Processor Transistor Count (from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transistor_count) Processor AM LaCASA Transistor count Date of introduction Manufactu -rer Processor Transistor count Date of introduction Manufacturer Intel 4004 2300 1971 Intel Itanium 25 000 000 2001 Intel Intel 8008 2500 1972 Intel Barton 54 300 000 2003 AMD Intel 8080 4500 1974 Intel AMD K8 105 900 000 2003 AMD Intel 8088 29 000 1978 Intel Itanium 2 220 000 000 2003 Intel Intel 80286 134 000 1982 Intel 592 000 000 2004 Intel Intel 80386 275 000 1985 Intel Itanium 2 with 9MB cache Intel 80486 1 200 000 1989 Intel Cell 241 000 000 2006 Sony/IBM/ Toshiba Pentium 3 100 000 1993 Intel Core 2 Duo 291 000 000 2006 Intel AMD K5 4 300 000 1996 AMD Core 2 Quadro 582 000 000 2006 Intel Pentium II 7 500 000 1997 Intel 1 700 000 000 2006 Intel AMD K6 8 800 000 1997 AMD Pentium III 9 500 000 1999 Intel AMD K6-II I 21 300 000 1999 AMD AMD K7 22 000 000 1999 AMD Pentium 4 42 000 000 2000 Intel Dual-Core Itanium 2 23
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C:\UMBC\331\java> java.ext.dirs=C:\JDK1.2\JRE\lib\ext java.io.tmpdir=C:\WINDOWS\TEMP\ os.name=Windows 95 java.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. java.awt.printerjob=sun.awt.windows.WPrinterJob java.library.path=C:\JDK1.2\BIN;.;C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM;C:\... java.vm.specification.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. sun.io.unicode.encoding=UnicodeLittle file.encoding=Cp1252 java.specification.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. user.language=en user.name=nicholas java.vendor.url.bug=http://java.sun.com/cgi-bin/bugreport... java.vm.name=Classic VM java.class.version=46.0 java.vm.specification.name=Java Virtual Machine Specification sun.boot.library.path=C:\JDK1.2\JRE\bin os.version=4.10 java.vm.version=1.2 java.vm.info=build JDK-1.2-V, native threads, symcjit java.compiler=symcjit path.separator=; file.separator=\ user.dir=C:\UMBC\331\java sun.boot.class.path=C:\JDK1.2\JRE\lib\rt.jar;C:\JDK1.2\JR... user.name=nicholas user.home=C:\WINDOWS C:\UMBC\331\java>java envSnoop -- listing properties -java.specification.name=Java Platform API Specification awt.toolkit=sun.awt.windows.WToolkit java.version=1.2 java.awt.graphicsenv=sun.awt.Win32GraphicsEnvironment user.timezone=America/New_York java.specification.version=1.2 java.vm.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. user.home=C:\WINDOWS java.vm.specification.version=1.0 os.arch=x86 java.awt.fonts= java.vendor.url=http://java.sun.com/ user.region=US file.encoding.pkg=sun.io java.home=C:\JDK1.2\JRE java.class.path=C:\Program Files\PhotoDeluxe 2.0\Adob... line.separator=
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Historical: 2004 Technology • World’s highest performance 2004 desktop processor - Intel Pentium 4 • Operated @ 2.8-3.4GHz • Built with 0.13um technology, 533MHz system bus • Hyper-pipelined technology - longer pipeline boosts speed • Intel released retooled version of Pentium 4 code-named Prescott - came with 31-stage pipeline, functions like internal assembly line (Older Pentium 4s had only 20-stage pipeline Pentium III had ten-stage pipeline) • Intel developed Pentium M - energy-efficient chip for notebooks, shared characteristics of both Pentium III & 4 • Pentium 4’s feature enhanced floating point and Multimedia Performance for Digital Lifestyle – Reduced time required to encode digital media e.g. music, pictures, movies. Processor Cost = $508 in 2004, slashed by average $200 in 2005
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Recent Intel Processors • • • • • • • • 1993: Pentium processor (dual CPUs) 1995: Pentium Pro (for high-end servers) 1996: Pentium II (single-edge connector) 1998: Pentium II Xeon (multiple CPUs) 1999: Celeron (stripped down Pentium II) 1999: Pentium III (1GHz, 512K L2 cache) 1999: Pentium III Xeon (high-end servers) 2000: Pentium 4 (new SIMD instructions)
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Later Intel Processors • • • • • • • • 1993: Pentium processor (dual CPUs) 1995: Pentium Pro (for high-end servers) 1996: Pentium II (single-edge connector) 1998: Pentium II Xeon (multiple CPUs) 1999: Celeron (stripped down Pentium II) 1999: Pentium III (1GHz, 512K L2 cache) 1999: Pentium III Xeon (high-end servers) 2001: Pentium 4 (new SIMD instructions)
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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures  Operating System Services  User Operating System Interface  System Calls  Types of System Calls  System Programs  Operating System Design and Implementation  Operating System Structure  Virtual Machines  Operating System Debugging  Operating System Generation  System Boot Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures  Operating System Services  User Operating System Interface  System Calls  Types of System Calls  System Programs  Operating System Design and Implementation  Operating System Structure  Virtual Machines  Operating System Debugging  Operating System Generation  System Boot Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures  Operating System Services  User Operating System Interface  System Calls  Types of System Calls  System Programs  Operating System Design and Implementation  Operating System Structure  Virtual Machines  Operating System Debugging  Operating System Generation  System Boot Operating System Concepts Essentials – 8th Edition 2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2011
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COMPARISON OF ENERGY USAGE Processor Year Clock Rate Pipeline Cores/ Stages Chip Power (Watts) Intel 486 1989 25 MHz 5 1 5 Intel Pentium 1993 66 MHz 5 1 10 Pentium Pro 1997 200 MHz 10 1 29 Pentium 4 Willamette 2001 2000 MHz 22 1 75 Pentium 4 Prescott 2004 3600 MHz 31 1 103 Intel Core 2006 2930 MHz 14 2 75 Intel Core i5 Nehalem 2010 3300 MHz 14 1 87 Intel Core i5 Ivy Bridge 2012 3400 MHz 14 8 77 Excerpted from: Computer Organization and Design, 5th Ed. Patterson & Hennessy, Morgan Kaufmann, 2014, page 344.
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Intel Pentium Processor Event-Vector Table Operating System Concepts with Java – 8th Edition 12.31 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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