C:\UMBC\331\java> java.ext.dirs=C:\JDK1.2\JRE\lib\ext java.io.tmpdir=C:\WINDOWS\TEMP\ os.name=Windows 95 java.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. java.awt.printerjob=sun.awt.windows.WPrinterJob java.library.path=C:\JDK1.2\BIN;.;C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM;C:\... java.vm.specification.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. sun.io.unicode.encoding=UnicodeLittle file.encoding=Cp1252 java.specification.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. user.language=en user.name=nicholas java.vendor.url.bug=http://java.sun.com/cgi-bin/bugreport... java.vm.name=Classic VM java.class.version=46.0 java.vm.specification.name=Java Virtual Machine Specification sun.boot.library.path=C:\JDK1.2\JRE\bin os.version=4.10 java.vm.version=1.2 java.vm.info=build JDK-1.2-V, native threads, symcjit java.compiler=symcjit path.separator=; file.separator=\ user.dir=C:\UMBC\331\java sun.boot.class.path=C:\JDK1.2\JRE\lib\rt.jar;C:\JDK1.2\JR... user.name=nicholas user.home=C:\WINDOWS C:\UMBC\331\java>java envSnoop -- listing properties -java.specification.name=Java Platform API Specification awt.toolkit=sun.awt.windows.WToolkit java.version=1.2 java.awt.graphicsenv=sun.awt.Win32GraphicsEnvironment user.timezone=America/New_York java.specification.version=1.2 java.vm.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. user.home=C:\WINDOWS java.vm.specification.version=1.0 os.arch=x86 java.awt.fonts= java.vendor.url=http://java.sun.com/ user.region=US file.encoding.pkg=sun.io java.home=C:\JDK1.2\JRE java.class.path=C:\Program Files\PhotoDeluxe 2.0\Adob... line.separator=
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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures  Operating System Services  User Operating System Interface  System Calls  Types of System Calls  System Programs  Operating System Design and Implementation  Operating System Structure  Virtual Machines  Operating System Debugging  Operating System Generation  System Boot Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures  Operating System Services  User Operating System Interface  System Calls  Types of System Calls  System Programs  Operating System Design and Implementation  Operating System Structure  Virtual Machines  Operating System Debugging  Operating System Generation  System Boot Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures  Operating System Services  User Operating System Interface  System Calls  Types of System Calls  System Programs  Operating System Design and Implementation  Operating System Structure  Virtual Machines  Operating System Debugging  Operating System Generation  System Boot Operating System Concepts Essentials – 8th Edition 2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2011
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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures  Operating System Services  User Operating System Interface  System Calls  Types of System Calls  System Programs  Operating System Design and Implementation  Operating System Structure  Operating System Debugging  System Boot Operating System Concepts – 9th Edition 2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne
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Objectives  Describe the physical structure of secondary and tertiary storage devices and the resulting effects on the uses of the devices  Explain the performance characteristics of mass- storage devices  Discuss operating-system services provided for mass storage, including RAID and HSM Operating System Concepts with Java – 8th Edition 12.3 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Operating System Design and Implementation  Design and Implementation of OS not “solvable”, but some approaches have proven successful  Internal structure of different Operating Systems can vary widely  Start by defining goals and specifications  Affected by choice of hardware, type of system  User goals and System goals  User goals – operating system should be convenient to use, easy to learn, reliable, safe, and fast  System goals – operating system should be easy to design, implement, and maintain, as well as flexible, reliable, error-free, and efficient Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 2.30 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Operating System Design and Implementation  Design and Implementation of OS not “solvable”, but some approaches have proven successful  Internal structure of different Operating Systems can vary widely  Start by defining goals and specifications  Affected by choice of hardware, type of system  User goals and System goals  User goals – operating system should be convenient to use, easy to learn, reliable, safe, and fast  System goals – operating system should be easy to design, implement, and maintain, as well as flexible, reliable, error-free, and efficient Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 2.27 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Chapter 1: Introduction  What Operating Systems Do  Computer-System Organization  Computer-System Architecture  Operating-System Structure  Operating-System Operations  Process Management  Memory Management  Storage Management  Protection and Security  Distributed Systems  Special-Purpose Systems  Computing Environments  Open-Source Operating Systems Operating System Concepts with Java – 8th Edition 1.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Operating-System Operations  Interrupt driven by hardware  Software error or request creates exception or trap  Division by zero, request for operating system service  Other process problems include infinite loop, processes modifying each other or the operating system  Dual-mode operation allows OS to protect itself and other system components  User mode and kernel mode  Mode bit provided by hardware  Provides ability to distinguish when system is running user code or kernel code  Some instructions designated as privileged, only executable in kernel mode  System call changes mode to kernel, return from call resets it to user Operating System Concepts with Java – 8th Edition 1.30 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Input and Output   The Linux device-oriented file system accesses disk storage through two caches:  Data is cached in the page cache, which is unified with the virtual memory system  Metadata is cached in the buffer cache, a separate cache indexed by the physical disk block Linux splits all devices into three classes:  block devices allow random access to completely independent, fixed size blocks of data  character devices include most other devices; they don’t need to support the functionality of regular files  network devices are interfaced via the kernel’s networking subsystem Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 21.53 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Operating System Services  Operating systems provide an environment for execution of programs and services to programs and users  One set of operating-system services provides functions that are helpful to the user:  User interface - Almost all operating systems have a user interface (UI).  Varies between Command-Line (CLI), Graphics User Interface (GUI), Batch  Program execution - The system must be able to load a program into memory and to run that program, end execution, either normally or abnormally (indicating error)  I/O operations - A running program may require I/O, which may involve a file or an I/O device  File-system manipulation - The file system is of particular interest. Programs need to read and write files and directories, create and delete them, search them, list file Information, permission management. Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 2.4 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Operating System Design and Implementation  Design and Implementation of OS not “solvable”, but some approaches have proven successful  Internal structure of different Operating Systems can vary widely  Start by defining goals and specifications  Affected by choice of hardware, type of system  User goals and System goals  User goals – operating system should be convenient to use, easy to learn, reliable, safe, and fast  System goals – operating system should be easy to design, implement, and maintain, as well as flexible, reliable, error-free, and efficient Operating System Concepts Essentials – 8th Edition 2.30 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2011
