Network Devices  Varying enough from block and character to have own interface  Unix and Windows NT/9x/2000 include socket interface  Separates network protocol from network operation  Includes select() functionality  Approaches vary widely (pipes, FIFOs, streams, queues, mailboxes) Operating System Concepts with Java – 8th Edition 12.38 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Network Devices  Varying enough from block and character to have own interface  Unix and Windows NT/9x/2000 include socket interface   Separates network protocol from network operation  Includes select functionality Approaches vary widely (pipes, FIFOs, streams, queues, mailboxes) Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 13.17 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Network Devices  Varying enough from block and character to have own interface  Linux, Unix, Windows and many others include socket interface   Separates network protocol from network operation  Includes select() functionality Approaches vary widely (pipes, FIFOs, streams, queues, mailboxes) Operating System Concepts – 9th Edition 13.21 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013
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Preamble “Post-amble” Block Execution: 3 Detail Observing Block Observing Block “Post-amble” “Post-amble” 3 Observing Block Observing Block ok Measurement Set ready “Post-amble” EVLA Data Processing PDR Observing Observing Block Block Observing Observing Block Block Failed! Preamble “Post-amble” Preamble ok ?4 5 Preamble ready Preamble Observing Observing Block Block Observing Observing Block Block Observing Block Observing Block Measurement Set “Post-amble” “Post-amble” Preamble Preamble “Post-amble” Measurement Set “Post-amble” “Post-amble” “Post-amble” July 18 - 19, 2002 2 2 Observing Observing Block Block Block Observing Observing Observing Block Block ok Archive: Preamble Observing Block Observing Block 34 ready Preamble “Post-amble” 1 3 Observing Block Observing Observing Block Block Observing Block Observing Observing Block Block ready Preamble Execution: Preamble ready Observing Observing Block Block Observing Observing Block Block Preamble Observing Block Observing Block 22 “Post-amble” “Post-amble” Preamble Preamble 1 “Post-amble” Preamble Input Queue: ok Measurement Set Boyd Waters 13
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C:\UMBC\331\java> java.ext.dirs=C:\JDK1.2\JRE\lib\ext java.io.tmpdir=C:\WINDOWS\TEMP\ os.name=Windows 95 java.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. java.awt.printerjob=sun.awt.windows.WPrinterJob java.library.path=C:\JDK1.2\BIN;.;C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM;C:\... java.vm.specification.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. sun.io.unicode.encoding=UnicodeLittle file.encoding=Cp1252 java.specification.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. user.language=en user.name=nicholas java.vendor.url.bug=http://java.sun.com/cgi-bin/bugreport... java.vm.name=Classic VM java.class.version=46.0 java.vm.specification.name=Java Virtual Machine Specification sun.boot.library.path=C:\JDK1.2\JRE\bin os.version=4.10 java.vm.version=1.2 java.vm.info=build JDK-1.2-V, native threads, symcjit java.compiler=symcjit path.separator=; file.separator=\ user.dir=C:\UMBC\331\java sun.boot.class.path=C:\JDK1.2\JRE\lib\rt.jar;C:\JDK1.2\JR... user.name=nicholas user.home=C:\WINDOWS C:\UMBC\331\java>java envSnoop -- listing properties -java.specification.name=Java Platform API Specification awt.toolkit=sun.awt.windows.WToolkit java.version=1.2 java.awt.graphicsenv=sun.awt.Win32GraphicsEnvironment user.timezone=America/New_York java.specification.version=1.2 java.vm.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. user.home=C:\WINDOWS java.vm.specification.version=1.0 os.arch=x86 java.awt.fonts= java.vendor.url=http://java.sun.com/ user.region=US file.encoding.pkg=sun.io java.home=C:\JDK1.2\JRE java.class.path=C:\Program Files\PhotoDeluxe 2.0\Adob... line.separator=
