Coho salmon - Washington Coast: Western Strait of Juan de Fuca1 Chinook salmon - California Central Valley: Sacramento (fall)1 Gulf of Mexico: Western Pacific 3/27/19 1. Seamount Groundfish Complex – Hancock Seamount U.S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration South Atlantic: 1. Red Snapper 2. Greater Amberjack 3. Gray Triggerfish 4. Gag 1. Indicates non-FSSI stock 2. Stock is fished by U.S. and International fleets. 1. Pink Shrimp 2. Snowy Grouper 3. Black Sea Bass 4. Red Porgy 5. Red Snapper 6. Red Grouper Caribbean: 1. Grouper Unit 1 2. Grouper Unit 2 3. Grouper Unit 4 4. Queen Conch National Marine Fisheries Service Office of Sustainable Fisheries 13
View full slide show




Gray Blue Blue Gray Black Blue Gray Black Blue Gray Gray Black Black Blue Black Blue Blue Gray Black Black Blue Black Visual Layout
View full slide show




Independent Events A bag contains three marbles, 1 blue and 2 red. If you draw a red marble, what is the probability the next marble you draw is blue? Blue = 0 P(Blue)=1/3 Blue = 1/3 Red= 1 Blue = 1/2 P(Blue|Red)=1/2 P(Red)=2/3 P(Red|Blue)=1 Red= 2/3 Red= 1/2 Slide 18
View full slide show




Two-Sided Markets Hypo Blue Side Two types of blue customers: low value and high value NBL = Number of possible low-value blue customers = 2 NBH = Number of possible high-value blue customers = 2 VBL = Value to low-value blue customer of being in the room = $2 VBH = Value to high-value blue customer of being in the room = $4 MCB = Marginal Cost of serving a blue customer = $3 9 3/22/19
View full slide show