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Operating System Services (Cont.)  Another set of OS functions exists for ensuring the efficient operation of the system itself via resource sharing  Resource allocation - When multiple users or multiple jobs running concurrently, resources must be allocated to each of them  Many types of resources - Some (such as CPU cycles, main memory, and file storage) may have special allocation code, others (such as I/O devices) may have general request and release code  Accounting - To keep track of which users use how much and what kinds of computer resources  Protection and security - The owners of information stored in a multiuser or networked computer system may want to control use of that information, concurrent processes should not interfere with each other  Protection involves ensuring that all access to system resources is controlled  Security of the system from outsiders requires user authentication, extends to defending external I/O devices from invalid access attempts  If a system is to be protected and secure, precautions must be instituted throughout it. A chain is only as strong as its weakest link. Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 2.6 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Operating System Services (Cont)  Another set of OS functions exists for ensuring the efficient operation of the system itself via resource sharing  Resource allocation - When multiple users or multiple jobs running concurrently, resources must be allocated to each of them  Many types of resources - Some (such as CPU cycles, main memory, and file storage) may have special allocation code, others (such as I/O devices) may have general request and release code  Accounting - To keep track of which users use how much and what kinds of computer resources  Protection and security - The owners of information stored in a multiuser or networked computer system may want to control use of that information, concurrent processes should not interfere with each other  Protection involves ensuring that all access to system resources is controlled  Security of the system from outsiders requires user authentication, extends to defending external I/O devices from invalid access attempts  If a system is to be protected and secure, precautions must be instituted throughout it. A chain is only as strong as its weakest link. Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 2.7 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Reasoning Capabilities Buildfile: build.xml init: compile: Finding Transitive Closures (RDFS reasoning) dist: [jar] Building jar: /home/aks1/software/eclipse/workspace/ontojena/dist/lib/ontojena.jar Inferred Triples vehicle run: [java] MODEL OK [java] Resource: http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine Land-vehicle [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#all) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#physical-object) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#inanimate) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#wheeled-vehicle) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#engine-propelled-vehicle) Engine-propelled--vehicle Wheeled--vehicle [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#wheeled-engine-vehicle) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#artifact) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#object) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#land-vehicle) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#vehicle) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#truck) Wheeled-engine-vehicle [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:label ' "a truck with equipment for fighting fires"') [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdf:type owl:Class) [java] fire-engine recognized as subclas of vehicle BUILD SUCCESSFUL Total time: 10 seconds real 0m11.144s user 0m9.530s sys 0m0.190s [[email protected] ontojena]$ Truck Fire-engine
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Class Hierarchy [http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4.2/docs/api/java/lang/Throwable.html java.lang.Object    |    +--java.lang.Throwable          |          +--java.lang.Exception          |     |          |     +--java.lang.ClassNotFoundException          |     |          |     +--java.io.IOException          |     |     |          |     |     +--java.io.FileNotFoundException          |     |          |     +--java.lang.RuntimeException          |           |          |           +--java.lang.NullPointerException          |           +--java.lang.ArithmeticException           |           +--java.lang.IllegalArgumentException          |           +--java.lang.IndexOutOfBoundsException          |                 |          |                 +--java.lang.ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException          |          +--java.lang.Error                |                +--java.lang.VirtualMachineError                      |                      +--java.lang.OutOfMemoryError  
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Operating System Services  Operating systems provide an environment for execution of programs and services to programs and users  One set of operating-system services provides functions that are helpful to the user:  User interface - Almost all operating systems have a user interface (UI).  Varies between Command-Line (CLI), Graphics User Interface (GUI), Batch  Program execution - The system must be able to load a program into memory and to run that program, end execution, either normally or abnormally (indicating error)  I/O operations - A running program may require I/O, which may involve a file or an I/O device  File-system manipulation - The file system is of particular interest. Programs need to read and write files and directories, create and delete them, search them, list file Information, permission management. Operating System Concepts Essentials – 8th Edition 2.4 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2011
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Chapter 1: Introduction  What Operating Systems Do  Computer-System Organization  Computer-System Architecture  Operating-System Structure  Operating-System Operations  Process Management  Memory Management  Storage Management  Protection and Security  Distributed Systems  Special-Purpose Systems  Computing Environments  Open-Source Operating Systems Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 1.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Operating-System Operations Interrupt driven by hardware  Software error or request creates exception or trap  Division by zero, request for operating system service  Other process problems include infinite loop, processes modifying each other or the operating system  Dual-mode operation allows OS to protect itself and other system components  User mode and kernel mode  Mode bit provided by hardware  Provides ability to distinguish when system is running user code or kernel code  Some instructions designated as privileged, only executable in kernel mode  System call changes mode to kernel, return from call resets it to user  Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 1.28 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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