FOOD INSECURITY AND RISK FACTORS HOUSEHOLD RESOURCES (money, time, information, health) NON-FOOD EXPENDITURES FOOD ACQUISITION housing hospital care emergencies taxes discretionary items gasoline heating, cooling other NORMAL FOOD SYSTEM grocery stores and food service operations food availability (type and quantity) food accessibility (cost and distance) GOVERNMENT FOOD ASSISTANCE Food Stamps WIC School Lunch and Breakfastfor Nutrition Program the Elderly (Title 3c) ALTERNATE FOOD SOURCES PRIVATE FOOD ASSISTANCE gifts from family & friends gardening, hunting, fishing scavenging HOUSEHOLD FOOD SUPPLY Modified from Campbell, CC: Food Insecurity: A Nutritional Outcome or a Predictor Variable? J Nutr. 1991.121:408
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Extreme Questionnaire An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing the moderately worded SUS with versions with the neutral SUS Wording statements replaced by statements that were worded in an extremely positive or an extremely negative fashion. The System Usability Scale (SUS) The Extremely Positive System Usability Scale (XP-SUS) The Extremely Negative System Usability Scale (XN-SUS) 1. I think that I would like to use 1. I think that this is one of my all1. I think I never want to use the web this system frequently. time favorite web sites. site again. 2. I found the system unnecessarily 2. I found the web site was really 2. I found the web site to be horribly complex. straightforward. complex for no good reason. 3. I thought the system was easy to 3. I thought the web site was 3. I thought the web site was very use. amazingly easy to use. difficult to use. 4. I think that I would need the 4. I think that technical support 4. I think that I would need a permanent support of a technical person to services are just not required for hot-line to the help desk to be able to be able to use this system. the web site. use the web site.* 5. I found the various functions in 5. I found the various pages on the 5. I found all the pages on the web site this system were well integrated. web site worked together very to be an ugly mess. 6. I thought there was too much smoothly. 6. I thought the inconsistency in the web inconsistency in this system. 6. I thought the web site was site would kill it. 7. I would imagine that most people consistent throughout. 7. I found the web site to be completely would learn to use this system 7. I would imagine anybody could use impossible to use. very quickly. the web site like a pro from day 8. I found that this web site was 8. I found the system very one. extremely awkward to use. cumbersome to use. 8. I found the web site was a delight 9. I felt utterly confused by the web site. 9. I felt very confident using the to use. 10.Absolutely nothing about the web system. 9. I felt completely confident using the site worked 10.I needed to learn a lot of things web site. before I could get going with this 10.Everything to know about A set of volunteersI needed was asked to evaluate a website, with one-third CS 321 system. using the website was there for me. Lesson Twenty-Two Questionnaires Page 6 of the volunteers randomly assigned the traditional SUS questionnaire, one-third randomly assigned the XP-SUS questionnaire, and the final one-third randomly assigned the XN-
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Biology Department (past participants in red) Field Biology/Ecology/Classical Genetics: Dr. Gordon Brown: Terrestrial plant ecology, ecology and evolution of interactions between plants and herbivores, Web site * Dr. Philip Chu: ornithology, systematics, Web site Dr. Larry Davis: geology, paleontology,Web site *Dr. William Lamberts: aquatic ecology, phycology, Web site (next year’s director) Dr. Jeanne Marie Lust OSB: amphibian deformities, hematology, Web site Dr. James Poff: entomology, behavioral ecology of social wasps, Web site Dr. Charles Rodell: ecological genetics, evolution of sexual reproduction, Web site Dr. Steven Saupe: plant taxonomy, secondary metabolism of plants and fungi, Web site Dr. Shawn Thomas: animal behavior and sociobiology using evolutionary theory to test hypotheses regarding mate choice and sexual selection, Web site Dr. Marcus Webster: physiological ecology, energetics of birds, Web site Cell/Molecular/Biochemistry *Dr. Barb May: immunology, microbiology, cell and molecular biology, Web site Dr. Manuel Campos: signal transduction in cells and its relation to disease, Web site Dr. Ellen Jensen: virology, biology of fungi, immunology, Web site Dr. David Mitchell: protein structure, biochemistry, Web site Dr. Michael Reagan: molecular biology, DNA repair mechanisms, Web site Dr. Elizabeth Wurdak: biology of rotifers, histology, cell biology, Web site
