Water Strider Body Segment Dimensions x 8 Radius Length Contact Perimeter Body (mm) (mm) (mm) Head Hemisphere 4.4 ----Body Cylinder 4.4 51.2 --Tail Cone 4.4 20.8 --          Leg 1 Segment 1 0.64 12 --Segment 2 0.32 12 --Segment 3 0.16 8 16           Leg 2 Segment 1 0.64 36 --Segment 2 0.32 36 --Segment 3 0.16 24 48           Leg 3 Segment 1 0.32 24 --Segment 2 0.16 24 --Segment 3 0.16 16 32 Total Contact   192 Perimeter*   Total Volume**     Body Mass (g)   Volume (mm3) 178.409 3114.047 421.694   15.442 3.860 0.643   46.325 11.581 1.930   7.721 1.930 1.287   3895.588 4.6747056 *Contact perimeter for Legs 1, 2, & 3 must be multiplied by 2 to account for the legs on either side of the body. **Total volume must include the volume of the body and the volume of the legs multiplied by 2 to
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Water Strider Body Segment Dimensions x 8 Radius Length Contact Perimeter Body (mm) (mm) (mm) Head Hemisphere 4.4 ----Body Cylinder 4.4 51.2 --Tail Cone 4.4 20.8 --          Leg 1 Segment 1 0.64 12 --Segment 2 0.32 12 --Segment 3 0.16 8           Leg 2 Segment 1 0.64 36 --Segment 2 0.32 36 --Segment 3 0.16 24           Leg 3 Segment 1 0.32 24 --Segment 2 0.16 24 --Segment 3 0.16 16 Total Contact   Perimeter*   Total Volume**     Body Mass (g)   Volume (mm3)     46.325 11.581 1.930   7.721 1.930 1.287   *Contact perimeter for Legs 1, 2, & 3 must be multiplied by 2 to account for the legs on either side of the body. **Total volume must include the volume of the body and the volume of the legs multiplied by 2 to
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Water Strider Body Segment Dimensions x 4 Radius Length Contact Perimeter Body (mm) (mm) (mm) Head Hemisphere 2.2 ----Body Cylinder 2.2 25.6 --Tail Cone 2.2 10.4 --          Leg 1 Segment 1 0.32 6 --Segment 2 0.16 6 --Segment 3 0.08 4 8           Leg 2 Segment 1 0.32 18 --Segment 2 0.16 18 --Segment 3 0.08 12 24           Leg 3 Segment 1 0.16 12 --Segment 2 0.08 12 --Segment 3 0.08 8 16 Total Contact   96 Perimeter*   Total Volume**     Body Mass (g)   Volume (mm3) 22.301 389.256 52.712   1.930 0.483 0.080   5.791 1.448 0.241   0.965 0.241 0.161   486.949 0.5843388 *Contact perimeter for Legs 1, 2, & 3 must be multiplied by 2 to account for the legs on either side of the body. **Total volume must include the volume of the body and the volume of the legs multiplied by 2 to
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Body Head Hemisphere Body Cylinder Tail Cone     Leg 1 Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3     Leg 2 Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3     Leg 3 Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3       Perimeter* Water Strider Body Segment Dimensions Radius Length Contact Perimeter (mm) (mm) (mm) 0.55 ----0.55 6.4 --0.55 2.6 --      Volume (mm3)   0.08 0.04 0.02   1.5 1.5 1.0   ----    0.08 0.04 0.02   4.5 4.5 3.0   ----- 0.090 0.023 0.004   3.0 3.0 2.0 ----- 0.04 0.02 0.02 Total Contact Total Volume** Body Mass (g)   0.015 0.004 0.003       *Contact perimeter for Legs 1, 2, & 3 must be multiplied by 2 to account for the legs on either side of the body. **Total volume must include the volume of the body and the volume of the legs multiplied by 2 to
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Water Strider Body Segment Dimensions x 2 Radius Length Contact Perimeter Body (mm) (mm) (mm) Head Hemisphere 1.1 ----Body Cylinder 1.1 12.8 --Tail Cone 1.1 5.2 --          Leg 1 Segment 1 0.16 3.0 --Segment 2 0.08 3.0 --Segment 3 0.04 2.0           Leg 2 Segment 1 0.16 9.0 --Segment 2 0.08 9.0 --Segment 3 0.04 6.0           Leg 3 Segment 1 0.08 6.0 --Segment 2 0.04 6.0 --Segment 3 0.04 4.0 Total Contact   Perimeter*   Total Volume**     Body Mass (g)   Volume (mm3)     0.724 0.181 0.030   0.121 0.030 0.020   *Contact perimeter for Legs 1, 2, & 3 must be multiplied by 2 to account for the legs on either side of the body. **Total volume must include the volume of the body and the volume of the legs multiplied by 2 to
