Evaluating Descartes’ Argument: • We know with absolute certainty that there is doubting and thinking. • But do we know with absolute certainty that there is a unified consciousness that is doing the thinking?
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State of Consciousness Self Awareness Content of Experience Sleep State None None Dream State None Illusory Waking Individual Ego (Lower self) Perceptions, thoughts, feelings Transcendental Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) None Cosmic Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) Perceptions, thoughts, feelings Refined Cosmic Consciousness (God Consciousness ) Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) Finest Relative Perception Unity Consciousness or Brahman Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) …fluctuations within pure consciousness— “…all things in terms of the Self.”
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State of Consciousness Self Awareness Content of Experience Sleep State None None Dream State None Illusory Waking Limited (Lower self) Surface Perception Transcendental Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) None Cosmic Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) Surface Perception Refined Cosmic Consciousness (God Consciousness ) Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) Finest Relative Perception Unity Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) …fluctuations within pure consciousness— “…all things in terms of the Self.”
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State of Consciousness Self Awareness Content of Experience Sleep State None None Dream State None Illusory Waking Limited (Lower self) Surface Perception Transcendental Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) None Cosmic Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) Surface Perception Refined Cosmic Consciousness (God Consciousness ) Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) Finest Relative Perception Unity Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) …fluctuations within pure consciousness— “…all things in terms of the Self.”
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State of Consciousness Self Awareness Content of Experience Sleep State None None Dream State None Illusory Waking Limited (Lower self) Surface Perception Transcendental Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) None Cosmic Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) Surface Perception Refined Cosmic Consciousness (God Consciousness ) Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) Finest Relative Perception Unity Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) …fluctuations within pure consciousness— “…all things in terms of the Self.”
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State of Consciousness Self Awareness Content of Experience Sleep State None None Dream State None Illusory Waking Individual Ego (Lower self) Perceptions, thoughts, feelings Transcendental Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) None Cosmic Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) Surface Perception Refined Cosmic Consciousness (God Consciousness ) Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) Finest Relative Perception Unity Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) …fluctuations within pure consciousness— “…all things in terms of the Self.”
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State of Consciousness Self Awareness Content of Experience Sleep State None None Dream State None Illusory Waking Individual Ego (Lower self) Perceptions, thoughts, feelings Transcendental Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) None Cosmic Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) Surface Perception Refined Cosmic Consciousness (God Consciousness ) Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) Finest Relative Perception Unity Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) …fluctuations within pure consciousness— “…all things in terms of the Self.”
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State of Consciousness Self Awareness Content of Experience Sleep State None None Dream State None Illusory Waking Individual Ego (Lower self) Perceptions, thoughts, feelings Transcendental Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) None Cosmic Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) Perceptions, thoughts, feelings Refined Cosmic Consciousness (God Consciousness ) Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) Finest Relative Perception Unity Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) …fluctuations within pure consciousness— “…all things in terms of the Self.”
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State of Consciousness Self Awareness Content of Experience Sleep State None None Dream State None Illusory Waking Individual Ego (Lower self) Perceptions, thoughts, feelings Transcendental Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) None Cosmic Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) Perceptions, thoughts, feelings Refined Cosmic Consciousness (God Consciousness ) Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) Finest Relative Perception Unity Consciousness Unbounded (Pure Consciousness: Higher Self) …fluctuations within pure consciousness— “…all things in terms of the Self.”
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Secondary & Postsecondary Partners K-12 Districts • Alameda Unified School District • Albany Unified School District • Berkeley Unified School District • Castro Valley Unified School District • Emery Unified School District • Hayward Unified School District • Oakland Unified School District • Piedmont Unified School District • San Leandro Unified School District • San Lorenzo Unified School District • West Contra Costa Unified School District • Alameda County Office of Education Community Colleges • Berkeley City College • Chabot College • College of Alameda • Contra Costa College • Laney College • Merritt College • Cal State East Bay and UC Berkeley are included as unfunded post-secondary partners Alameda County Office of Education
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Demo - Pronto Taken from http://clarkparsia.com/pronto/cancer_cc.owl
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Conscious Awareness Over 100 years ago a concern with the conscious content of the mind of humans and animals was common among philosophers and scientists with an interest in psychology. From the 1920s and through the 1960’s the dominant school of behaviorism essentially eliminated the study of consciousness and mental processes from psychology- the emphasis was on the scientific study of observable behaviors. Interest in consciousness and mental processes reemerged in the 1970s. Cognitive psychologists developed methods to study mental processes such as attention, memory, and thinking in people. Discussions of mental states and consciousness in humans are again routinely observed in the pages of psychology journals. The study of the animal mind, however, is a different story. Although some behaviorists (radical behaviorists) continue to insist that cognition and consciousness is not an appropriate subject of scientific study, cognitive behaviorists accept the importance of cognitive processes in animal learning (animal cognition). The issue of consciousness in animals, however, is still not approached by cognitive behaviorists for two primary reasons. First, it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to produce evidence of consciousness in animals. Second, cognitive processes are assumed not to require conscious awareness. Nevertheless in the early 1980s biologist Donald Griffin advanced the field of cognitive ethology which aims to study the functional value of consciousness in humans and animals. (Also see the discussion on recognition)
