C:\UMBC\331\java> java.ext.dirs=C:\JDK1.2\JRE\lib\ext java.io.tmpdir=C:\WINDOWS\TEMP\ os.name=Windows 95 java.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. java.awt.printerjob=sun.awt.windows.WPrinterJob java.library.path=C:\JDK1.2\BIN;.;C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM;C:\... java.vm.specification.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. sun.io.unicode.encoding=UnicodeLittle file.encoding=Cp1252 java.specification.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. user.language=en user.name=nicholas java.vendor.url.bug=http://java.sun.com/cgi-bin/bugreport... java.vm.name=Classic VM java.class.version=46.0 java.vm.specification.name=Java Virtual Machine Specification sun.boot.library.path=C:\JDK1.2\JRE\bin os.version=4.10 java.vm.version=1.2 java.vm.info=build JDK-1.2-V, native threads, symcjit java.compiler=symcjit path.separator=; file.separator=\ user.dir=C:\UMBC\331\java sun.boot.class.path=C:\JDK1.2\JRE\lib\rt.jar;C:\JDK1.2\JR... user.name=nicholas user.home=C:\WINDOWS C:\UMBC\331\java>java envSnoop -- listing properties -java.specification.name=Java Platform API Specification awt.toolkit=sun.awt.windows.WToolkit java.version=1.2 java.awt.graphicsenv=sun.awt.Win32GraphicsEnvironment user.timezone=America/New_York java.specification.version=1.2 java.vm.vendor=Sun Microsystems Inc. user.home=C:\WINDOWS java.vm.specification.version=1.0 os.arch=x86 java.awt.fonts= java.vendor.url=http://java.sun.com/ user.region=US file.encoding.pkg=sun.io java.home=C:\JDK1.2\JRE java.class.path=C:\Program Files\PhotoDeluxe 2.0\Adob... line.separator=
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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures  Operating System Services  User Operating System Interface  System Calls  Types of System Calls  System Programs  Operating System Design and Implementation  Operating System Structure  Virtual Machines  Operating System Debugging  Operating System Generation  System Boot Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures  Operating System Services  User Operating System Interface  System Calls  Types of System Calls  System Programs  Operating System Design and Implementation  Operating System Structure  Virtual Machines  Operating System Debugging  Operating System Generation  System Boot Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Introduction to the new mainframe Storage areas in an address space z/OS V1R13 BAR Problem (user) programs Run here LINE CVT (offset 16 (hex10) within PSA) All storage above 2 GB This area is called high virtual storage and is addressable only by programs running in 64-bit mode. It is divided by the high virtual shared area, which is an area of installation-defined size that can be used to establish cross-address space viewable connections to obtained areas within this area. Extended areas above 16 MB This range of areas, which lies above the line (16 MB) but below the bar (2 GB), is a kind of “mirror image” of the common area below 16 MB. They have the same attributes as their equivalent areas below the line, but because of the additional storage above the line, their sizes are much larger. Nucleus This is a key 0, read-only area of common storage that contains operating system control programs. System queue area (SQA) (2048 MBs)This area contains system level (key 0) data accessed by multiple address spaces. The SQA area is not pageable (fixed), which means that it resides in central storage until it is freed by the requesting program. The size of the SQA area is predefined by the installation and cannot change while the operating system is active. Yet it has the unique ability to “overflow” into the CSA area as long as there is unused CSA storage that can be converted to SQA. Pageable link pack area (PLPA), fixed link pack area (FLPA), and modified link pack area (MLPA) This area contains the link pack areas (the pageable link pack area, fixed link pack area, and modified link pack area), which contain system level programs that are often run by multiple address spaces. For this reason, the link pack areas reside in the common area that is addressable by every address space, therefore eliminating the need for each address space to have its own copy of the program. This storage area is below the line and is therefore addressable by programs running in 24-bit mode. CSA This portion of common area storage (addressable by all address spaces) is available to all applications. The CSA is often used to contain data frequently accessed by multiple address spaces. The size of the CSA area is established at system initialization time (IPL) and cannot change while the operating system is active. LSQA/SWA/subpool 228/subpool 230 This assortment of subpools, each with specific attributes, is used primarily by system functions when the functions require address space level storage isolation. Being below the line, these areas are addressable by programs running in 24-bit mode. User Region This area is obtainable by any program running in the user’s address space, including user key programs. It resides below the line and