Krill Fishery • Annual consumption by natural predators = 470 million MT • 1972: Japan and Russia began harvesting krill
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Inquiry 1. What is the difference between nekton and plankton? 2. Describe the krill fishery. 3. Why did the krill catch drop in 1984 and 1993? 4. What is a drift net?
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Recent Research: Finfish • Use of freeze-dried krill for feed training of largemouth bass (Kubitza and Lovshin, 1997) • Use of inosine-5-monophosphate as a feed enhancer (Kubitza et al., 1997) • Use of krill hydrolysate as a feed attractant (Kolkovski et al., 2000) • Improved growth and performance of striped bass fed a plant feedstuff-based diet (Papatryphon and Soares, 2000) • Feeding stimulants for young yellowtail (Hidaka et al., 2001) • Effect of feeding stimulants on diet preference by juvenile gibel carp (Xue and Cui, 2001)
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Crustacean Meals • • • • • • Shrimp waste meal is a reasonably good feed ingredient, if heads are included otherwise, the shell is primarily chitin and of limited digestibility the ammonia in chitin accounts for about 10-15% of the nitrogen in whole meal also a reasonable source of n-3 fatty acids, cholestrerol and astaxanthin (carotenoid) highly palatable and often serves as an attractant in feeds at 1-2% others: krill meal, Artemia meal krill meal
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Macroscopic floating organisms: Krill Krill are related to copepods but are larger in size Abundant in Antarctic waters, where they are a favorite food of the largest whales Figure 14-6
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Commercial whaling in Antarctic Ocean     Baleen whales: 1 million a century ago eat Antarctic krill (4% of body weight) Now, less than 200,000 Other krill-dependent predators such as seals and penguins have been found greatly increased in abundance Competition release due to the dramatic decrease in baleen whale population
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 Building of cell walls, or frustules, in diatoms   Increased diatom diversity in Cenozoic Era Diatoms     Unicellular Producers One of the Most common types of phytoplankton Eaten by Krill  Krill then eaten by whales  Short food chain (efficient in supporting apex predator)
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Note - the production technology has not changed much over time Krill Warp beam The warping looms at Lowell Mills in 1854, Massachusetts
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Nektonic Crustacea • Pelagic crabs and shrimp • Larger euphausiids • Antarctic Krill (Euphausia superba) - 5-6 cm long - Dominant food of baleen whales - Increased fishery for livestock and poultry feeds
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Who eats Krill?
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Krill & the Antarctic Food Web Critical components of Antarctic food webs
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Krill Fishery… • Potential harvest = 25-30 million MT/yr • Economic cost of fishery high • Patchy distribution complicates location • Depths may be 150-200m • Single net haul may collect 10 MT • Ecological consequences of removal poorly understood
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Temperature • Higher temperature results in less O2 - Results in hypoxia • Ice melting leaves no resting/hunting areas for polar bears • Antarctic Krill impacts food web
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Attractability/Pallatability • • • • • • Shrimp, unlike fish, feed by olfaction, not by sight fish cue on color, appearance, movement, all vision-related attractants: fish meal, fish oils, krill meal, shrimp head meal, Artemia meal feeds with added attractability should bring the target animal immediately to the pellet without binders, attractants leach out in 2 hr if not consumed by then, forget it
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Attractants • Attractants are materials added to feeds to serve as intake stimulants • they are cost effective since they cause shrimp/fish to eat feeds that otherwise would not be attractive (consumed) • allows inclusion of by-products • usual inclusion level is around 0.5-1.0 %, largely due to cost • examples: krill meal, Artemia meal, fish oils, fish meal • sometimes used to reduce protein content of feed (but most also feed more frequently)
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Arthropoda and Echinodermata Arthropoda • The phylum Arthropoda includes the lobsters, shrimp, crabs, krill, and barnacles. Arthropods are by far the most successful of Earth’s animal phyla with more than a million known species. • They exhibit three remarkable evolutionary advances : exoskeletons, striated muscles, and articulation. Ecinodermata Include sea stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers and brittle stars. Echinoderms lack eyes or brains, have a radially symmetrical body plan based on 5 sections or projections and move slowly. They also have a water vascular