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Microsoft Windows • Click to view the various Windows systems Windows Windows Windows Windows Windows Windows Windows Windows XP (2001) ME2000 (2000) 98 NT (1993) (1998) 95 3.x 1.0 2.0 (2000) (1995) (1990(1985) (1987) 1992) © 2009 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Introduces Fundamentally First widely This operating Includes This upgrade better This upgrade This upgrade different used point-and-click PC system runs Offers a new graphics toWindows Windows to NT includes faster operating graphical commands user with multi-user capabilities 95 and and offers additional file and more system interface a mousewith and (GUI) desktop as introduces Windows 98 improvements efficiently, protection and increased operating includes well as keyboard includes to file security introduces Plug incorporates security, system. modest power, improved shortcuts system and and Play and Internet Internet performance, Improved multitasking digital media the backup ability and to capabilities, longa support. Explorer 4.0, and point-and-click capabilities and features and overlap file multimedia names, shortcustomizable multitasking mouse desktop Internet cut windows. capabilities taskbar, and scheduler. operations applications. and right-click capabilities. (such asmenus, desktop and a cleaner multitasking Media Player). features desktop. capabilities. 12
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Microsoft Windows • Market leader – 90% market share Click to view the various Windows systems Windows Windows Windows Windows Windows Windows Windows Windows XP (2001) ME2000 (2000) 98 NT (1993) (1998) 95 3.x 1.0 2.0 (2000) (1995) (1990(1985) (1987) 1992) © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Introduces Fundamentally First widely This Includes This operating upgrade better This upgrade This upgrade different used point-and-click PCruns Offers a new system graphics toWindows Windows to NT includes operating graphical commands user with multi-user faster capabilities 95 and and offers additional file system interface a mouse with and (GUI) desktop as and introduces Windows more 98 improvements protection and increased operating includes well as efficiently, keyboard includes to file security incorporates security, system. modest power, improved introduces shortcuts system and Plug and Internet Internet performance, Improved multitasking digital and the backup ability Play media and to support. Explorer 4.0, a and point-and-click capabilities and features and capabilities, overlap multimedia customizable multitasking mouse desktop Internet long windows. capabilities file names, taskbar, and scheduler. operations applications. capabilities. short-cut (such as and desktop multitasking right-click Media Player). features capabilities. menus, and a cleaner desktop. 10
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Transparent Scalability Hardware is free to assign blocks to any processor at any time  A kernel scales across any number of parallel processors Device Device Kernel grid Block 0 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 0 Block 2 Block 1 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7  Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 time Block 0 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 Each block can execute in any CUDA Tools and Threads – Slide order relative 69
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Transparent Scalability  Hardware is free to assign blocks to any SM (processor)  A kernel scales across any number of parallel processors Device Kernel grid Device Block 0 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 0 Block 1 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 26 time Block 0 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 Each block can execute in any order relative to other blocks.
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GNU definition GNU = GNU not unix GNU = GNU not unix not unix GNU = GNU not unix not unix not unix GNU = GNU not unix not unix not unix not unix GNU = GNU not unix not unix not unix not unix not unix GNU = GNU (not unix) * (∞ + 1 ) Java Foundations, 3rd Edition, Lewis/DePasquale/Chase 5 - 10
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Mike Meyers’ CompTIA A+® Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting PCs Fifth Edition Table 12.4 Upgrade Paths (continued) Upgrading from Windows 7/8/8.1 to Windows 8.1 From Windows 7/8/8.1 Upgrade to Windows 8.1 Windows 71 Windows 8.1 Windows 8 Windows 8 Pro Windows 8.1, Windows 8.1 Pro2 Copyright © 2016 by McGraw-Hill 8.1 Pro, Windows 8.1 Enterprise Education. All rightsWindows reserved. Windows 8 Pro with Media Center Windows 8.1 Pro, Windows 8.1 Enterprise Windows 8 Enterprise Windows 8.1 Pro, Windows 8.1 Enterprise Windows 8.1 Windows 8.1 Pro Table 12.4 Upgrading from Windows 7/8/8.1 to Windows 8.1 Windows 8.1 Pro Windows 8.1 Enterprise Copyright © 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.
