Most Phytoplankton Are Photosynthetic Autotrophs      Diatoms Apart from cyanobacteria, the most productive photosynthetic organisms in the plankton are the diatoms. Diatoms have transparent silica frustules that allow for both protection and light penetration into the cell. Diatoms store energy as fatty acids and oils, compounds that are lighter than their equivalent volume of water and assist in flotation. When diatoms die, their valves fall to the seafloor to accumulate as layers of siliceous ooze. (RIGHT) Photographs of various diatoms.
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  DIVISIONS OF ALGAE (Continued) Diatoms: Unicellular or filamentous algae with complex cell walls with silica or calcium.  Two parts of cell wall fit together like Petri dish. Distinctive patterns are used for identification. Store energy in form of oil.  Some diatoms can cause neurological disease (memory loss and diarrhea) in people who eat mussels, due to domoic acid intoxication.  Fossil deposits of diatoms (diatomaceous earth) are used as filtering agents and abrasives in several industries.
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14. Spiny Diatoms
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• Diatoms contain many organelles that enable them to exist under potentially harsh conditions. • Most diatoms constist of strikingly delicate outter shells of SiO2 (frustules) which provide limited protection and light penetration.
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 Diatoms  Pectin and silica cell walls  Unicellular  Fossilized diatoms formed oil Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 12.13
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Chrysophyta (Golden algae and Diatoms) • • Are eukaryotic Has pigments chlorophylls a and c and carotenoids – Two Class: • Golden Algae Ex. Mallomonas • Diatoms -Have frustules made of silica ex.. Fragillaria, Asterionella , and Tabellaria
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 Building of cell walls, or frustules, in diatoms   Increased diatom diversity in Cenozoic Era Diatoms     Unicellular Producers One of the Most common types of phytoplankton Eaten by Krill  Krill then eaten by whales  Short food chain (efficient in supporting apex predator)
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Microglia • Microglia – small, ovoid cells with spiny processes that are the brain’s immune system – Phagocytes that monitor the health of neurons – Engulf bacteria, viruses, debris Neuron Astroctye Microglia
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Ctenoid scales Note: spiny posterior margins (Greek "cteno", comb-like ctenii on the margin of the scale.)
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Mar 13-19 Spring Break Mar 20 Ch. 11 Classification: History of Fish Mar 22, 27 Ch. 12 Chondrichthyes: Sharks, Skates & Rays Mar 29, Apr 3 Ch. 13 Primative Fish: Jawless fish, Sacropteryhii, Actinopterygians. Apr 5, 10 Ch. 14 Teleost fish: Bonytongues through Anglerfish Apr 12 Exam 3 Apr 17, 19 Ch. 15 Spiny-rayed Fishes Apr 24 Ch. 16, 17 Zoogeography Apr 26 Ch. 18-21 Behavior and Ecology May 1 Humans and Fish May 3 Exam Review May 8 FINAL EXAM
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Layers of the Epidermis • Stratum spinosum (spiny layer) • “Spiny” appearance caused by: • Artifacts of histological preparation • Contains thick bundles of intermediate filaments (tonofilaments) • Resist tension • Contain protein prekeratin • Contains star-shaped dendritic cells • A type of macrophage • Function in immune system © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
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Cambrian Explosion (cont.) •Unusual assembly of spines and grasping arms at the head end. Its mouth lies in the center of that ring of six finger-like projections Aysheaia •Thought to have been a parasite living on sponges since it is commonly found in association with their remains •Presumably, the spiny parts at its head were
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CopyrightThe McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b) Platelet plug formation 1) Platelets stick to the exposed edges of damaged blood vessels, forming a net with spiny processes protruding from their membranes 2) A platelet plug is most effective on a small vessel 144
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Chapparal • consists of evergreen, often spiny shrubs and low trees • These communities occur a dry summer climate, also known as Mediterranean Figure 20.33 Chaparral
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Epidermis histology—more details Layers of epidermis • Stratum basale/germinativum (“basal or “forming” layer) – One layer thick mitotic cells – 10-25% melanocytes with processes into next layer – Merkel cells with sensory neurons • Stratum spinosum (“prickly” layer) – Cells appear spiny due to numerous desmosomes – Many Langerhans cells • Stratum granulosum (“grainy” layer – – – – • Cells flatten Organelles/nuclei begin to disintegrate Keratin precursor granules begin to form Lamellated granules with water-proof lipid form and will be spewed out between cells Stratum corneum (“horny” layer) – Cells are dead—too far from underlying capillaries to live – 20-30 cells thick up to ¾ of dermal thickness – Keratin, thickened membranes and glycolipids between cells provide “overcoat” for body to protect against water loss and other possible “assaults” on body Frolich, Human Anatomy, Skin
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DORSAL FIN The dorsal fin is a spiny, hard fin that helps to keep the fish upright and to help make sudden turns when swimming. Fish can have up to three dorsal fins.
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Productids • The spiny and odd-shaped productids – – – – dominated the brachiopod assemblage and constituted an important part of the reef complexes that formed in the Texas region during the Permian
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8 senses of “bass” in WordNet 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. bass - (the lowest part of the musical range) bass, bass part - (the lowest part in polyphonic music) bass, basso - (an adult male singer with the lowest voice) sea bass, bass - (flesh of lean-fleshed saltwater fish of the family Serranidae) freshwater bass, bass - (any of various North American lean-fleshed freshwater fishes especially of the genus Micropterus) bass, bass voice, basso - (the lowest adult male singing voice) bass - (the member with the lowest range of a family of musical instruments) bass - (nontechnical name for any of numerous edible marine and freshwater spiny-finned fishes)
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Hemostasis • Hemostasis Hemostasis refers to the stoppage of bleeding. – Blood vessel spasm - muscles in vessel wall contract – Platelet plug formation - platelets stick to the exposed edges of damaged blood vessels, forming a net with spiny processes protruding from their membranes.
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Marine Stings • Stinging marine life includes jellyfish, Portuguese man-ofwar, corals, spiny sea urchins, anemones, stingrays • Most are painful but not dangerous (unless allergic) © 2011 National Safety Council 19-30
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