Most Phytoplankton Are Photosynthetic Autotrophs      Diatoms Apart from cyanobacteria, the most productive photosynthetic organisms in the plankton are the diatoms. Diatoms have transparent silica frustules that allow for both protection and light penetration into the cell. Diatoms store energy as fatty acids and oils, compounds that are lighter than their equivalent volume of water and assist in flotation. When diatoms die, their valves fall to the seafloor to accumulate as layers of siliceous ooze. (RIGHT) Photographs of various diatoms.
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  DIVISIONS OF ALGAE (Continued) Diatoms: Unicellular or filamentous algae with complex cell walls with silica or calcium.  Two parts of cell wall fit together like Petri dish. Distinctive patterns are used for identification. Store energy in form of oil.  Some diatoms can cause neurological disease (memory loss and diarrhea) in people who eat mussels, due to domoic acid intoxication.  Fossil deposits of diatoms (diatomaceous earth) are used as filtering agents and abrasives in several industries.
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HOT, FLAT, AND CROWDED THOMAS L FRIEDMAN 1. Why Citibank, Iceland’s Banks, and the Ice Banks of Antarctica All Melted Down at the Same Time Consumer America “At it’s core, the China-America growth engine worked like this: We in America built more and more stores, to sell more and more stuff, made in more and more Chinese factories, powered by more and more coal, and all those sales produced more dollars, which China used to buy more and more U.S. Treasure Bills, which allowed the Federal Reserve to extend more and more easy credit to more and more banks, consumers, and businesses, so that more and more Americans could purchase more and more homes, and all those sales drove home prices higher and higher,…” GHG Per Capita Emission Rates (tons): US 20 England, Japan 10 Average 4.3 India 1 Key World Energy Statistics 2008, World Energy Outlook
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COMMENT DATA: MAKE BETTER? • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • more hours everything was great NA We need more time It helps me if the time is more the time is very short It can spend more time vocabulary, definitions, synonym, antonyms improve my grammar, writing and reading skills talk more slouly more hour for practice No, it was perfet/could you give more exercises to practices and the other workshops It is next time, I will have a better to understand the explanation more time definitely/I think is better 3 hours I would like to have more time in class • more time lo learn more • More hours for practice • I understood better/I really feel happy with this short classes • she has excellent knowledged/\could she make other workshop for us • maybe we need a more time • I think we need more days and more time • writing/more time • More important and increase my knowlege • add more hour
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• Diatoms contain many organelles that enable them to exist under potentially harsh conditions. • Most diatoms constist of strikingly delicate outter shells of SiO2 (frustules) which provide limited protection and light penetration.
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 Diatoms  Pectin and silica cell walls  Unicellular  Fossilized diatoms formed oil Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 12.13
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Chrysophyta (Golden algae and Diatoms) • • Are eukaryotic Has pigments chlorophylls a and c and carotenoids – Two Class: • Golden Algae Ex. Mallomonas • Diatoms -Have frustules made of silica ex.. Fragillaria, Asterionella , and Tabellaria
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 Building of cell walls, or frustules, in diatoms   Increased diatom diversity in Cenozoic Era Diatoms     Unicellular Producers One of the Most common types of phytoplankton Eaten by Krill  Krill then eaten by whales  Short food chain (efficient in supporting apex predator)
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pH Scale 14 13 10,000,000 TIMES MORE ALKALINE 1,000,000 TIMES MORE ALKALINE 12 100,000 TIMES 11 10,000 TIMES 10 1,000 TIMES 9 8 STRAIGHTENERS 11.5 – 14.0 MORE ALKALINE. MORE ALKALINE MORE ALKALINE 100 TIMES MORE ALKALINE 10 TIMES MORE TINTS & TONERS 9.5 – 10.5 TINTS & TONERS 9.5 – 10.5 ALKALINE PERM SOLUTIONS 8.5 – 9.5 ALKALINE PERM SOLUTIONS 8.5 – 9.5 OIL BLEACHES 8.0 – 9.5 OIL BLEACHES 8.0 – 9.5 ALKALINE THAN 7 DISTILLED DISTILLED WATER WATER 7 7 6 10 TIMES MORE 5 100 TIMES ACID THAN 7 MORE ACID 4 1,000 TIMES MORE ACID 3 10,000 TIMES 2 100,000 TIMES 1 0 HYDROGEN PEROXIDE 3.5 – 4.0 HYDROGEN PEROXIDE 3.5 – 4.0 MORE ACID MORE ACID 1,000,000 TIMES FORMULA-A FORMULA-A ………………..Bac-Stat 0.75 MORE ACID 10,000,000 TIMES MORE ACID
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Overview of Biological Interactions in Eutrophic and Freshwater Environments • Freshwater Environments – Many microorganisms, including Cyanobacteria, protozoa, Amoeba, and Diatoms, survive because the chemical levels are more balanced allowing for more life to exist. • Eutrophic Waters – Microorganisms not as diverse as in the freshwater environments and ones that live in eutrophic waters tend to be anaerobic ones that can do photosynthesis
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iPad Fact Sheet cont. • • • • • • • • • • • • Videos The 9.7-inch high-resolution screen makes iPad perfect for watching HD movies, TV shows, podcasts, music videos, and more. Learn more YouTube With the YouTube app designed specifically for iPad, videos are even easier to find. And on the amazing iPad display, they’re more fun to watch. Especially in HD. Learn more iPod Reach out and touch your songs. View your album art full-size. iPad makes music look as good as it sounds. Learn more iTunes Millions of songs, thousands of movies and TV shows, and so much more. Browsing and buying are just a tap away. Learn more App Store You’ll find more than 150,000 apps on the App Store, and iPad can run almost all of them. Including everything from games to productivity apps. Learn more iBooks Reading is a joy on iPad. Text looks crisp and bright. Pages turn with a flick. And you can buy new books from the iBookstore. Just download the free iBooks app to get started. 1 Learn more
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LO6 Business versus Consumer Markets Characteristic CharacteristicBusiness Business Market MarketConsumer Consumer Market Market Demand Demand Organizational Organizational Larger Larger Volume Volume ## of of Customers Customers Fewer Fewer Location Location Distribution Distribution Concentrated Concentrated More More Direct Direct Nature Nature of of Buy Buy More More Professional Professional Buy Buy Influence Influence Multiple Multiple Negotiations Negotiations More More Complex Complex Individual Individual Smaller Smaller Many Many Dispersed Dispersed More More Indirect Indirect More More Personal Personal Single Single Simpler Simpler Reciprocity Reciprocity Leasing Leasing Yes Yes Greater Greater No No Lesser Lesser Promotion Promotion Personal Personal Selling Selling Advertising Advertising 25
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