P16065 Antisense Copies of Light-Regulated Genes in Rice Abstract T Mike1, N Joshi1, J Bird1, K Margavage1,2, Bryant Morocho1, X-W Deng2, W Terzaghi1,2 Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) are RNAs complementary to sense RNAs that are known to play roles in gene regulation. We studied 21 genes with NAT that are involved in light-regulated pathways in Nipponbare rice (Oryza sativa japonica). Of these genes, 17 were detected by RT-PCR in shoots and roots of Nipponbare seedlings. RTPCR of the Os12g17600 rbcS gene detected multiple small antisense fragments rather than one continuous RNA. Quantitative RT-PCR of Os12g17600 identified 5-fold more sense than NAT in shoots of seedlings grown in light, but 14-fold more sense than NAT in darkgrown seedlings. qRT-PCR of the Os03g51030 PHYA gene indicated that all light treatments decreased the ratio of sense to antisense with the exception of far-red light, which increased the ratio. Several genes exhibited reciprocal regulation of NAT and sense RNAs according to light treatment. Low molecular weight RNA blots of the Os03g07300/ Os03g07310 gene pair identified a small RNA (~40 nucleotides) that was only observed in light-treated roots. These small RNAs might be used to down-regulate the expression of genes turned on by light in roots. 1 Wilkes University, Wilkes-Barre, PA - 2YaleUniversity, New Haven, CT Os03g07300/ Os03g07310 (ribulose-3-P epimerase/ axi protein) Os02g05830 (rbcS2) Conclusions  17 of 21 light-regulated genes examined have NATs, 5 of which are regulated by light  Several genes show reciprocal regulation of mRNA and NAT  Some NATs were processed into small RNAs which may help regulate sense/ antisense RNA transcription  qRT-PCR detected:  ~14-fold more rbcS mRNA than NAT transcripts in shoots grown in continuous darkness  ~5-fold more mRNA than NAT in shoots grown in continuous light  Roots grown 4hr in white light do not increase expression of rbcS mRNA  phyA NAT expression greatly increased upon exposure to white light for 4 Hr or to1mmol. m2 red light. Introduction Discussion  Natural Antisense Transcripts (NATs) RNA molecules complementary to other “sense” RNAs  Present in a variety of organisms, NATs are involved in RNA editing, genomic imprinting, viral defense, etc.  Sense-antisense RNA pairs may reciprocally regulate each other’s production: when production of one transcript increases, production of the other decreases  Prevalence of NATs in plants suggests that NATs may help regulate light responses  Light responses are regulated by complex networks of transcripts  Some antisense RNA is involved in circadian rhythms  Although NATs have been identified in model plant species, their functions are not clear  Tiling-path microarrays identified thousands of genes with NATs   17 of 21 NATs of light-regulated genes found by microarrays were confirmed, validating this high-throughput approach.  Reciprocal light regulation of sense and antisense transcripts was detected for several genes, providing a potential mechanism for regulating the abundance of specific transcripts in response to light. Figure 2: The Os03g07300/ Os03g07310 (ribulose-3-P epimerase/ axi protein) gene pair. A) Low molecular weight Northern showing a 40 nt, root-specific RNA derived from Os03g07310. B) RT-PCR confirming the presence of mRNA of both genes in the leaf tissues. LL: light-grown leaf; DL: dark-grown leaf.  Overlapping NATs initiated from several start sites were identified for Figure 3: Reciprocal regulation of Os02g05830 (rbcS2). In tissues expressing higher levels of NAT, the mRNA is found at lower levels, and vice versa, indicating reciprocal regulation. Os12g17600  Suggests that antisense is not initiated from a single promoter.  Small RNAs derived from several overlapping gene pairs were detected, which may help regulate their expression. LL: light leaf; DL: dark leaf; LR: light root; DR: dark root; 4hr. WL: 4 hour white light; 4hr. WR: 4 hour white root; RL: red leaf; RR: red root; FRL: far red leaf; FRR: far red root; BL: blue leaf; BR: blue root.  NATs are induced in greater magnitudes than sense mRNA in both rbcS and phyA leaves under various light treatments  Questions that still need answers:   Os03g51030 (PHYA) Os12g17600 (rbcS)    Which photoreceptors are involved? Do NATs help modulate light-regulated gene expression? How is NAT/ mRNA production regulated? Are NATs polyadenylated? Sequence of 40nt RNA product of 07300 gene? Methods Figure 1: Antisense and light regulation. High-throughput techniques identified large numbers of antisense and lightregulated transcripts. This research tested the hypothesis that antisense may play a role in light regulation.  Identified antisense transcripts from light-regulated genes in Japonica rice  Query microarray, MPSS, and cDNA databases  Treated seedlings to a variety of lighting conditions to determine effect on mRNA and antisense transcription Plants were grown: 10 days continuous white light or continuous darkness  10 days continuous darkness followed by 4 hours white light  10 days continuous darkness followed by either 1 mmol red light, 1 mmol far red light, or 1 mmol blue, then far red  RNA was extracted from roots and leaves using Ambion’s miRvana Total RNA Isolation kit.  Detection of mRNA and antisense utilized:  Northern blots to verify presence of RNA  Reverse Transcription using the 5’ or 3’ primer only  Real time PCR to quantify relative expression   Expression of Sense and Antisense phyA Transcripts Relative to DLAS in Shoots B) Table 1: Strength of detected antisense signals. The gene pairs in the red box overlap at their annotated 3’ ends and the snoRNA are transcribed from the opposite strands of RPT2 exons. The antisense strands of the remaining genes have no annotated functions. Blue Dark Far Red Light Red 4 hr White Antisense Sense Ratio S:A 1.2 156.0 130.9 1.0 152.1 152.1 0.8 132.2 172.6 2.0 81.9 41.8 4.9 112.3 23.0 2.5 186.9 75.3 B) Expression of Sense and Antisense rbcS Transcripts Relative to DLAS in Shoots Blue Dark Far Red Light Red 4 hr White Antisense 5.8 1.0 Sense Ratio S:A 85.3 14.7 13.9 13.9 5.5 100.6 11.0 57.4 527.3 122.5 10.4 5.2 11.2 40.2 284.0 7.1 Expression of Sense and Antisense rbcS Transcripts Relative to DRAS in Roots Blue Dark Far Red Light Red 4 hr White Antisense 0.4 1.0 Sense Ratio S:A 5.5 12.5 9.8 9.8 1.2 2418.4 153.8 15.7 16842.5 1854.2 12.9 7.0 12.1 0.1 2.5 19.4 Figure 4: Induction of Os03g51030 (phyA) in seedling shoots by various light treatments. Figure 5: Induction of Os12g17600 (rbcS) in seedling shoots by various light treatments. A) Graph of level of induction of sense and antisense standardized to the corresponding dark sample. A)Graph of level of induction of sense and antisense standardized to the corresponding dark sample. B) Expression levels of sense and antisense RNA in shoots relative to dark shoot antisense along with the ratio of sense to antisense. B)Expression levels of sense and antisense RNA in shoots (left) relative to dark shoot antisense and roots (right) relative to dark root antisense along with the ratio of sense to antisense. Acknowledgements This research was primarily supported by NSF grant DBI-0421675: Virtual Center for Analysis of Rice Genome Transcription (XingWang Deng, PI). Additional support from Wilkes University, Yale University, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute is also gratefully acknowledged.
View full slide show




Example: A Pair Class class Pair { region Blue, Red; int X in Blue; int Y in Red; void setX(int x) writes Blue { this.X = x; } void setY(int y) writes Red { this.Y = y; } void setXY(int x, int y) writes Blue; writes Red { cobegin { setX(x); // writes Blue setY(y); // writes Red } } } Region names have static scope (one per class) Pair Pair.Blue X 3 Pair.Red Y 42 Declaring and using region names
View full slide show