is therefore addressable by programs running in 24-bit mode. System Region This small area (usually only four pages) is reserved for use by the region control task of each address space. Prefixed Save Area (PSA) This area is often referred to as “Low Core.” The PSA is a common area of virtual storage from address zero through 8191 in every address space. There is one unique PSA for every processor installed in a system. The PSA maps architecturally fixed hardware and software storage locations for the processor. Because there is a unique PSA for each processor, from the view of a program running on z/OS, the contents of the PSA can change any time the program is dispatched on a different processor. This feature is unique to the PSA area and is accomplished through a unique DAT manipulation technique called prefixing. © Copyright IBM Corp., 2010. All rights reserved. Page 42 of 85
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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures  Operating System Services  User Operating System Interface  System Calls  Types of System Calls  System Programs  Operating System Design and Implementation  Operating System Structure  Virtual Machines  Operating System Debugging  Operating System Generation  System Boot Operating System Concepts Essentials – 8th Edition 2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2011
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Introduction to the new mainframe Physical storage used by z/OS Conceptually, mainframes and all other computers have two types of physical storage: • Physical storage located on the mainframe processor itself. - This is memory, often called processor storage, real storage, central storage (CSTOR) or MAIN storage. • Physical storage external to the mainframe, including storage on direct access devices, such as disk drives, and tape drives. - For z/OS usage, this storage is called page storage or auxiliary storage. One difference between the two kinds of storage relates to the way in which they are accessed, as follows: • Central storage is accessed synchronously with the processor, that is, the processor must wait while data is retrieved from central storage. • Auxiliary storage is accessed asynchronously. The processor accesses auxiliary storage through an input/output (I/O) request, which is scheduled to run amid other work requests in the system. - During an I/O request, the processor is free to execute other, unrelated work. Many computers also have a fast memory, local to the processor, called the processor cache. The cache is not visible to the programmer or application programs or even the operating system directly. © Copyright IBM Corp., 2010. All rights reserved. Page 17 of 85
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Chapter 1: Introduction  What Operating Systems Do  Computer-System Organization  Computer-System Architecture  Operating-System Structure  Operating-System Operations  Process Management  Memory Management  Storage Management  Protection and Security  Distributed Systems  Special-Purpose Systems  Computing Environments  Open-Source Operating Systems Operating System Concepts with Java – 8th Edition 1.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Time Barbie Tootle Hayes Cape Cartoon Room I Cartoon Room II Suzanne M. Scharer Rosa M. Ailabouni Monday Aug 5th, 2013 10:10-11:50 A1L-A Analog Circuits I Chr: Ming Gu, Shantanu Chakrabartty Track: Analog and Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits A1L-B Low Power Digital Circuit Design Techniques A1L-C Chr: Joanne Degroat Student Contest I Track: Digital Integrated Chr: Mohammed Ismail Circuits, SoC and NoC Track: INVITED ONLY A1L-D Design and Analysis for Power Systems and Power Electronics Chr: Hoi Lee, Ayman Fayed Track: Power Systems and Power Electronics A1L-E Design and Analysis of Linear and Non-Linear Systems Chr: Samuel Palermo Track: Linear and Non-linear Circuits and Systems A1L-F Emerging Technologues Chr: Khaled Salama Track: Emerging Technologies Monday Aug 5th, 2013 13:10-14:50 A2L-A Analog Circuits II Chr: Ming Gu, Shantanu Chakrabartty Track: Analog and Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits A2L-B Low Power VLSI Design Methodology Chr: Genevieve Sapijaszko Track: Digital Integrated Circuits, SoC and NoC A2L-C Student Contest II Chr: Sleiman Bou-Sleiman Track: INVITED ONLY A2L-D Power Management and Energy Harvesting Chr: Ayman Fayed, Hoi Lee Track: Power Management and Energy Harvesting A2L-E Oscillators and Chaotic Systems Chr: Samuel Palermo, Warsame Ali Track: Linear and Non-linear Circuits and Systems A2L-F Bioengineering Systems Chr: Khaled Salama Track: Bioengineering Systems and Bio Chips A4L-A Analog Design Techniques I Chr: Dong Ha Track: Analog and Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits A4L-B Imaging and Wireless Sensors Chr: Igor Filanovsky Track: Analog and Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits A4L-C Special Session: Characterization of Nano Materials and Circuits Chr: Nayla El-Kork Track: SPECIAL SESSION A4L-D Special Session: Power Management and Energy