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Example spoof Web exploits (the count listed first) 10 WEB-PHP xmlrpc.php post attempt 131.178.5.110 10 WEB-PHP xmlrpc.php post attempt 132.248.103.108 10 WEB-PHP xmlrpc.php post attempt 151.36.102.85 10 WEB-PHP xmlrpc.php post attempt 159.148.132.143 10 WEB-PHP xmlrpc.php post attempt 193.230.177.34 10 WEB-PHP xmlrpc.php post attempt 195.250.24.66 10 WEB-PHP xmlrpc.php post attempt 195.5.12.239 12 WEB-PHP xmlrpc.php post attempt 200.29.167.105 10 WEB-PHP xmlrpc.php post attempt 200.93.229.210 10 WEB-PHP xmlrpc.php post attempt 201.144.178.179 10 WEB-PHP xmlrpc.php post attempt 201.15.239.10 10 WEB-PHP xmlrpc.php post attempt 201.18.137.170 10 WEB-PHP xmlrpc.php post attempt 202.107.204.207 10 WEB-PHP xmlrpc.php post attempt 202.108.248.58
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Community Food Projects (CFP) ● Eligible private nonprofit organizations and food program service providers that need a one-time infusion of federal assistance to establish and carry out multipurpose community food projects. ● Projects are funded from $10,000–$400,000 and from one to four years. They are onetime grants that require a dollar-for-dollar match in resources. ● Requirements ○ Meet the food needs of low-income individuals through food distribution, outreach to increase participation in federally assisted nutrition programs, or improve access to food as part of a comprehensive service; ○ Increase the self-reliance of communities to meet their own food needs; ○ Promote comprehensive responses to local food access, farm, and nutrition issues; and ○ Meet specific state, local, or neighborhood food and agricultural needs, including equipment necessary for the efficient operation of a project, planning for long-term solutions, or innovative marketing activities that mutually benefit agricultural producers and low-income consumers. 27
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• Foodborne Illnesses • Food intoxication: food poisoning in which food is contaminated by natural toxins – Botulism • Food infection: food poisoning in which food is contaminated by disease-causing microorganisms, or pathogens – Norovirus, E. coli, salmonella, campylobacter – Pet food can contain salmonella • Use safe food practices and store food safely, especially leftovers ©McGraw-Hill Education.
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Figure 23.13 Deglutition (swallowing). Slide 1 Bolus of food Tongue Uvula Pharynx Bolus Epiglottis Epiglottis Glottis Trachea Esophagus 1 During the buccal phase, the upper esophageal sphincter is contracted. The tongue presses against the hard palate, forcing the food bolus into the oropharynx. Relaxed muscles 2 The pharyngeal-esophageal phase begins as the uvula and larynx rise to prevent food from entering respiratory passageways. The tongue blocks off the mouth. The upper esophageal sphincter relaxes, allowing food to enter the esophagus. 4 Peristalsis moves food through the esophagus to the stomach. Circular muscles contract Upper esophageal sphincter 3 The constrictor muscles of the pharynx contract, forcing food into the esophagus inferiorly. The upper esophageal sphincter contracts (closes) after food enters. Relaxed muscles 5 The gastroesophageal sphincter surrounding the cardial oriface opens, and food enters the stomach. Bolus of food Longitudinal muscles contract Circular muscles contract Gastroesophageal sphincter closed Gastroesophageal sphincter opens Stomach © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Bolus
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• Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning continued What exactly did Pavlov’s dogs learn? Did they learn to expect that food will follow the tone? This explanation assumes that the dogs learned the relationship between two events and suggests that the animals are relying on their declarative memories. The tone reminds the animal of food, thereby setting up an expectation that food will appear. An animal that expects food will show its knowledge in its behavior-- it becomes restless, it approaches the potential source of food (if not restrained), and it salivates. Another possibility is that the animal’s digestive system learns. The