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// RadioButtonsTest.cs // Using RadioButtons to set message window options. //using statements go here; // form contains several radio buttons--user chooses one // from each group to create a custom MessageBox private System.Windows.Forms.Label promptLabel; private System.Windows.Forms.Label displayLabel; private System.Windows.Forms.Button displayButton; Label is used to prompt user Label is used to display which button was pressed Display the text Display private System.Windows.Forms.RadioButton questionButton; private System.Windows.Forms.RadioButton informationButton; private System.Windows.Forms.RadioButton exclamationButton; private System.Windows.Forms.RadioButton errorButton; private System.Windows.Forms.RadioButton retryCancelButton; private System.Windows.Forms.RadioButton yesNoButton; private System.Windows.Forms.RadioButton yesNoCancelButton; private System.Windows.Forms.RadioButton okCancelButton; private System.Windows.Forms.RadioButton okButton; private System.Windows.Forms.RadioButton To store user’s choice ofevent One abortRetryIgnoreButton; RadioButtons are created for the enumeration options handling exists for options iconType isall created. Object iconType is a the radio buttons in The enumeration name groupBox1 and groupBox2 private System.Windows.Forms.GroupBox groupBox2; MessageBoxIcon indicate which button private System.Windows.Forms.GroupBox groupBox1; enumeration to display private MessageBoxIcon iconType = MessageBoxIcon.Error; private MessageBoxButtons buttonType = MessageBoxButtons.OK; 16
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Application API • Block devices include disk drives – Commands include read, write, seek – Raw I/O or file-system access – Memory-mapped byte streams using virtual memory facilities • Character devices (keyboards, mice, serial ports) – Commands include get, put – Libraries layered on top allow line editing (backspace etc.) • Network devices – Incorporates protocol, flow control, and pipelining – Separates network protocol from network operation – Includes select functionality (socket port numbers) • Clocks and Timers for current time and elapsed time – Course grain regular interval interrupts – Programmable non-interruptible timers for fine grain resolution
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Block Execution Observing Block Observing Block 3 “Post-amble” Preamble Observing Block Observing Block “Post-amble” Preamble Observing Block Observing Block “Post-amble” EVLA Data Processing PDR Preamble Observing Observing Block Block Observing Observing Block Block “Post-amble” Observing Block Observing Block Preamble “Post-amble” 2 2 3 “Post-amble” July 18 - 19, 2002 “Post-amble” Observing Block Observing Block Preamble Preamble 1 “Post-amble” Preamble Execution: Observing Block Observing Block Preamble Observing Block Observing Block 2 “Post-amble” Preamble 1 “Post-amble” Preamble Input Queue: Observing Block Observing Block Boyd Waters 12
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Block and Character Devices  Block devices include disk drives  Commands  Raw include read, write, seek I/O or file-system access  Memory-mapped file access possible  Character devices include keyboards, mice, serial ports  Commands  Libraries include get(), put() layered on top allow line editing Operating System Concepts with Java – 8th Edition 12.37 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Input and Output   The Linux device-oriented file system accesses disk storage through two caches:  Data is cached in the page cache, which is unified with the virtual memory system  Metadata is cached in the buffer cache, a separate cache indexed by the physical disk block Linux splits all devices into three classes:  block devices allow random access to completely independent, fixed size blocks of data  character devices include most other devices; they don’t need to support the functionality of regular files  network devices are interfaced via the kernel’s networking subsystem Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 21.53 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Network Structure     Networking is a key area of functionality for Linux  It supports the standard Internet protocols for UNIX to UNIX communications  It also implements protocols native to non-UNIX operating systems, in particular, protocols used on PC networks, such as Appletalk and IPX Internally, networking in the Linux kernel is implemented by three layers of software:  The socket interface  Protocol drivers  Network device drivers Most important set of protocols in the Linux networking system is the internet protocol suite  It implements routing between different hosts anywhere on the network  On top of the routing protocol are built the UDP, TCP and ICMP protocols Packets also pass to firewall management for filtering based on firewall chains of rules Operating System Concepts Essentials – 2nd Edition 15.60 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013
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