Harvesting Chr: Paul Furth Track: SPECIAL SESSION A4L-E Communication and Signal Processing Circuits Chr: Samuel Palermo Track: Linear and Non-linear Circuits and Systems A4L-F Sensing and Measurement of Biological Signals Chr: Hoda Abdel-Aty-Zohdy Track: Bioengineering Systems and Bio Chips B2L-A Analog Design Techniques II Chr: Valencia Koomson Track: Analog and Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits B2L-B VLSI Design Reliability Chr: Shantanu Chakrabartty, Gursharan Reehal Track: Digital Integrated Circuits, SoC and NoC B2L-D B2L-C Special Session: University and Delta-Sigma Modulators Industry Training in the Art of Chr: Vishal Saxena Electronics Track: Analog and Mixed Signal Chr: Steven Bibyk Integrated Circuits Track: SPECIAL SESSION B2L-E Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Chr: Nathan Neihart, Mona Hella Track: RFICs, Microwave, and Optical Systems B2L-F Bio-inspired Green Technologies Chr: Hoda Abdel-Aty-Zohdy Track: Bio-inspired Green Technologies B3L-A Analog Design Techniques III Chr: Valencia Koomson Track: Analog and Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits B3L-B VLSI Design, Routing, and Testing Chr: Nader Rafla Track: Programmable Logic, VLSI, CAD and Layout B3L-C Special Session: High-Precision and High-Speed Data Converters I Chr: Samuel Palermo Track: SPECIAL SESSION B3L-D B3L-E Special Session: Advancing the RF/Optical Devices and Circuits Frontiers of Solar Energy Chr: Mona Hella, Nathan Neihart Chr: Michael Soderstrand Track: RFICs, Microwave, and Track: SPECIAL SESSION Optical Systems B5L-A Nyquist-Rate Data Converters Chr: Vishal Saxena Track: Analog and Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits B5L-B Digital Circuits Chr: Nader Rafla Track: Programmable Logic, VLSI, CAD and Layout B5L-C Special Session: High-Precision and High-Speed Data Converters II Chr: Samuel Palermo Track: SPECIAL SESSION B5L-D Special Session: RF-FPGA Circuits and Systems for Enhancing Access to Radio Spectrum (CAS-EARS) Chr: Arjuna Madanayake, Vijay Devabhaktuni Track: SPECIAL SESSION B5L-E B5L-F Analog and RF Circuit Memristors, DG-MOSFETS and Techniques Graphine FETs Chr: Igor Filanovsky Chr: Reyad El-Khazali Track: Analog and Mixed Signal Track: Nanoelectronics and Integrated Circuits Nanotechnology C2L-A Phase Locked Loops Chr: Chung-Chih Hung Track: Analog and Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits C2L-B Computer Arithmetic and Cryptography Chr: George Purdy Track: Programmable Logic, VLSI, CAD and Layout C2L-C Special Session: Reversible Computing Chr: Himanshu Thapliyal Track: SPECIAL SESSION C2L-D Special Session: Self-healing and Self-Adaptive Circuits and Systems Chr: Abhilash Goyal, Abhijit Chatterjee Track: SPECIAL SESSION C2L-E Digital Signal Processing-Media and Control Chr: Wasfy Mikhael, Steven Bibyk Track: Digital Signal Processing C2L-F Advances in Communications and Wireless Systems Chr: Sami Muhaidat Track: Communication and Wireless Systems C3L-A SAR Analog-to-Digital Converters Chr: Vishal Saxena Track: Analog and Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits C3L-B Real Time Systems Chr: Brian Dupaix, Abhilash Goyal Track: System Architectures C3L-C Image Processing and Interpretation Chr: Annajirao Garimella Track: Image Processing and Multimedia Systems C3L-D Special Session: Verification and Trusted Mixed Signal Electronics Development Chr: Greg Creech, Steven Bibyk Track: SPECIAL SESSION C3L-E Digital Signal Processing I Chr: Ying Liu Track: Digital Signal Processing C3L-F Wireless Systems I Chr: Sami Muhaidat Track: Communication and Wireless Systems C5L-A Wireless Systems II Chr: Sami Muhaidat Track: Communication and Wireless Systems C5L-B System Architectures Chr: Swarup Bhunia, Abhilash Goyal Track: System Architectures C5L-C Image Embedding Compression and Analysis Chr: Annajirao Garimella Track: Image Processing and Multimedia Systems C5L-D Low Power Datapath Design Chr: Wasfy Mikhael Track: Digital Integrated Circuits, SoC and NoC C5L-E Digital Signal Processing II Chr: Moataz AbdelWahab Track: Digital Signal Processing C5L-F Advances in Control Systems, Mechatronics, and Robotics Chr: Charna Parkey, Genevieve Sapijaszko Track: Control Systems, Mechatronics, and Robotics Monday Aug 5th, 2013 16:00-17:40 Tuesday Aug 6th, 2013 10:10-11:50 Tuesday Aug 6th, 2013 13:10-14:50 Tuesday Aug 6th, 2013 16:00-17:40 Wednesday Aug 7th, 2013 10:10-11:50 Wednesday Aug 7th, 2013 13:10-14:50 Wednesday Aug 7th, 2013 16:00-17:40 B3L-F Carbon Nanotube-based Sensors and Beyond Chr: Nayla El-Kork Track: Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology 5