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Water Strider Body Segment Dimensions x 4 Radius Length Contact Perimeter Body (mm) (mm) (mm) Head Hemisphere 2.2 ----Body Cylinder 2.2 25.6 --Tail Cone 2.2 10.4 --          Leg 1 Segment 1 0.32 6 --Segment 2 0.16 6 --Segment 3 0.08 4           Leg 2 Segment 1 0.32 18 --Segment 2 0.16 18 --Segment 3 0.08 12           Leg 3 Segment 1 0.16 12 --Segment 2 0.08 12 --Segment 3 0.08 8 Total Contact   Perimeter*   Total Volume**     Body Mass (g)   Volume (mm3)     5.791 1.448 0.241   0.965 0.241 0.161   *Contact perimeter for Legs 1, 2, & 3 must be multiplied by 2 to account for the legs on either side of the body. **Total volume must include the volume of the body and the volume of the legs multiplied by 2 to
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Body Head Hemisphere Body Cylinder Tail Cone     Leg 1 Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3     Leg 2 Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3     Leg 3 Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3       Perimeter* Water Strider Body Segment Dimensions Radius Length Contact Perimeter (mm) (mm) (mm) 0.55 ----0.55 6.4 --0.55 2.6 --      Volume (mm3) 0.348 6.082 0.824   0.08 0.04 0.02   1.5 1.5 1.0   ----2   0.030 0.008 0.001   0.08 0.04 0.02   4.5 4.5 3.0   ----6   0.090 0.023 0.004   3.0 3.0 2.0 ----4 0.015 0.004 0.003 24       7.61 0.009132 0.04 0.02 0.02 Total Contact Total Volume** Body Mass (g) *Contact perimeter for Legs 1, 2, & 3 must be multiplied by 2 to account for the legs on either side of the body. **Total volume must include the volume of the body and the volume of the legs multiplied by 2 to
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Water Strider Body Segment Dimensions x 2 Radius Length Contact Perimeter Body (mm) (mm) (mm) Head Hemisphere 1.1 ----Body Cylinder 1.1 12.8 --Tail Cone 1.1 5.2 --          Leg 1 Segment 1 0.16 3.0 --Segment 2 0.08 3.0 --Segment 3 0.04 2.0 4           Leg 2 Segment 1 0.16 9.0 --Segment 2 0.08 9.0 --Segment 3 0.04 6.0 12           Leg 3 Segment 1 0.08 6.0 --Segment 2 0.04 6.0 --Segment 3 0.04 4.0 8 Total Contact   48 Perimeter*   Total Volume**     Body Mass (g)   Volume (mm3) 2.788 48.657 6.589   0.241 0.060 0.010   0.724 0.181 0.030   0.121 0.030 0.020   60.868 0.0730416 *Contact perimeter for Legs 1, 2, & 3 must be multiplied by 2 to account for the legs on either side of the body. **Total volume must include the volume of the body and the volume of the legs multiplied by 2 to
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Body Head Hemisphere Body Cylinder Tail Cone     Leg 1 Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3     Leg 2 Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3     Leg 3 Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3       Perimeter* Water Strider Body Segment Dimensions Radius Length Contact Perimeter (mm) (mm) (mm) 0.55 ----0.55 6.4 --0.55 2.6 --      0.08 0.04 0.02   1.5 1.5 1.0   ----- 0.08 0.04 0.02   4.5 4.5 3.0   ----- 3.0 3.0 2.0 ----- 0.04 0.02 0.02 Total Contact Total Volume** Body Mass (g)     Volume (mm3)             *Contact perimeter for Legs 1, 2, & 3 must be multiplied by 2 to account for the legs on either side of the body. **Total volume must include the volume of the body and the volume of the legs multiplied by 2 to
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Body Head Hemisphere Body Cylinder Tail Cone     Leg 1 Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3     Leg 2 Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3     Leg 3 Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3       Perimeter* Water Strider Body Segment Dimensions Radius Length Contact Perimeter (mm) (mm) (mm) 0.55 ----0.55 6.4 --0.55 2.6 --      Volume (mm3)   0.08 0.04 0.02   1.5 1.5 1.0   ----2     0.08 0.04 0.02   4.5 4.5 3.0   ----6     3.0 3.0 2.0 ----4 0.04 0.02 0.02 Total Contact Total Volume** Body Mass (g) 24       *Contact perimeter for Legs 1, 2, & 3 must be multiplied by 2 to account for the legs on either side of the body. **Total volume must include the volume of the body and the volume of the legs multiplied by 2 to
