Assignment to CSR Review Groups Within an IRG, applications are assigned for review to • Standing Study Sections when the subject matter of the application matches the referral guidelines for the study section • Special Emphasis Panels (SEPs) when the subject matter does not fit into any study section, or when assignment of an application to the most appropriate study section would create a conflict of interest. Also used for special mechanisms (e.g., fellowships, SBIRs, AREAs)
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Conflict Theory  Conflict Theories are oriented toward the study of social structures and institutions. Conflict theorists see whatever order there is in society as stemming from the coercion of some members by those at the top. Maintain that society is held together in the face of conflicting interests because either (a) one group in the society has the power to enforce the rules (and thus make subordinate groups follow rules that may primarily serve the interests of the superordinate group) or (b) there are so many overlapping and divided interest groups that individuals must learn to cooperate. The overall argument made by conflict theorists, however, is that through the structure of conflict in society, order can be maintained in one of these two ways.  Social conflict assumes various forms. Competition describes a conflict over the control of resources or advantages desired by others where actual physical violence is not employed. Regulated competition is the sort of peaceful conflict which is resolved within a framework of agreed rules. Markets involve competition, both regulated and unregulated. Other conflicts may be more violent and not bound by rules, in which case they are settled by the parties mobilizing their power resources.  Conflict perspective focuses on the struggle among different social groups over scarce rewards. conflict (conflictual) - A view that sees society and social phenomena, past, present, and future, as a result of conflict (a social process). Conflict is seen as a creative, inevitable fact of social life and not merely a destructive avoidable deviation. Conflict is generally held to be inevitable because of the inherent limitation of a finite universe of "knowable" social reality and because of misunderstandings in communication. Conflict is usually direct conscious struggle between individuals or groups for the same goal (as compared with competition, which can take place without contact and individuals and groups being aware of others striving for the same goal) with the intent of the individuals or groups involved to inhibit the goal striving and goal attainment of others.
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