digestive system, like most systems of the body, is under the control of the nervous system. Classical conditioning procedures involving food stimuli may cause the nervous system to alter its control of the digestive system so as to reflect events in the environment. Thus, signals that reliably precede food gain the power to elicit salivation in the mouth, gastric acid secretion in the stomach, and the release of insulin by the pancreas. These responses allow the digestive system to prepare for the arrival of food. They are automatic and, in humans, do not require conscious awareness. Learned adjustments of in-born, functional physiological systems represent procedural memories. In humans classical conditioning procedures result in both declarative and procedural memories, and modern research suggests that the same may be true for many non-human vertebrate animals. But it is the procedural memories that arise from classical conditioning procedures that are classified as simple or S-R conditioning. 2 of 2 pages
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Approach We are building prototype tools and applications that demonstrate how semantic web technology supports information discovery, integration and sharing in scientific communities. The National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) and Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provide requirements and serve as testbeds for our prototypes. Invasive species do more economic damage to the U.S. every year that all other natural disasters combined. Above: plants, animals, and a virus. SPIRE Semantic Prototypes in Research Ecoinfomatics Spire is a distributed, interdisciplinary research project exploring how semantic web technology supports information discovery, integration, and sharing in scientific communities. We are building prototype tools and applications for inclusion in the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), with a focus on the early detection and warning of invasive species. Significant Results • • • • • • • • Meal of a Meal (after Friend of a Friend). We know Fish 1 eats Plant 1. We then infer that Fish 1 may also eat the taxonomic siblings of Plant 1: Plants 2 and 3. Similarly, we infer that the taxonomic siblings of Fish 1 - Fishes 2 and 3 - may eat Plant 1. The RMBL team expresses food webs in OWL using an ontology for ecological interaction they have constructed in coordination with other ecologists. The OWL model drives the simulation and visualization. SWOOGLE - a search engine for the semantic web. MoaM (Meal of a Meal) - Given a species list, infer a food web. Photostuff - annotate regions of a picture with OWL. SWOOP - the first ontology editor written specifically for OWL. Ontologies for ecological interaction, and observation data. Food web visualization and analysis tools that are driven by OWL ontologies and instance data. CRISIS CAT - an RDF based catalog of Invasive Species resources in California. Coordination with USGS, NASA, EPA, GBIF, and the Intergovernmental, Interagency Cooperation on Ecoinformatics. Swoogle is a crawler based search and retrieval system for semantic web documents (SWDs) in RDF and OWL. It discovers SWDs and computes their metadata and relations, and stores them in an IR system. Users can search for ontologies or instance data, and hits are ranked according to our Ontology Rank algorithm. • • • Broader Impacts Enable knowledge from one community to be effectively used by another. Harness the power of the citizen scientist. (The majority of invasives are discovered by amateurs.) Integrate research and education in the classroom. Coming Soon An ontology (found via Swoogle) is loaded into Photostuff to mark up regions of a field photograph. The NBII California Information Node (CAIN), maintained by UC Davis, is a jumping off point to broader NBII deployment. AN HONORS UNIVERSITY IN MARYLAND Spatial distribution of exotic plants at the Cerro Grande fire site. The statistical techniques used to generate these maps do not take trophic data as input. Yet. • ELVIS – an end to end application that starts with a location and produces a model of its food web. • The Pond Project - a junior high school classroom activity to monitor the health of local ecosystems. • Enhanced tools. Research Team UMBC ebiquity (Finin) UMBC GEST Center (Sachs) UMD MINDSWAP (Hendler) UC Davis ICE (Quinn) RMBL PEaCE (Martinez) NASA GSFC (Schnase) Research support was provided by NSF, award NSF-ITR-IIS-0326460, PI Tim Finin, UMBC.
