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C:\UMBC\331\java> java.ext.dirs=C:\JDK1.2\JRE\lib\ext java.io.tmpdir=C:\WINDOWS\TEMP\ os.name=Windows 95 java.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. java.awt.printerjob=sun.awt.windows.WPrinterJob java.library.path=C:\JDK1.2\BIN;.;C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM;C:\... java.vm.specification.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. sun.io.unicode.encoding=UnicodeLittle file.encoding=Cp1252 java.specification.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. user.language=en user.name=nicholas java.vendor.url.bug=http://java.sun.com/cgi-bin/bugreport... java.vm.name=Classic VM java.class.version=46.0 java.vm.specification.name=Java Virtual Machine Specification sun.boot.library.path=C:\JDK1.2\JRE\bin os.version=4.10 java.vm.version=1.2 java.vm.info=build JDK-1.2-V, native threads, symcjit java.compiler=symcjit path.separator=; file.separator=\ user.dir=C:\UMBC\331\java sun.boot.class.path=C:\JDK1.2\JRE\lib\rt.jar;C:\JDK1.2\JR... user.name=nicholas user.home=C:\WINDOWS C:\UMBC\331\java>java envSnoop -- listing properties -java.specification.name=Java Platform API Specification awt.toolkit=sun.awt.windows.WToolkit java.version=1.2 java.awt.graphicsenv=sun.awt.Win32GraphicsEnvironment user.timezone=America/New_York java.specification.version=1.2 java.vm.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. user.home=C:\WINDOWS java.vm.specification.version=1.0 os.arch=x86 java.awt.fonts= java.vendor.url=http://java.sun.com/ user.region=US file.encoding.pkg=sun.io java.home=C:\JDK1.2\JRE java.class.path=C:\Program Files\PhotoDeluxe 2.0\Adob... line.separator=
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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures  Operating System Services  User Operating System Interface  System Calls  Types of System Calls  System Programs  Operating System Design and Implementation  Operating System Structure  Virtual Machines  Operating System Debugging  Operating System Generation  System Boot Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures  Operating System Services  User Operating System Interface  System Calls  Types of System Calls  System Programs  Operating System Design and Implementation  Operating System Structure  Virtual Machines  Operating System Debugging  Operating System Generation  System Boot Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures  Operating System Services  User Operating System Interface  System Calls  Types of System Calls  System Programs  Operating System Design and Implementation  Operating System Structure  Virtual Machines  Operating System Debugging  Operating System Generation  System Boot Operating System Concepts Essentials – 8th Edition 2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2011
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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures  Operating System Services  User Operating System Interface  System Calls  Types of System Calls  System Programs  Operating System Design and Implementation  Operating System Structure  Operating System Debugging  System Boot Operating System Concepts – 9th Edition 2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne
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Level 1 Atomic Synchronous Static Data Nontransactional OLAP Real-time datamart Atomic Synchronous Static data Transactional Level 0 Data Grid QoS Atomic Asynchronous Static Data Nontransactional Atomic Asynchronous Dynamic data Nontransactional Batch Synchronous Static data Transactional Batch Synchronous Static data Nontransactional Application Complexity Work Time Data Transactional Monte Carlo Simulation Atomic Asynchronous Dynamic data Transactional Atomic Asynchronous Static data Transactional
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Synchrony vs. Asynchrony Synchronous clocks Physical clocks are synchronized Synchronous processes Lock-step synchrony Synchronous channels Bounded delay Synchronous message-order First-in first-out channels Synchronous communication Communication via handshaking Send & receive can be blocking or nonblocking Postal communication is asynchronous: Telephone communication is synchronous Synchronous communication or not? (1) Remote Procedure Call, (2) Email Any constraint defines some form of synchrony
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Synchrony vs. Asynchrony Synchronous clocks Physical clocks are synchronized Synchronous processes Lock-step synchrony Synchronous channels Bounded delay Synchronous message-order First-in first-out channels Synchronous communication Communication via handshaking Send & receive can be blocking or nonblocking Postal communication is asynchronous: Telephone communication is synchronous Synchronous communication or not? (1) Remote Procedure Call, (2) Email Any constraint defines some form of synchrony …
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Operating System Design and Implementation  Design and Implementation of OS not “solvable”, but some approaches have proven successful  Internal structure of different Operating Systems can vary widely  Start by defining goals and specifications  Affected by choice of hardware, type of system  User goals and System goals  User goals – operating system should be convenient to use, easy to learn, reliable, safe, and fast  System goals – operating system should be easy to design, implement, and maintain, as well as flexible, reliable, error-free, and efficient Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 2.30 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Operating System Design and Implementation  Design and Implementation of OS not “solvable”, but some approaches have proven successful  Internal structure of different Operating Systems can vary widely  Start by defining goals and specifications  Affected by choice of hardware, type of system  User goals and System goals  User goals – operating system should be convenient to use, easy to learn, reliable, safe, and fast  System goals – operating system should be easy to design, implement, and maintain, as well as flexible, reliable, error-free, and efficient Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 2.27 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Chapter 1: Introduction  What Operating Systems Do  Computer-System Organization  Computer-System Architecture  Operating-System Structure  Operating-System Operations  Process Management  Memory Management  Storage Management  Protection and Security  Distributed Systems  Special-Purpose Systems  Computing Environments  Open-Source Operating Systems Operating System Concepts with Java – 8th Edition 1.