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Omega-3 Fats Plant Based: Alpha-Linolenic Acid (ALA) is essential: chia (64%), kiwi fruit (62%), flaxseed oil (53%), Hemp (20%) walnuts (9%), and canola oil (10%), soybean oil (7%). Plus, red meat; dairy products. Animal Based: Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acids (DHA) fish, shellfish and krill. DHA needed for brain and retina; EPA its precursor. You can make some EPA and DHA from short-chain ALA, but does so inefficiently. Omega-6 Fats Linoleic Acid (LA) is essential, which is the most prevalent PUFA in the Western diet, is abundant meat, poultry, eggs, hemp and nutbased oils – Plus corn, sunflower, soybean and canola oil. All to be avoided! Arachidonic Acid (AA), important (membranes, regulate inflammation, promote blood clotting, communication). Made by EFA’s
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KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES      Antarctica - including toothfish and krill fisheries, and the protection of the Ross Sea and the Southern Ocean Aquaculture - including expansion of fin fish farming, changes to the Resource Management Act and role of the government agencies. Biodiversity - including the national policy statement on biodiversity Coastal and Catchment - The integration of land and water management is seen most clearly in relationship between catchment management and its connection to the coastal environment. Climate change - including international and domestic action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
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Mysticeti: The baleen whales Mysticeti whales have baleen instead of teeth Baleen plates: Hang as parallel rows from the upper jaw Are made of keratin Are used as a strainer to capture zooplankton Allows baleen whales to eat krill and small fish by the ton
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The Crustaceans lobsters • Phylum Arthropoda – Subphylum Crustacea • crusta= shell • Lobster, crayfish, crabs shrimp, crab, water flea, amphipods barnacles amphipods Daphnia shrimp euphausids (krill) 56
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The Crustaceans (cont’d) lobsters • Aquatic (mostly marine) – a few terrestrial forms • Major ecological and economical importance. shrimp amphipods euphausids (krill) 57
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Krill • Component of plankton • Major food for whales 70
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17. Krill with Thumb
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Magnuson Stevens Act Ecosystem Considerations Ecosystem Committees for Fisheries Management Councils Stock Assessment Reports in Alaska include Ecosystem chapters Prohibitions on directed fishing on forage fish complex (North Pacific) and krill (Pacific) Prohibited fishing in the Arctic- new FMP In general, these are non-specific actions focused at or below the trophic level harvested by the fisheries.
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Why did some whales lose their teeth? • About 38 million years ago, whales developed baleen as a new way to eat • Decreased ocean temperatures • Upwelling of nutrients • Increase in plankton • Increase in krill Baleen whales may have evolved to take advantage of this rich new food supply
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References http://www.cs.caltech.edu/~westside/quantum-intro.html Introduction to Quantum Information Processing. A paper by Krill, et. al., from 2002. An Introduction to Quantum Computing for Non-Physicists. A paper by Rieffel and Polak, found in ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 32, No. 3, September 2000, pp. 300-335. Jenny Hogan, “Quantum Bits and Silicon Chips”, Nature, Vol. 24, 31 July 2003, pp. 484-486. http://videos.dac.com/videos/40th/51/51_1/51_1slides.pdf z θ  φ |ψ> y
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What they eat-and who eats them • Adelie penguins usually eat krill, tiny shrimp-like crustaceans, and silverfish • Adelies are visual feeders, by catching their prey in their mouths • Their main predators are the skua, leopard seal, the sea lion, and the killer whale
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Where you can find them • You can find Adelies mainly on the south coast of Antartica • Or you can find them in the ocean, either swimming, or hunting for krill                                             
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