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Introduction to the new mainframe z/OS operating environment • An address space describes the virtual storage addressing range available to a user or program. • Two types of physical storage are available: main storage and auxiliary storage (AUX). - Main storage is also referred to as real storage or real memory. - The Real Storage Manager (RSM) controls the allocation of central storage during system initialization, and pages in user or system functions during execution. - The auxiliary storage manager controls the use of page and swap data sets. z/OS moves programs and data between central storage and auxiliary storage through processes called paging and swapping. • z/OS dispatches work for execution (not shown in previous the figure), that is, it selects programs to be run based on priority and the ability to execute and then loads the program and data into central storage. - All program instructions and data must be in central storage when executing. • An extensive set of facilities manages files stored on direct access storage devices (DASDs) or tape cartridges. • Operators use consoles to start and stop z/OS, enter commands, and manage the operating system. © Copyright IBM Corp., 2010. All rights reserved. Page 19 of 85
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Chapter 1: Introduction  What Operating Systems Do  Computer-System Organization  Computer-System Architecture  Operating-System Structure  Operating-System Operations  Process Management  Memory Management  Storage Management  Protection and Security  Distributed Systems  Special-Purpose Systems  Computing Environments  Open-Source Operating Systems Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 1.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures  Operating System Services  User Operating System Interface  System Calls  Types of System Calls  System Programs  Operating System Design and Implementation  Operating System Structure  Operating System Debugging  System Boot Operating System Concepts – 9th Edition 2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne
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Objectives  Describe the physical structure of secondary and tertiary storage devices and the resulting effects on the uses of the devices  Explain the performance characteristics of mass- storage devices  Discuss operating-system services provided for mass storage, including RAID and HSM Operating System Concepts with Java – 8th Edition 12.3 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Storage Management  OS provides uniform, logical view of information storage  Abstracts physical properties to logical storage unit - file  Each medium is controlled by device (i.e., disk drive, tape drive)  Varying properties include access speed, capacity, data-transfer rate, access method (sequential or random)  File-System management  Files usually organized into directories  Access control on most systems to determine who can access what  OS activities include  Creating and deleting files and directories  Primitives to manipulate files and directories  Mapping files onto secondary storage  Backup files onto stable (non-volatile) storage media Operating System Concepts with Java – 8th Edition 1.35 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Mass-Storage Management  Usually disks used to store data that does not fit in main memory or data that must be kept for a “long” period of time  Entire speed of computer operation hinges on disk subsystem and its algorithms  OS activities   Free-space management  Storage allocation  Disk scheduling Some storage need not be fast  Tertiary storage includes optical storage, magnetic tape  Varies between WORM (write-once, read-many-times) and RW (readwrite) Operating System Concepts with Java – 8th Edition 1.36 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Operating System Services  Operating systems provide an environment for execution of programs and services to programs and users  One set of operating-system services provides functions that are helpful to the user:  User interface - Almost all operating systems have a user interface (UI).  Varies between Command-Line (CLI), Graphics User Interface (GUI), Batch  Program execution - The system must be able to load a program into memory and to run that program, end execution, either normally or abnormally (indicating error)  I/O operations - A running program may require I/O, which may involve a file or an I/O device  File-system manipulation - The file system is of particular interest. Programs need to read and write files and directories, create and delete them, search them, list file Information, permission management. Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 2.4 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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Operating System Design and Implementation  Design and Implementation of OS not “solvable”, but some approaches have proven successful  Internal structure of different Operating Systems can vary widely  Start by defining goals and specifications  Affected by choice of hardware, type of system  User goals and System goals  User goals – operating system should be convenient to use, easy to learn, reliable, safe, and fast  System goals – operating system should be easy to design, implement, and maintain, as well as flexible, reliable, error-free, and efficient Operating System Concepts – 8th Edition 2.30 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009
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