VOMmean on WINE150hl(FA,FS,TS,AL) 0 1 1 4 2 4 3 5 4 3 5 8 6 7 7 1 8 7 _________[0 9 2 . 10) 42 low 0 high CLUS_1.1.1.1.1.1 _________[0 . 19) 56 low 10 5 [10,16) 15 low 12 high CLUS 1.1.1.1.1.2 [19,22) 1 low 12 high 11 4 But no algorithm would pick 19 as a cut! ___12 _____[0 . 13) 56 low 5 1 low 12 high But no alg would pick a 13 cut! 13 7 [13,16) 14 3 _________[0 15 3 . 16) 57 low 12 high CLUS 1.1.1.1.1 35 high CLUS 1.1.1.1.2 17 2 [16,31) 0 low 18 5 19 4 20 3 21 1 22 4 23 4 24 5 25 1 26 2 27 1 29 2 30 1 31 1 _________[0 . 31) 57 low 47 high CLUS_1.1.1.1.1 32 1 28 high CLUS 1.1.1.1.2 34 1 [31,58) 0 low 36 1 37 3 38 1 39 2 40 1 43 6 44 4 46 2 47 1 48 1 50 1 52 1 _________[0 .58) 57 low 75 high CLUS_1.1.1.1 56 1 5 high CLUS 1.1.1.2 60 1 [58,70) 0 low 63 1 65 2 _________[0 .70) 57 low 80 high CLUS_1.1.1 67 1 [70,78) 0 low 2 high CLUS 1.1.2 72 1 _________[0 .78) 57 low 82 high CLUS_1.1 74 1 82 1 7 high CLUS1.2 83 1 [78,94) 0 low 85 1 86 1 87 2 _________[0.94) 57 low 89 high CLUS_1 88 1 99 1 0 low 4 high CLUS_2 105 1 113 1 119 1 d=VOMMEAN DPP on WINE_150_HL_(FA,FSO2,TSO2,ALCOHOL). Some agglomeration required: CLUS1.1.1.1.1.1 is LOW_Quality F[0,10], else HIGH Quality F[13,119] with 15 LOW error. Classification accuracy = 90% (if it had been cut 13, 99.3% accuracy!) 7 1 8 4 STDs=(1.9,9,23,1.2) 9 4 maxSTD=23 for 10 5 11 4 d=e TS on WN150hl(FA,FS,TS,AL 12 7 13 7 14 8 _________[0 CLUS 1.1.1.1.1.1 15 2 . 16) 42 low 12 high CLUS 1.1.1.1.1.2 16 5 [16,22) 15 low 17 4 18 5 . 19 7 20 3 _________[0 . 22) 57 low 12 high CLUS_1.1.1.1.1 21 3 32 high CLUS 1.1.1.1.2 23 2 [22,33) 0 low 24 9 25 3 26 1 27 4 28 4 29 5 30 1 31 2 _________[0 . 33) 57 low 44 high CLUS_1.1.1.1.1 32 1 31 high CLUS 1.1.1.1.2 34 2 [33,60) 0 low 35 1 36 1 37 1 39 1 41 1 42 3 43 1 44 2 45 1 47 6 48 4 49 2 50 1 51 1 53 1 55 1 _________[0 .60) 57 low 75 high CLUS_1.1.1.1 59 1 5 high CLUS 1.1.1.2 63 1 [60,72) 0 low 65 1 67 2 _________[0.72) 57 low 89 high CLUS1.1.1 69 1 74 1 [72,80] high CLUS1.1 CLUS1.1.2 _________[0.80) 57 low 892 high 75 1 84 1 7 high CLUS1.2 85 1 [80,95] 86 1 87 1 88 2 _________[0.95) 57 low 89 high CLUS1 89 1 100 1 4 high CLUS2 106 1 113 1 119 1 Identical cuts and accuracy! Tells us that d=eTotal_SO2 is responsible for all separation. WINE
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References  Beck, F. D., & Shoffstall, G. W. (2005). How do rural schools fare under a high stakes testing regime? Journal Of Research In Rural Education, 20(14), 1-12.  Fan, X., & Chen, M. J. (1999). Academic achievement of rural school students: A multi-year comparison with their peers in suburban and urban schools. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 15(1), 31-46.  Howley, C. (2003). Understanding mathematics education in rural context. The Educational Forum, 67(3), 215-224.  Johnson, J. (2004). Small works in Nebraska: How poverty and the size of school systems affect school performance in Nebraska. Rural School and Community Trust.  Khattri, N., Riley, K. W., & Kane, M. B. (1997). Students at risk in poor, rural areas: A review of the research. Journal Of Research In Rural Education, 13(2), 79-100.  Lee, J., & McIntire, W. (2001). Interstate variation in the mathematics achievement of rural and nonrural students. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 16(3), 168-81.  Roza, M. (2015). Promoting productivity: Lessons from rural schools. In B. Gross & A. Jochim (Eds.), Uncovering the productivity promise of rural education. The SEA of the Future, 4., San Antonio, TX: Building State Capacity & Productivity Center at Edvance Research, Inc.  Roza, M. (2010). Educational economics: Where do $chool funds go? Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press. 17