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Works Cited "American Burn Association Burn Treatment Facts." The University of New Mexico, 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . "Artificial Skin." Advameg, Inc., 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . "Artificial Skin." N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . "Artificial Skin." Wikipedia, 17 Oct. 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . Baker, Chris. "New "artificial Skin" Product Launched." William Reed Business Media, 24 July 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . DERMAGRAFT® - P000036. FDA, 13 Sept. 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . Geldhard, Katie. "Artificial Skin." OpenWetWare, 18 Jan. 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . "Greiner Bio-One Launches Artificial Skin to Replace Animal Testing." Zenopa Ltd, 15 July 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . Halim, Ahmad S., Teng L. Khoo, and Shah J. Yussof. Biologic and Synthetic Skin Substitutes: An Overview (n.d.): n. pag. Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . Shingledecker, Leon. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . Shire Regenerative Medicine, In, 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . "Skin Grafts." WebMD LLC, 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . "Understanding Differences Types of Burns." Shriners Hospitals for Children, 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. .
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Sources              "2010 Will be Changing for PepsiCo." Medill Reports Chicago. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2012. . "Coke vs Pepsi." Coke vs Pepsi. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. . " Google Image Result for http://41minds.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/bcggrowthsharematrix.png."Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. . "PEP: Summary for Pepsico, Inc. Common Stock- Yahoo! Finance." Yahoo! Finance - Business Finance, Stock Market, Quotes, News. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. . "Pepsi History." Sirpepsi. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. . "PepsiCo 2009 annual report." PepsiCo. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2012. . "PepsiCo Brands | PepsiCo.com." PepsiCo Home | PepsiCo.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2012. . "PepsiCo Investors | PepsiCo.com." PepsiCo Home | PepsiCo.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. . "PepsiCo MORE | PepsiCo.com." PepsiCo Home | PepsiCo.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. . Reppo, Ilya, and Michelle Yan. "PepsiCo Valuation." Leeds-faculty Colorado. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2012. . segment. "PepsiCo Valuation." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. Steve. " Global Cola: 10 Pepsi-Cola Flavors You Can’t Get Here | WebUrbanist ." WebUrbanist | From Urban Art & 3D Graffiti to Abandoned Cities . N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .
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Foodborne Illness – Food intoxication: food poisoning in which food is contaminated by natural toxins – Food infection: food poisoning in which food is contaminated by diseasecausing microorganisms, or pathogens – Use safe food practices and store food safely, especially leftovers Slides adapted from: ©McGraw-Hill Education
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INTOLERANCE TO FOOD  Ask your patient if they have any intolerance to certain foods.  If so, ask which foods and the type of reaction to the food.  Food intolerance should not be confused with food allergies.  An intolerance to certain foods is generally based on the presence of a gastrointestinal imbalance such as having too little of a particular enzyme that can hinder proper breakdown and use of the food by the body.  Food intolerance may be related to disorders such as celiac disease, insulin-dependent diabetes, and inflammatory bowel disease.  Symptoms of intolerance to a particular food might include stomach discomfort, gas, bloating, burping, flatulence, abdominal pain, and diarrhea (NIH, 2011).  Food intolerance may also increase with older adults (Ahmed & Haboubi, 2010).
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How do people decide what to eat? • Cultural and commercial influences govern what people eat • Government policies influence how food is grown and distributed • In U.S., commercial interests are overtaking cultural heritage in influencing decisions about what to eat • RESULTS: – – – – – – – – Typical dinner plate item has traveled 1500 miles Packaged and processed food dominate in diet Loss of art of cooking, cuisine Abundance of cheap corn and soy-based processed food packaged for easy commercialization Control of food production and distrubution by large corporations Small farmer cannot compete with subsidized mass-market prices Use of nutritionism to justify production and commercialization of food products: “vitamin fortified,” “low-fat,” “heart-healthy” etc. Loss of knowledge of how to produce food, or even where food comes from. • REMEDY—win-win-win. Remember food? Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D. Biology Department, Yavapai College
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