The New Stack – Process Is the Next Platform Client Punch Card or Terminal Custom (10’s of users) Application Data Management Applicatio n OS and Databas e Mainframe 4 Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Request Form Any Device (Millions of users) PC or Internet (1000’s of users) Composites Applicatio n Applicatio n Applicatio n OS OS OS DB OS Client Server OS OSApplicatio ns OS OS DB OS DB OS DB OS OS SOA Magal and Word ! Essentials of Business Processes and Information Systems | © 2009 Composites OS OSApplicatio ns OS OS DB OS DB OS DB OS OS
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C:\UMBC\331\java> java.ext.dirs=C:\JDK1.2\JRE\lib\ext java.io.tmpdir=C:\WINDOWS\TEMP\ os.name=Windows 95 java.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. java.awt.printerjob=sun.awt.windows.WPrinterJob java.library.path=C:\JDK1.2\BIN;.;C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM;C:\... java.vm.specification.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. sun.io.unicode.encoding=UnicodeLittle file.encoding=Cp1252 java.specification.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. user.language=en user.name=nicholas java.vendor.url.bug=http://java.sun.com/cgi-bin/bugreport... java.vm.name=Classic VM java.class.version=46.0 java.vm.specification.name=Java Virtual Machine Specification sun.boot.library.path=C:\JDK1.2\JRE\bin os.version=4.10 java.vm.version=1.2 java.vm.info=build JDK-1.2-V, native threads, symcjit java.compiler=symcjit path.separator=; file.separator=\ user.dir=C:\UMBC\331\java sun.boot.class.path=C:\JDK1.2\JRE\lib\rt.jar;C:\JDK1.2\JR... user.name=nicholas user.home=C:\WINDOWS C:\UMBC\331\java>java envSnoop -- listing properties -java.specification.name=Java Platform API Specification awt.toolkit=sun.awt.windows.WToolkit java.version=1.2 java.awt.graphicsenv=sun.awt.Win32GraphicsEnvironment user.timezone=America/New_York java.specification.version=1.2 java.vm.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. user.home=C:\WINDOWS java.vm.specification.version=1.0 os.arch=x86 java.awt.fonts= java.vendor.url=http://java.sun.com/ user.region=US file.encoding.pkg=sun.io java.home=C:\JDK1.2\JRE java.class.path=C:\Program Files\PhotoDeluxe 2.0\Adob... line.separator=
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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures  Operating System Services  User Operating System Interface  System Calls  Types of System Calls  System Programs  Operating System Design and Implementation  Operating System Structure  Virtual Machines  Operating System Debugging  Operating System Generation  System Boot Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures  Operating System Services  User Operating System Interface  System Calls  Types of System Calls  System Programs  Operating System Design and Implementation  Operating System Structure  Virtual Machines  Operating System Debugging  Operating System Generation  System Boot Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures  Operating System Services  User Operating System Interface  System Calls  Types of System Calls  System Programs  Operating System Design and Implementation  Operating System Structure  Virtual Machines  Operating System Debugging  Operating System Generation  System Boot Operating System Concepts Essentials – 8th Edition 2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2011
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Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 Cycle 5 Instr cache Reg file ALU Data cache Reg file Instr cache Reg file ALU Data cache Reg file Reg file ALU Data cache Instr 3 Instr 5 Instr 4 Instr cache Cycle 7 Cycle 8 Cycle 9 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Writes into $8 Bubble Reg file Task dimension Cycle 4 ALU Bubble Instr cache Reg file Cycle 5 Cycle 6 Reg file Data cache Reg file ALU Data cache Reg file Cycle 8 Cycle 9 Cycle 7 Without data forwarding, three bubbles are needed to resolve a read-after-write data dependency Reads from $8 Time dimension Instr cache Instr 3 Instr 2 Instr 1 Bubble Instr cache Cycle 1 ALU Data cache Reg file Instr cache Reg file ALU Data cache Reg file ALU Data cache Reg file Reg file ALU Data cache Reg file Instr cache Reg file ALU Data cache Bubble Reg file Instr cache Task dimension Writes into $8 Reg file Instr cache Instr 4 Instr 5 Cycle 6 Time dimension Instr 2 Instr 1 Inserting Bubbles in a Pipeline Bubble Two bubbles, if we assume that a register can be updated and read from in one cycle Reads from $8 Reg file Computer Architecture, Data Path and Control Slide 48