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Entrepreneurship: is it good enough to be social? John F. McVea and Michael J. Naughton Introduction • The term Social Entrepreneurship has experienced a huge growth in influence over that last decade. The literature proposes a number of advantages to social entrepreneurship as a frame of reference: • Promoting innovation within non-profits • Leveraging and focusing scarce philanthropic resources • Faster response to strategic challenges • Infusion of business skills to non-business world • Involvement of non government assets in social problems • Creation of hybrid (blurred) organizations between for profit and non profit worlds. It is widely observed that practice has outpaced theoretical development leading to little agreement on definitions or frameworks for social entrepreneurship. We believe that widespread and unchallenged acceptance of the term Social Entrepreneurship masks some dangers and has contributed to confusion in the field. We believe that if we apply some insights from Catholic Social Teaching to the issue of social entrepreneurship we can move beyond the false dichotomy of Entrepreneurship/ Social Entrepreneurship and identify three specific entrepreneurial strategies which support a more robust discussion of the nature of the work that is entrepreneurship. We believe that the field would benefit from spending less time discussing social entrepreneurship and more time discussion the nature of the good entrepreneur. • • • • • The dangers of naïve acceptance of Social Entrepreneurship • • • The rhetorical risk: • Narrow definition: if S.E. is simply used to rebrand non-profits then much of the value of the new activities, hybrid design, stimulation of new resources and innovation is lost. • Implied dichotomy: if “good” ventures are termed “social” it can imply that other forms of entrepreneurship are “asocial” or “anti social” • Boundarylessness: In contrast, if all business activities are deemed “social”, to some degree or other, then the term loses all meaning focus on the distinctive phenomenon that is S.E. Despite these risks we are more concerned with a risk beyond rhetoric; the risk of undermining the meaning of work, particularly from the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching. While this perspective is drawn from the Catholic tradition, accepting the content of CST does not require acceptance of Catholic faith (Guitan, 2009). The three goods of social entrepreneurship • We are concerned by the side-effects of a concentration thesis that suggests that the moral responsibilities of entrepreneurship can be concentrated in a subset of businesses called social enterprises, presumably leaving other enterprise to simply concentrate on serving themselves. • We are concerned by the impact such a concentration thesis could have on the conception of the meaning of work beyond the world of social enterprise. • We are concerned with how such an approach can focus attention solely on the altruistic contributions of entrepreneurial ventures as the sole measure of their contribution to the Common Good • Instead we propose that, rather than trying to determine the difference between entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship, it would be more productive to focus on the questions “What is Good Entrepreneurship? What action and activities define that goodness?” • We further propose that, by apply the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching, we can identify three specific strategies through which entrepreneurial ventures may contribute to the Common Good thus suggesting that good entrepreneurship requires a focus on: 1. Good Goods. The primary way an entrepreneurial venture can contribute to the Common Good is by bringing into existence new products and services which are inherently good and which enrich lives and minimize any unintended harms. This can include what we call the “entrepreneurship of the mundane”, that is, the manufacture of the nuts and bolts and basic necessities of life as well as the creation of life saving treatments. However, inclusion of good goods as a primary moral contribution of entrepreneurship must also require of the entrepreneur analysis of what goods are not good, and what aspects of even good goods should be redesigned or rethought in order to minimize unintended consequences. We find, in our discussions, that this is a much under appreciated dimension of the good of entrepreneurship. 