Example: A Pair Class class Pair { region Blue, Red; int X in Blue; int Y in Red; void setX(int x) writes Blue { this.X = x; } void setY(int y) writes Red { this.Y = y; } void setXY(int x, int y) writes Blue; writes Red { cobegin { setX(x); // writes Blue setY(y); // writes Red } } } Pair Pair.Blue X 3 Pair.Red Y 42 Writing method effect summaries
View full slide show




Example: A Pair Class class Pair { region Blue, Red; int X in Blue; int Y in Red; void setX(int x) writes Blue { this.X = x; } void setY(int y) writes Red { this.Y = y; } void setXY(int x, int y) writes Blue; writes Red { cobegin { setX(x); // writes Blue setY(y); // writes Red } Inferred } } Pair Pair.Blue X 3 Pair.Red Y 42 effects Expressing parallelism
View full slide show




Conditional Probability Urn X has 3 Red and 2 blue marbles; Urn Y has 5 red and 10 blue marbles. The symbol | means given that. X Y 3R 5R (X,B) means Urn X and Blue 2B 10B P(X,B) = (1/2)(2/5) = 1/5; P(X,R) = 3/10 P(X) = P(Y) = ½ P(Y,B) = (1/2)(2/3) = 1/3, P(Y,R) = 1/6 P(Blue|X) = 2/5; P(Red|X) = 3/5; P(Blue|Y) = 10/15; P(Red|Y) = 5/15 P(Blue) = (1/2) * (2/5) + (1/2) * 10/15) = 8/15  (2+10)/20 P(Red) = (1/2) * (3/5) + (1/2) * 5/15) = 7/15  (3 + 5)/20 03/22/2019 rd 9
View full slide show




Health Insurance Options 2 Options Available: Option 1: Standard Option Option 2: HDHP Option 2 Options Available  Option A: HMO • Reference map for specific providers by county: https://www.mybenefits.myflorida .com/health/health_insurance_pla ns/health_plans_by_region  Option A: HMO • Reference map for specific providers by county: https://www.mybenefits.myflorida .com/health/health_insurance_pla ns/health_plans_by_region  Monthly Premium  Premiums are listed for full time employees  9-Month Faculty will be double deducted during Spring months to pay for Summer coverage Deductible Notes    • In-Network Only (Open Access) • Copayments Option B: PPO • Florida Blue (Blue Cross Blue Shield) • Choice of Network/Non-Network • Deductible, Copayments & Individual: $50.00 Coinsurance Family: $180.00 Spouse Program: $15.00/Each Employee  HMO: None  PPO: $250 Individual / $500 Family (High Deductible Health Plan)     • In-Network Only (Open Access) • Deductible & Coinsurance Option B: PPO • Florida Blue (Blue Cross Blue Shield) • Choice of Network/Non-Network • Deductible & Coinsurance Individual: $15.00 Family: $64.30 Spouse Program: $15.00/Each Employee  HMO: $1,350 Individual / $2,700 Family  PPO: $1,350 Individual / $2,700 Family  Employee assumes greater responsibility with health care  Participation in Health Savings
View full slide show




Black and Blue Dust There is an aspect of the effect of dust that often gives students difficulty, so let’s discuss it in some detail.  First, there are a couple of direct experiences you yourself have had. One is the blue appearance of thin smoke seen by reflected light.  © Mitch Martinez Sun through smoke Sufficiently tiny dust particles tend to reflect blue light, because blue light has a shorter wavelength that red light, and so it scatters more easily on particles of similar size. This is Mie scattering, so is somewhat different than the Rayleigh scattering that explains why the sky is when blue. you look at an  However, object through such smoke, the object is reddened? Why? Because the blue light is scattered and not transmitted.  September 27, 2018
View full slide show




Color Scheme Examples  Utilize  White Brown White on Brown  Orange on Blue Blue Orange on  Purple on Purple Yellow Yellow on Black Black on on Light Light Blue Blue  Avoid Orange Orange on Green Green  Yellow on White Yellow on White  Purple on Blue Purple on Blue  Red on Green Red Green  ESE H T USE ASTIN TR CON LORS G CO DON THE ’T USE SE COM COLOR BINA TIO NS Red on green provides good contrast, but some people are red-green color blind
View full slide show




Stroop Test Red Yellow Green Green Yellow Yellow Blue Blue Red Red Red Green Blue Green Blue Green Blue Blue 67
View full slide show




Stroop Test Red Yellow Green Green Yellow Yellow Blue Blue Red Red Red Green Blue Green Blue Green Blue Blue 69
View full slide show




Stroop Test Red Yellow Green Green Yellow Yellow Blue Blue Red Red Red Green Blue Green Blue Green Blue Blue 71
View full slide show