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recognition continued The typical lay person sees the radical behaviorist’s explanation of learned behavior in animals as unsatisfying. We know from our own subjective experiences that we experience rich memories and that these memories often guide our behavior. Why wouldn’t animals have similar memories? Recall that information retrieved into working memory in humans is accompanied by consciousness- we are aware of our memories. But it is difficult, if not impossible, to know if animals are ever conscious of their experiences. It certainly seems like many animals (especially mammals and birds) are at times conscious of their experiences, but unequivocal evidence is difficult to come by. If what the lay person refers to as memory (and scientists refer to as working memory) is always accompanied by consciousness, and evidence of consciousness in animals still eludes us, then describing memory in animals may not be necessary or at least is premature theorizing. (There has been a recent re-emergence in an interest of animal consciousness especially in the field of Cognitive Ethology. Developments in this field and others (e.g., neuroscience) are likely to change our views of consciousness in animals- stay tuned.) Cognitive behaviorists, scientists who study Animal Cognition, argue that the radical behaviorists’ approach to animal learning is lacking in explanatory power. They see value in using intervening variables such as memory to explain animal behavior whether or not consciousness is involved. Like most psychologists, cognitive behaviorists believe that the causes of behavior are understood 4 of 8 pages
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Recruiting Recruiting Evaluation Evaluation and and Metrics Metrics Evaluating EvaluatingRecruiting RecruitingEfforts Efforts Evaluating Evaluating Recruiting Recruiting Quality Qualityand and Quantity Quantity Evaluating Evaluating the theTime Time Required Requiredto to Fill Fill Openings Openings Evaluating Evaluating Recruiting Recruiting Costs Costsand and Benefits Benefits Copyright © 2005 Thomson Business & Professional Publishing. All rights reserved. Evaluating Evaluating Recruiting Recruiting Satisfaction Satisfaction 7–24
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2) Objections to A- without P-Consciousness Blindsight: is it really true that the patient has no Pconsciousness of stimuli (e.g. ‘X’ or ‘O’), or do they have a little P-consciousness (a vague feeling that it is an ‘X’, for example), which corresponds to the little A-consciousness that they exhibit. “Superblindsight”: doesn’t superblindsighter have P-consciousness of the answer popping into his head? If you are A-conscious but not P-conscious, you can use information for rational thought, but you don’t experience knowledge of this information. Does this differ from unconscious information processing? Why say that a zombie or a computer that has no experience (no qualia) has A-consciousness but not P-consciousness?
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Consciousness Is the Most Mysterious Property of the Nervous System • Attention and awareness are behavioral and experiential manifestations of consciousness but are not synonymous. • Consciousness may be defined as being aware that we are conscious and perceiving what is going on in our minds and around us. • The easy problem of consciousness is understanding how particular patterns of neural activity create specific conscious experiences. • The hard problem of consciousness is understanding the brain processes that result in a person’s subjective experience of the contents of consciousness.
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Gita IV 38, commentary. “Now, for Transcendental Consciousness to become permanent and to co-exist with the waking state of consciousness, it is necessary that the two states of the nervous system corresponding to those two states of consciousness should co-exist. This is brought about by the mind gaining Transcendental Consciousness and the waking state of consciousness, passing from one to the other. This gradual and systematic culture of the physical nervous system creates a physiological situation in which the two states of consciousness exist together simultaneously.”
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Creation of Assurance Argument AY 2017-2018 Until April 15, 2018 Populate the Repository with Evidentiary Artifacts Preparing Evidence Repository Summer 2017 Assign Key Personnel to the Assurance System By January 2018 Respond to 2014 Review Conditions By January 2018 Respond to changes since the 2014 Visit By February 2018 Write Draft of Federal Guidelines Assurance Arguments Creation of Assurance Argument Creation of Assurance Argument Creation of Assurance Argument Creation of Assurance Argument Creation of Assurance Argument Creation of Assurance Argument Creation of Assurance By March 2018 Complete Federal Guidelines Assurance Arguments By March 2018 Write Draft of Assurance Argument for Criterion One: Mission By April 2018 Complete Assurance Argument for Criterion One: Mission HLC/Strategic Planning Committee HLC/Assessment Coordinator Provost HLC/Assessment Coordinator Provost HLC/Assessment Coordinator Provost HLC/Assessment Coordinator Provost HLC/Assessment Coordinator Provost HLC/Assessment Coordinator Criterion One Team Criterion One Team
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An Example: Unified vs. Separate I&D Proc Unified Cache-L1 Unified Cache-L2   LaCASA D-Cache-L1 Unified Cache-L2 16KB I&D: Inst misses=3.82 /1K, Data miss rate=40.9 /1K 32KB unified: Unified misses = 43.3 misses/1K Assumptions:  AM Proc Compare 2 design alternatives (ignore L2 caches)?   I-Cache-L1   ld/st frequency is 36%  74% accesses from instructions (1.0/1.36) hit time = 1clock cycle, miss penalty = 100 clock cycles Data hit has 1 stall for unified cache (only one port) 28
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An Example: Unified vs. Separate I&D Proc CPE 631 AM Unified Cache-L1 Unified Cache-L2  Proc D-Cache-L1 Unified Cache-L2 Compare 2 design alternatives (ignore L2 caches)?    I-Cache-L1 16KB I&D: Inst misses=3.82 /1K, Data misses=40.9 /1K 32KB unified: Unified misses = 43.3 misses/1K Assumptions:    24/03/19 ld/st frequency is 36%  74% accesses from instructions (1.0/1.36) hit time = 1clock cycle, miss penalty = 100 clock cycles Data hit has 1 stall for unified cache (only one port) UAH-CPE631 8
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Descartes’ Argument • I doubt.  I think.  I exist. Sound argument? Is it valid? valid Doubting is a kind of thinking.