2. Good Work. The second way an entrepreneurial venture can contribute to the Common Good is through the nature of the work that is carried out by the venture. This dimension has several aspects both internal and external to the entrepreneur: • The development of good character in the entrepreneur. This aspect of the good is derived from the subjective dimension of work, that is, just as how-we-work ends up changing the world, so working-on-the-world changes us. Most professionals spend the majority of their waking hours at work. As habits, character and wisdom are developed through experience and activity, for the entrepreneur, doing good work is an important opportunity to develop character. Society as a whole is better off for having good, successful entrepreneurial leaders who, through that calling, can become leaders of character. This dimension of the entrepreneurial good is widely unappreciated even by entrepreneurs themselves • Good relations with employees, customers and other stakeholders. Value creation and trade creates opportunities for the building of social relationships. The central question is “Are you in good relation with those with whom you create value?’ Do your employees have opportunity to develop as people? 3. Good Wealth. The third way the good entrepreneur can contribute to the Common Good is through the creation of good wealth. Good wealth requires a balance of reward for labor/ creativity with the provision of a living wage to all. Good wealth is often captured by individual action but has social strings attached. From the CST perspective the creation of good wealth implies a particular solidarity with the poor. One way to contribute to the common good is to donate altruistically to those in need. But even here, altruism is only one of a number of possible strategies. Good entrepreneurs may also contribute by donating their time or their particular skills. Indeed, since the donation of time and work often requires physical interaction with those in need, it often generates a solidarity of far greater integrity. Finally, it must be emphasized that altruism, for the entrepreneur, is always dependent, indeed subsequent to the creation of good wealth in the first place. Literature cited Alvord, Sarah, David L. Brown, and Christine W. Letts, 2004. “Social Entrepreneurship and Societal Transformation: An Exploratory Study,” The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 40:260. Benedict XVI, Caritas et veritate,   Boschee, Jerr. 1998 “What does it take to be a social entrepreneur?” National Centre for Social Entrepreneurs (www.socialentrepreneurs.org/whatdoes/html), 5pp.   Cannon, Carl. 2000. “Charity for profit: how the new social entrepreneurs are creating good by sharing wealth” National Journal, June 16: 1898-1904.   Christie, Michael and Benson Honig. 2006. “Social entrepreneurship: New research findings.” Journal of World Business. 41: 1-5.   Dees, Gregory, J., 1998. “The Meaning of ‘Social Entrepreneurship,’” Original Draft: 10/3.   Drucker, P.F. 1985. Innovation and Entrepreneurship. New York: Harper & Row.   Fowler, Alan. “NGDOs as a moment in history: beyond aid to social entrepreneurship or civic innovation?” Third World Quarterly, 21(4): 637-654.   Gregg, S. and G. Preece: 1999, Christianity and Entrepreneurship (The Centre for Independent Studies Limited, St. Leonards, NSW, Australia).   Hibbert, Sally A., Gillian Hogg and Theresa Quinn. “Consumer response to social entrepreneurship: The case of the Big Issue in Scotland.” International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing. 7(3): 288-301.   Johnson, Sherrill, 2000. “Literature Review on Social Entrepreneurship,” Canadian Center for social Entrepreneurship. (http://www.bus.ualberta.ca/ccse/Publications/).   John Paul II, Pope.: 1992 Laborem Exercens (On Human Work): 1981, in D. J. O’Brien and T. A. Shannon, (eds.), Catholic Social Thought (Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY).   John Paul II, Pope.: 1992 Sollicitudo Rei Socialis (On Social Concern): 1987 in D. J. O’Brien and T. A. Shannon, (eds.), Catholic Social Thought (Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY).   Kennedy, R., G, Atkinson, and M. Naughton, (eds.): 1994, Dignity of Work: John Paul II Speaks To Managers and Workers (University Press of America, Lanham, Maryland).   Mair, Johanna and Ernesto Noboa, 2003. “Social Entrepreneurship: How Intentions to Create a Social Enterprise get Formed,” IESE Business School.   