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Operating-System Operations  Interrupt driven by hardware  Software error or request creates exception or trap  Division by zero, request for operating system service  Other process problems include infinite loop, processes modifying each other or the operating system  Dual-mode operation allows OS to protect itself and other system components  User mode and kernel mode  Mode bit provided by hardware  Provides ability to distinguish when system is running user code or kernel code  Some instructions designated as privileged, only executable in kernel mode  System call changes mode to kernel, return from call resets it to user Operating System Concepts with Java – 8th Edition 1.30 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures  Operating System Services  User Operating System Interface  System Calls  Types of System Calls  System Programs  Operating System Design and Implementation  Operating System Structure  Operating System Debugging  System Boot Operating System Concepts – 9th Edition 2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne
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Operating-System Operations Interrupt driven by hardware  Software error or request creates exception or trap  Division by zero, request for operating system service  Other process problems include infinite loop, processes modifying each other or the operating system  Dual-mode operation allows OS to protect itself and other system components  User mode and kernel mode  Mode bit provided by hardware  Provides ability to distinguish when system is running user code or kernel code  Some instructions designated as privileged, only executable in kernel mode  System call changes mode to kernel, return from call resets it to user  Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 1.28 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Review: Single Cycle, Multiple Cycle, vs. Pipeline Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Clk Single Cycle Implementation: Load Store Waste Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 Cycle 5 Cycle 6 Cycle 7 Cycle 8 Cycle 9 Cycle 10 Clk Multiple Cycle Implementation: Load Ifetch Reg Exec Mem Wr Exec Mem Wr Reg Exec Mem Store Ifetch Reg Exec Mem R-type Ifetch Pipeline Implementation: Load Ifetch Reg Store Ifetch R-type Ifetch CPE 442 hazards.2 Reg Exec Wr Mem Wr Introduction to Computer Architecture
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A More Extensive Pipelining Example Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 Cycle 5 Cycle 6 Cycle 7 Cycle 8 Clock 0: Load Ifetch Reg/Dec 4: R-type Ifetch Exec Mem Wr Reg/Dec Exec Mem Wr Reg/Dec Exec Mem Wr Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Mem 8: Store Ifetch 12: Beq (target is 1000) End of Cycle 4 End of Cycle 5 Wr End of End of Cycle 6 Cycle 7 ° End of Cycle 4: Load’s Mem, R-type’s Exec, Store’s Reg, Beq’s Ifetch ° End of Cycle 5: Load’s Wr, R-type’s Mem, Store’s Exec, Beq’s Reg ° End of Cycle 6: R-type’s Wr, Store’s Mem, Beq’s Exec ° End of Cycle 7: Store’s Wr, Beq’s Mem CPE 442 pipeline.36 Intro to Computer Architecture
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Single Cycle, Multiple Cycle, vs. Pipeline Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Clk Single Cycle Implementation: Load Store Waste Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 Cycle 5 Cycle 6 Cycle 7 Cycle 8 Cycle 9 Cycle 10 Clk Multiple Cycle Implementation: Load Ifetch Reg Exec Mem Wr Exec Mem Wr Reg Exec Mem Store Ifetch Reg Exec Mem R-type Ifetch Pipeline Implementation: Load Ifetch Reg Store Ifetch R-type Ifetch CPE 442 pipeline.44 Reg Exec Wr Mem Wr Intro to Computer Architecture
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Single Cycle, Multiple Cycle, vs. Pipeline Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Clk Single Cycle Implementation: Load Store Waste Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 Cycle 5 Cycle 6 Cycle 7 Cycle 8 Cycle 9 Cycle 10 Clk Multiple Cycle Implementation: Load Ifetch Reg Exec Mem Wr Store Ifetch Reg Exec Mem R-type Ifetch Pipeline Implementation: Load Ifetch Reg Store Ifetch Exec Mem Wr Reg Exec Mem R-type Ifetch CSE 45432 SUNY New Paltz Reg Exec Wr Mem Wr 7
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