Get Shutdown Status GET_SHUTDOWN_STATUS: RCA 0x20501 CDL Possibly caused by transient external event RCA 2 05 01 Description Get an integer value that tells the cause of the most recent rack shutdown. An integer is returned to be decoded as follows: 15- QCC Under Voltage V5   16- QCC Over Voltage V1.8 Full Quadrant Correlator Shutdown Status Definition 17- QCC Over Voltage V3.3 0- No Known Cause 18- QCC Over Voltage V5.0 1- Over Temperature 19- 6UBPS Over Current V3.3 2- 28V Voltage Lower Limit 20- No Cooling Air 3- 28V Voltage Upper Limit 21- Rectifier Major Error 4- Rectifier High Voltage 22- QPCC Under Voltage V3.3 5- Rectifier Low Voltage 23- QPCC Over Voltage V3.3 6- Over Voltage V1.8 24- QPCC Under Voltage V5.0 7- Over Voltage V3.3 25- QPCC Over Voltage V5.0 8- Over Voltage V5.0 26- Absolute Value of -48V Under Voltage 9- Rectifier Over Temperature 27- V1.8 Absolute Value of -48V Over Voltage 10- 9UBPS, 6UBPS, or Mezzanine Card Over Current 28- TFB Airflow Sensor Over Temperature 11- 9UBPS Over Current V3.3 29- QCC 125 MHz Clock has stopped 12- BPS Over Current V5 30- Probable Power outage. 13- QCC Under Voltage V1.8 48 Volts low plus other causes 14- QCC Under Voltage V3.3 31 Kill Signal from other Quadrants. 32 TFB 1.2V Supply Upper Current Limit Error >45.0 A 99- Multiple Causes ALMA Correlator Workshop, May 2016 9
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SWITCHING MODE POWER SUPPLY (SMPS) • The switching-mode power supply is a power supply that provides the power supply function through low loss components such as capacitors, inductors, and transformers -- and the use of switches that are in one of two states, on or off. • It offers high power conversion efficiency and design flexibility. • It can step down or step up output voltage. • The term switchmode was widely used for this type of power supply until Motorola, Inc., who used the trademark SWITCHMODE TM for products aimed at the switching-mode power supply market, started to enforce their trademark. Switching-mode power supply or switching power supply are used to avoid infringing on the trademark. • Typical switching frequencies lie in the range 1 kHz to 1 MHz, depending on the speed of the semiconductor devices. • Types of SMPS: • Buck converter: Voltage to voltage converter, step down. • Boost Converter: Voltage to voltage converter, step up. • Buck-Boost or FlyBack Converter: Voltage-Voltage, step up and down (negative voltages) • Cuk Converter: Current-Current converter, step up and down These converters typically have a full wave rectifier front-end to produce a high DC voltages
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ASCII Confirmation Program #3 ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII Characters & Strings Lesson 1 CS1313 Fall 2016 Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ 16
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ASCII Confirmation Program #4 ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code # 96 # 97 # 98 # 99 #100 #101 #102 #103 #104 #105 #106 #107 #108 #109 #110 #111 is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: ‘ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII Characters & Strings Lesson 1 CS1313 Fall 2016 Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code Code #112 #113 #114 #115 #116 #117 #118 #119 #120 #121 #122 #123 #124 #125 #126 is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: is: p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ~ 17
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Basic EE Theory Practice Charge Power supply Current Breadboards Voltage Resistor Resistance Multimeters code
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Basic EE Theory Practice Charge Power supply Current Breadboards Voltage Resistor Resistance Multimeters code
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Electronic Control Spike-Canceling Diodes • Also part of the motor driver chips are four diodes connecting from each driver output to either Vs , the motor voltage supply, or ground. These diodes perform the important function of trapping and shunting away inductive voltage spikes that naturally occur as part of any motor’s operation. • Diodes allow current to flow in one direction only. If there is a higher voltage on the anode than on the cathode, then current flows through the diode • The diodes in the motor driver chip may appear to be connected backward, but they are drawn correctly. When a motor is running, the coil of wire in its armature acts as an inductor, and when the electricity in this coil changes, voltage spikes are generated that might be of higher voltage than the Vs power supply or lower voltage than ground. Diode: current flows from higher voltages on the anode to lower voltages on the cathode, in the direction of the diode’s arrowhead. Example: suppose a voltage greater than Vs is generated by the motor on the OUT–1 line. Then the diode labeled D1 conducts, shunting this voltage to the Vs power supply. If the diodes were not present, these inductive voltage spikes would enter the voltage supply of the rest of the project circuitry, possibly doing damage to more sensitive components. Copyright Prentice Hall, 2001 36
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Phasor Transforms of Resistors Dave Shattuck University of Houston © University of Houston The phasor transform of a resistor is just a resistor. Remember that a resistor is a device with a constant ratio of voltage to current. If you take the ratio of the phasor of the voltage to the phasor of the current for a resistor, you get the resistance. The ratio of phasor voltage to phasor current is called impedance, with units of [Ohms], or [W], and using a symbol Z. The ratio of phasor current to phasor voltage is called admittance, with units of [Siemens], or [S], and using a symbol Y. For a resistor, the impedance and admittance are real. Z R R Phasor Transform RX RX Inverse Phasor Transform YR G  1 R
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Open-Circuit (or No-Load) Test Here one winding is open-circuited and voltage---usually, rated voltage at rated frequency--is applied to the other winding. Voltage, current, and power at the terminals of this winding are measured. The open circuit voltage of the second winding is also measured, and from this measurement a check on the turns ratio can be obtained. It is usually convenient to apply the test voltage to the winding that has a voltage rating equal to that of the available power source. In step-up voltage transformers, this means that the open-circuit voltage of the second winding will be higher than the applied voltage, sometimes much higher. Care must be exercised in guarding the terminals of this winding to ensure safety for test personnel and to prevent these terminals from getting close to other electrical circuits, instrumentation, grounds, and so forth. In presenting the no-load parameters obtainable from test data, it is assumed that voltage is applied to the primary and the secondary is open-circuited. The no-load power loss is equal to the wattmeter reading in this test; core loss is found by subtracting the ohmic loss in the primary, which is usually small and may be neglected in some cases. Thus, if Po, Io and Vo are the input power, current, and voltage, then the core loss is given by:
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Resistors in an AC Circuit, final The graph shows the current through and the voltage across the resistor. The current and the voltage reach their maximum values at the same time. The current and the voltage are said to be in phase. For a sinusoidal applied voltage, the current in a resistor is always in phase with the voltage across the resistor. The direction of the current has no effect on the behavior of the resistor. Resistors behave essentially the same way in both DC and AC circuits. Section 33.2
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Pull-up/Pull-down Resistor • In circuits where an input level is being detected, have a pull-up resistor can save the battery power. • In the accompanying diagram of a pull-up resistor, having the switch open allows the logic gate to sense the input voltage level without having to supply the voltage. When the switch is closed, the ground can be seen by the logic gate because of the voltage drop across the resistor. • Switching the position of the switch and the resistor will change what value the logic gate will sense when the switch is in the open position. In this case that would be a low so that is called a pull-down resistor. • In actual circuits the switch is replaced with a CMOS device resulting in an open-drain terminal. • This arrangement is very useful in 12C circuits.
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