Mair, Johanna and Ignasi Marti, 2006. “Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight,” Journal of World Business. 41: 36-44.   Melé, D.:2001, ‘A Challenge for Business Enterprises: Introducing the Primacy of the Subjective Meaning of Work in Work Organization’, (http://www.stthomas.edu/cathstudies/cst/mgmt/le/papers/mele.htm) Conclusions We have argued that, while there is great promise in the contemporary social entrepreneurship movement, there are also a number of important dangers. We propose that, if we confront rather than acquiesce to these dangers, we can use the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching to broaden the scope of entrepreneurial ventures that we study, to enrich the moral dimension of entrepreneurial strategy and to deepen the teaching of entrepreneurship as a whole. We recommend the following to move toward these contributions: • Incorporate social entrepreneurship into entrepreneurship in a way that enhances the three goods of entrepreneurship. Specifically we propose replacing the questions “What is social entrepreneurship?” with the questions “What does it mean to be a Good entrepreneur?” From this perspective we can then apply what we have called the three goods of entrepreneurship as a means of supplying critical challenge and inspiration to all forms of entrepreneurship such that the true moral dimension of this critical force in our lives comes into fruition. • Encourage research within the entrepreneurship discipline that addresses traditional social entrepreneurial issues such as micro lending, fair trade products, etc. • Develop bridge courses such as Theo/Cath 306 which help students understand and experience the meaning of the good entrepreneur as well as connect students to the spiritual and moral principles of a good entrepreneur. • Expose entrepreneurship students to so-called social entrepreneurs as well so-called conventional good entrepreneurs so they can see the spectrum of entrepreneurial activities. © File copyright Colin Purrington. You may use for making your poster, of course, but please do not plagiarize, adapt, or put on your own site. Also, do not upload this file, even if modified, to third-party file-sharing sites such as doctoc.com. If you have insatiable need to post a template onto your own site, search the internet for a different template to steal. File downloaded from http://colinpurrington.com/tips/ academic/posterdesign. Acknowledgments I am indebted to Michael Naughton and Laura Dunham for their reflections and thoughts on this paper.
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Example Contd. SALES Model Year Color Chevy 1990 red Chevy 1990 white Chevy 1990 blue Chevy 1991 red Chevy 1991 white Chevy 1991 blue Chevy 1992 red Chevy 1992 white Chevy 1992 blue Ford 1990 red Ford 1990 white Ford 1990 blue Ford 1991 red Ford 1991 white Ford 1991 blue Ford 1992 red Ford 1992 white Ford 1992 blue Madhavi Sales 5 87 62 54 95 49 31 54 71 64 62 63 52 9 55 27 62 39 CUBE Data Cube and OLAP Server DATA CUBE Model Year Color ALL ALL ALL chevy ALL ALL ford ALL ALL ALL 1990 ALL ALL 1991 ALL ALL 1992 ALL ALL ALL red ALL ALL white ALL ALL blue chevy 1990 ALL chevy 1991 ALL chevy 1992 ALL ford 1990 ALL ford 1991 ALL ford 1992 ALL chevy ALL red chevy ALL white chevy ALL blue ford ALL red ford ALL white ford ALL blue ALL 1990 red ALL 1990 white ALL 1990 blue ALL 1991 red ALL 1991 white ALL 1991 blue ALL 1992 red ALL 1992 white ALL 1992 blue Sales 942 510 432 343 314 285 165 273 339 154 199 157 189 116 128 91 236 183 144 133 156 69 149 125 107 104 104 59 116 110 17
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Motor Controls Actions Left Forward Left Reverse Left PWM Left Motion Low Low Low Low High High High Low Low High High Low Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High High High Coasting Coasting Coasting Reverse Coasting Forward Coasting Active Braking Right Forward Right Reverse Right PWM Low Low Low Low High High High Low Low High High Low Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High High High Right Motion Coasting Coasting Coasting Reverse Coasting Forward Coasting Active Braking 13
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