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Introduction     Inductive Argument: an argument in which the premises are intended to provide support, but not conclusive evidence, for the conclusion. Strong Inductive Argument: an inductive argument in which the premises actually do make the conclusion more likely to be true (rather than false).  Remember, strength comes in degrees. Cogent Inductive Argument: a strong inductive argument with true premises. How can you know if the argument is inductive?  If the argument is invalid, the charitable thing to do is treat it as inductive.  Indicator words: likely, probably, it’s plausible to suppose that, etc. 2
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Demo - Pronto 0;0.0005 0;0.004 0;0.014 Taken from http://clarkparsia.com/pronto/cancer_cc.owl
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Demo - Pronto 0;0.025 0;0.035 0;0.039 Taken from http://clarkparsia.com/pronto/cancer_cc.owl
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Demo - Pronto 1;1 1;1 1;1 Taken from http://clarkparsia.com/pronto/cancer_cc.owl
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Unity Chart The Role of the Unified Field Chart at Maharishi University of Management 1. A Unified Field Chart provides a systems view of a discipline of study, from its origins to its effects, and can be used by the faculty to keep the students awareness focused on the whole. 2. A Unified Field Chart develops our ability to synthesize parts into wholes and diminishes the ‘mistake’ of fragmented knowledge. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Transcendental Consciousness is the source of every discipline. 4. Impulses within the Transcendental Field: The impulses of the Transcendental Field maintain the order and evolution of all elements of the discipline. 5. Wholeness Moving Within Itself: In Unity Consciousness, all the parts of knowledge are spontaneously known and experienced as waves of the unbounded ocean of consciousness, the wholeness of the Self.
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VoIP Components Call CallAgents Agents Provides Provides call call control control for for IP IP phones, phones, Call CallAdmission Admission Control Control (CAC), (CAC), bandwidth bandwidth control control and and management, management, and and address address translation. translation. Cisco Cisco Unified Unified Communications Communications Managers Managers and and Cisco Cisco Unified Unified Communications Communications Manager Manager Business Business Edition Edition both both function function as as the the call call agents. agents. Gateways Gateways Multipoint Multipoint Control Control Unit Unit (MCU) (MCU) Provides Provides real-time real-time connectivity connectivity for for participants participants attending attending aa videoconference. videoconference. Provides Provides translation translation between between VoIP VoIP and and non-VoIP non-VoIP networks. networks. ItIt also also provides provides physical physical access access for for local local analog analog and and digital digital voice voice devices, devices, such such as as telephones, telephones, fax fax machines, machines, and and PBXs. PBXs. Application Application Servers Servers (Cisco (Cisco Unity) Unity) Provides Provides services services such such as as voice voice mail mail and and unified unified messaging. messaging. IP IP phones phones Provide Provide IP IP voice voice to to the the desktop. desktop. Videoconference Videoconference Station Station Provides Provides access access for for end-user end-user participation participation in in videoconferencing. videoconferencing. The The station station contains contains aa video video capture capture device device for for video video input input and and aa microphone microphone for for audio audio input. input. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 102
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Consciousness • Consciousness o o our subjective awareness of our inner thinking and feeling and our external environment awareness of our awareness • What is the relation of consciousness to the brain? o we know that conscious experiences are altered when our brain state is altered • drugs, sleep, anesthesia, brain damage, etc o our conscious experiences seem to be cased by the pattern of connectivity and firing of the neurons in our brain • “The smell of the flower, the sound of the symphony, the thoughts of theorems in Euclidian geometry -- all are caused by lower level biological processes in the brain; and as far as we know, the crucial functional elements are neurons and synapses.” — John Searle o But, how this results in consciousness is largely unsolved
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Evaluating Descartes’ Argument: • Are you absolutely certain that he exists? • What kind of proof is that? • Doesn’t a proof have to convince everyone? • A proof has to be objective. • Descartes’ proof is subjective.
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