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Operating-System Operations  Interrupt driven by hardware  Software error or request creates exception or trap  Division by zero, request for operating system service  Other process problems include infinite loop, processes modifying each other or the operating system  Dual-mode operation allows OS to protect itself and other system components  User mode and kernel mode  Mode bit provided by hardware  Provides ability to distinguish when system is running user code or kernel code  Some instructions designated as privileged, only executable in kernel mode  System call changes mode to kernel, return from call resets it to user Operating System Concepts with Java – 8th Edition 1.30 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Two I/O Methods Asynchronous Synchronous Operating System Concepts with Java – 8th Edition 12.41 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Operating System Services  Operating systems provide an environment for execution of programs and services to programs and users  One set of operating-system services provides functions that are helpful to the user:  User interface - Almost all operating systems have a user interface (UI).  Varies between Command-Line (CLI), Graphics User Interface (GUI), Batch  Program execution - The system must be able to load a program into memory and to run that program, end execution, either normally or abnormally (indicating error)  I/O operations - A running program may require I/O, which may involve a file or an I/O device  File-system manipulation - The file system is of particular interest. Programs need to read and write files and directories, create and delete them, search them, list file Information, permission management. Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 2.4 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Operating System Design and Implementation  Design and Implementation of OS not “solvable”, but some approaches have proven successful  Internal structure of different Operating Systems can vary widely  Start by defining goals and specifications  Affected by choice of hardware, type of system  User goals and System goals  User goals – operating system should be convenient to use, easy to learn, reliable, safe, and fast  System goals – operating system should be easy to design, implement, and maintain, as well as flexible, reliable, error-free, and efficient Operating System Concepts Essentials – 8th Edition 2.30 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2011
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Reasoning Capabilities Buildfile: build.xml init: compile: Finding Transitive Closures (RDFS reasoning) dist: [jar] Building jar: /home/aks1/software/eclipse/workspace/ontojena/dist/lib/ontojena.jar Inferred Triples vehicle run: [java] MODEL OK [java] Resource: http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine Land-vehicle [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#all) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#physical-object) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#inanimate) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#wheeled-vehicle) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#engine-propelled-vehicle) Engine-propelled--vehicle Wheeled--vehicle [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#wheeled-engine-vehicle) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#artifact) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#object) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#land-vehicle) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#vehicle) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#truck) Wheeled-engine-vehicle [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:label ' "a truck with equipment for fighting fires"') [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdf:type owl:Class) [java] fire-engine recognized as subclas of vehicle BUILD SUCCESSFUL Total time: 10 seconds real 0m11.144s user 0m9.530s sys 0m0.190s [[email protected] ontojena]$ Truck Fire-engine
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Class Hierarchy [http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4.2/docs/api/java/lang/Throwable.html java.lang.Object    |    +--java.lang.Throwable          |          +--java.lang.Exception          |     |          |     +--java.lang.ClassNotFoundException          |     |          |     +--java.io.IOException          |     |     |          |     |     +--java.io.FileNotFoundException          |     |          |     +--java.lang.RuntimeException          |           |          |           +--java.lang.NullPointerException          |           +--java.lang.ArithmeticException           |           +--java.lang.IllegalArgumentException          |           +--java.lang.IndexOutOfBoundsException          |                 |          |                 +--java.lang.ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException          |          +--java.lang.Error                |                +--java.lang.VirtualMachineError                      |                      +--java.lang.OutOfMemoryError  
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Thread Lifetimes  The Java Thread class includes the constructor and management methods listed in the next slide  A new thread is created on the same Java virtual machine (JVM) as its creator, in the SUSPENDED state. After it is made RUNNABLE with the start() method, it executes the run() method of an object designated in its constructor.  The JVM and the threads on top of it all execute in a process on top of the underlying operating system. Threads can be assigned a priority, so that a Java implementation that supports priorities will run a particular thread in preference to any thread with lower priority.  A thread ends its life when it returns from the run() method or when its destroy() method is called. Operating System Concepts with Java – 8th Edition 14.13 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Operating System Services  Operating systems provide an environment for execution of programs and services to programs and users  One set of operating-system services provides functions that are helpful to the user:  User interface - Almost all operating systems have a user interface (UI).  Varies between Command-Line (CLI), Graphics User Interface (GUI), Batch  Program execution - The system must be able to load a program into memory and to run that program, end execution, either normally or abnormally (indicating error)  I/O operations - A running program may require I/O, which may involve a file or an I/O device  File-system manipulation - The file system is of particular interest. Programs need to read and write files and directories, create and delete them, search them, list file Information, permission management. Operating System Concepts Essentials – 8th Edition 2.4 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2011
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Chapter 1: Introduction  What Operating Systems Do  Computer-System Organization  Computer-System Architecture  Operating-System Structure  Operating-System Operations  Process Management  Memory Management  Storage Management  Protection and Security  Distributed Systems  Special-Purpose Systems  Computing Environments  Open-Source Operating Systems Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 1.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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