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Body Head Hemisphere Body Cylinder Tail Cone     Leg 1 Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3     Leg 2 Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3     Leg 3 Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3       Perimeter* Water Strider Body Segment Dimensions Radius Length Contact Perimeter (mm) (mm) (mm) 0.55 ----0.55 6.4 --0.55 2.6 --      Volume (mm3)   0.08 0.04 0.02   1.5 1.5 1.0   ----2     0.08 0.04 0.02   4.5 4.5 3.0   ----6   0.090 0.023 0.004   3.0 3.0 2.0 ----4 0.015 0.004 0.003 24   0.04 0.02 0.02 Total Contact Total Volume** Body Mass (g)     *Contact perimeter for Legs 1, 2, & 3 must be multiplied by 2 to account for the legs on either side of the body. **Total volume must include the volume of the body and the volume of the legs multiplied by 2 to
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Body Head Hemisphere Body Cylinder Tail Cone     Leg 1 Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3     Leg 2 Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3     Leg 3 Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3       Perimeter* Water Strider Body Segment Dimensions Radius Length Contact Perimeter (mm) (mm) (mm) 0.55 ----0.55 6.4 --0.55 2.6 --      Volume (mm3) 0.348 6.082 0.824   0.08 0.04 0.02   1.5 1.5 1.0   ----2   0.030 0.008 0.001   0.08 0.04 0.02   4.5 4.5 3.0   ----6   0.090 0.023 0.004   3.0 3.0 2.0 ----4 0.015 0.004 0.003 24       7.61 0.009132 0.04 0.02 0.02 Total Contact Total Volume** Body Mass (g) *Contact perimeter for Legs 1, 2, & 3 must be multiplied by 2 to account for the legs on either side of the body. **Total volume must include the volume of the body and the volume of the legs multiplied by 2 to
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Some Random Results Sample means from 15 trials: A B C 1 Random # Outcome Profit 2 0.4619 Tail -$1.00 3 0.4118 Tail -$1.00 4 0.5815 Tail -$1.00 5 0.9792 Tail -$1.00 6 0.2852 Head $3.00 7 0.9064 Tail -$1.00 8 0.9855 Tail -$1.00 9 0.9988 Tail -$1.00 10 0.2206 Head $3.00 11 0.0986 Head $3.00 12 0.9696 Tail -$1.00 13 0.8026 Tail -$1.00 14 0.8189 Tail -$1.00 15 0.7137 Tail -$1.00 16 0.9258 Tail -$1.00 17 -$0.20 D E =AVERAGE(C2:C16) Operations -- Prof. Juran F A B C 1 Random # Outcome Profit 2 0.1979 Head $3.00 3 0.9185 Tail -$1.00 4 0.4688 Tail -$1.00 5 0.6670 Tail -$1.00 6 0.0902 Head $3.00 7 0.3757 Tail -$1.00 8 0.1492 Head $3.00 9 0.4518 Tail -$1.00 10 0.8503 Tail -$1.00 11 0.1392 Head $3.00 12 0.1924 Head $3.00 13 0.0179 Head $3.00 14 0.4799 Tail -$1.00 15 0.5064 Tail -$1.00 16 0.3051 Head $3.00 17 $0.87 D E F =AVERAGE(C2:C16) 17 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
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Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9  N/A b  153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  34.9 Time 0 c  54.3 N/A d  6.4 e   Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a   N/A b   Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a   Time 1 c     d   e   Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3)   Volume (mm3)     Volume (mm3)   Volume (mm3)       0.132     
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Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9  N/A b  153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  34.9 Time 0 c  54.3 N/A d  6.4 e  12.2 Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a   N/A b   Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a   Time 1 c     d   e   Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3)  195916.8 Volume (mm3)  84289.7  180206.5 Volume (mm3)   Volume (mm3)       0.132     
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Goliath Grouper Suction Feeding Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a 34.9  N/A b  153.6 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  34.9 Time 0 c  54.3 N/A d  6.4 e 12.2 Volume of feeding mechanism before expansion (t0) Cone A Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  39.5 N/A b  161.3 Cone B Length (mm) Area (mm2) a  39.5 Time 1 c  56.4   d  32.6 e   Volume of feeding mechanism at maximum expansion (t1) Volume change during feeding event (mm3) Duration of feeding event (sec) Area of mouth at maximum expansion (t1) (mm2) Velocity of water flow into mouth (mm/sec) Volume (mm3) 195916.8  Volume (mm3) 84289.7   280206.5 Volume (mm3)   Volume (mm3)        0.132    
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